1301:7-7-34 Flammable and combustible liquids.

(A) Section 3401 General

(1) 3401.1 Scope and application. Prevention, control and mitigation of dangerous conditions related to storage, use, dispensing, mixing and handling of flammable and combustible liquids shall be in accordance with NFPA 30, the building code and mechanical code as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code, rule 1301:7-7-27 of the Administrative Code and this rule.

(a) 3401.1.1 Notwithstanding paragraphs (B)(1)( 102.1 ) and (B)(2)( 102.2 ) of rule 1301:7-7-01 of the Administrative Code and unless otherwise noted in this rule, the provisions of this rule shall not apply to facilities, equipment, structures or installations existing or approved for construction or installation prior to the effective date of this rule, except in those cases where the fire code official demonstrates by a preponderance of the evidence that the existing facility, equipment, structure or installation creates a distinct hazard to life or adjacent property.

(2) 3401.2 Nonapplicability. This rule shall not apply to liquids as otherwise provided in other laws or regulations or rules of this code, including:

(a) Specific provisions for flammable and combustible liquids in airports, motor fuel-dispensing facilities and marinas in rules 1301:7-7-11 and 1301:7-7-22 of the Administrative Code.

(b) Medicines, foodstuffs, cosmetics, and commercial, institutional and industrial products in the same concentration and packaging containing not more than 50 per cent by volume of water-miscible liquids and with the remainder of the solution not being flammable, and alcoholic beverages in retail or wholesale sales or storage uses when packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons (5 L).

(c) Storage and use of fuel oil in tanks and containers connected to oil-burning equipment. Such storage and use shall be in accordance with paragraph (C)(603) of rule 1301:7-7-06 of the Administrative Code. For abandonment of fuel oil tanks, this rule applies.

(d) Refrigerant liquids and oils in refrigeration systems (see paragraph (F)(606) of rule 1301:7-7-06 of the Administrative Code).

(e) Storage and display of aerosol products complying with rule 1301:7-7-28 of the Administrative Code.

(f) Storage and use of liquids that have no fire point when tested in accordance with ASTM D 92 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

(g) Liquids with a flash point greater than 95°F (35°C) in a water-miscible solution or dispersion with a water and inert (noncombustible) solids content of more than 80 per cent by weight, which do not sustain combustion.

(h) Liquids without flash points that can be flammable under some conditions, such as certain halogenated hydrocarbons and mixtures containing halogenated hydrocarbons.

(i) The storage of distilled spirits and wines in wooden barrels and casks.

(j) Those tanks regulated by rule 1301:7-9 of the Administrative Code.

(3) 3401.3 Referenced documents. The applicable requirements of rule 1301:7-7-27 of the Administrative Code, other rules of this code, the building code and the mechanical code as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code pertaining to flammable liquids shall apply.

(4) 3401.4 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in rule 1301:7-7-01 of the Administrative Code. In accordance with (E)(1)(a)(105.1.1) of rule 1301:7-7-01 of the Administrative Code, permits required for the installation, alterations to tanks, piping or appurtenances, abandonment, removal or to place temporarily out of service a stationary flammable or combustible liquid storage tank shall be obtained from the fire marshal when such permit is not issued by another officer listed in section 3737.14 of the Revised Code.

Exception: A stationary flammable or combustible liquid storage tank with a capacity of 1,100 gallons or less utilized for agricultural purposes.

(5) 3401.5 Material classification. Flammable and combustible liquids shall be classified in accordance with the definitions in paragraph (B)(1)( 3402.1 ) of this rule.

When mixed with lower flash-point liquids, Class II or III liquids are capable of assuming the characteristics of the lower flash-point liquids. Under such conditions the appropriate provisions of this rule for the actual flash point of the mixed liquid shall apply. When heated above their flash points, Class II and III liquids assume the characteristics of Class I liquids. Under such conditions, the appropriate provisions of this rule for flammable liquids shall apply.

(B) Section 3402 Definitions

(1) 3402.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this rule and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.

"Alcohol-based hand rub." An alcohol-containing preparation designed for application to the hands for reducing the number of viable microorganisms on the hands and containing ethanol or isopropanol in an amount not exceeding 70 per cent by volume.

"Bulk plant or terminal." That portion of a property where flammable or combustible liquids are received by tank vessel, pipelines, tank car or tank vehicle and are stored or blended in bulk for the purpose of distributing such liquids by tank vessel, pipeline, tank car, tank vehicle, portable tank or container.

"Bulk transfer." The loading or unloading of flammable or combustible liquids from or between tank vehicles, tank cars or storage tanks.

"Combustible liquid." A liquid having a closed cup flash point at or above 100°F (38°C). Combustible liquids shall be subdivided as follows:

"Class II." Liquids having a closed cup flash point at or above 100°F (38°C) and below 140°F (60°C).

"Class IIIA." Liquids having a closed cup flash point at or above 140°F (60°C) and below 200°F (93°C).

"Class IIIB." Liquids having closed cup flash points at or above 200°F (93°C).

The category of combustible liquids does not include compressed gases or cryogenic fluids.

"Fire point." The lowest temperature at which a liquid will ignite and achieve sustained burning when exposed to a test flame in accordance with ASTM D 92 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

"Flammable liquid." A liquid having a closed cup flash point below 100°F (38°C). Flammable liquids are further categorized into a group known as Class I liquids. The Class I category is subdivided as follows:

"Class IA". Liquids having a flash point below 73°F (23°C) and having a boiling point below 100°F (38°C).

"Class IB." Liquids having a flash point below 73°F (23°C) and having a boiling point at or above 100°F (38°C).

"Class IC." Liquids having a flash point at or above 73°F (23°C) and below 100°F (38°C).

The category of flammable liquids does not include compressed gases or cryogenic fluids.

"Flash point." The minimum temperature in degrees Fahrenheit at which a liquid will give off sufficient vapors to form an ignitable mixture with air near the surface or in the container, but will not sustain combustion. The flash point of a liquid shall be determined by appropriate test procedure and apparatus specified in ASTM D 56, ASTM D 93 or ASTM D 3278 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

"Fuel limit switch." A mechanism, located on a tank vehicle, that limits the quantity of product dispensed at one time.

"Liquid storage room." A room classified as a Group H-3 occupancy used for the storage of flammable or combustible liquids in a closed condition.

"Liquid storage warehouse." A building classified as a Group H-2 or H-3 occupancy used for the storage of flammable or combustible liquids in a closed condition.

"Mobile fueling." The operation of dispensing liquid fuels from tank vehicles into the fuel tanks of motor vehicles. Mobile fueling may also be known by the terms "Mobile Fleet Fueling," "Wet Fueling," and "Wet Hosing."

"Process transfer." The transfer of flammable or combustible liquids between tank vehicles or tank cars and process operations. Process operations may include containers, tanks, piping and equipment.

"Refinery." A plant in which flammable or combustible liquids are produced on a commercial scale from crude petroleum, natural gasoline or other hydrocarbon sources.

"Remote emergency shut off device." The combination of an operator-carried signaling device and a mechanism on the tank vehicle. Activation of the remote emergency shutoff device sends a signal to the tanker-mounted mechanism and causes fuel flow to cease.

"Remote solvent reservoir." A liquid solvent container enclosed against evaporative losses to the atmosphere during periods when the container is not being utilized, except for a solvent return opening not larger than 16 square inches (10 322 mm2). Such return allows pump-cycled used solvent to drain back into the reservoir from a separate solvent sink or work area.

"Solvent distillation unit." An appliance that receives contaminated flammable or combustible liquids and which distills the contents to remove contaminants and recover the solvents.

"Tank, primary." A listed atmospheric tank used to store liquid. See "Primary containment."

(2) 3402.2 "Approved" as used in rule 1301:7-7-34 of the Administrative Code. As used in this rule and notwithstanding the definition as set forth in rule 1301:7-7-02 of the Administrative Code, the term"approved," unless otherwise further specified or defined in this rule, means: listed, labeled, or tested and documented in authenticated research reports from an authoritative source listed in paragraph (O)(2)( 115.2 ) of rule 1301:7-7-01 of the Administrative Code, or otherwise acceptable to the fire code official.

(C) Section 3403 General requirements

(1) 3403.1 Electrical. Electrical wiring and equipment shall be installed and maintained in accordance with paragraph (E)(605) of rule 1301:7-7-06 of the Administrative Codeand NFPA 70 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

(a) 3403.1.1 Classified locations for flammable liquids. Areas where flammable liquids are stored, handled, dispensed or mixed shall be in accordance with Table 3403.1.1 of this rule. A classified area shall not extend beyond an unpierced floor, roof or other solid partition.

The extent of the classified area is allowed to be reduced, or eliminated, where sufficient technical justification is provided to the fire code official that a concentration in the area in excess of 25 per cent of the lower flammable limit (LFL) cannot be generated.

Table 3403.1.1

Class I electrical equipment locationsa

Location Group D Division Extent of classified area
Underground tank fill opening 1 Pits, boxes or spaces below grade level, any part of which is within the Division 1 or 2 classified area.
2 Up to 18 inches above grade level within a horizontal radius of 10 feet from a loose-fill connection and within a horizontal radius of 5 feet from a tight-fill connection.
Vent-discharsins upward 1 Within 3 feet of open end of vent, extending in all directions.
2 Area between 3 feet and 5 feet of open end of vent, extending in all directions.
Drum and container filling 1 Within 3 feet of vent and fill opening, extending in all directions.
2 Area between 3 feet and 5 feet from vent of fill opening, extending in all directions. Also up to 18 inches above floor or grade level within a horizontal radius of 10 feet from vent or fill opening.
Pumps, bleeders, withdrawal fittings, meters and similar devices      
Indoor 2 Within 5 feet of any edge of such devices, extending in all directions. Also up to 3 feet above floor or grade level within 25 feet horizontally from any edge of such devices.
Outdoor 2 Within 3 feet of any edge of such devices, extending in all directions. Also up to 18 inches horizontally from an edge of such devices.
Pits    
Without mechanical ventilation 1 Entire area within pit if any part is within a Division 1 or 2 classified area.
With mechanical ventilation 2 Entire area within pit if any part is within a Division 1 or 2 classified area.
Containing valves, fittings or piping, and not within Division 1 or 2 classified area 2 Entire pit.
Drainage ditches, separators, impounding basins    
Indoor 1 or 2 Same as pits.
Outdoor 2 Area up to 18 inches above ditch, separator or basin. Also up to 18 inches above grade within 15 feet horizontal from any edge.
Tank veliicle and tank carb    
Loading through open dome 1 Within 3 feet of edge of dome, extending in all directions.
2 Area between 3 feet and 15 feet from edge of dome, extending in all directions.
Loading through bottom connections with atmospheric venting 1 Within 3 feet of point of venting to atmosphere, extending in all directions.
2 Area between 3 feet and 15 feet from point of venting to atmosphere, extending in all directions. Also up to 18 inches above grade within a horizontal radius of 10 feet from point of loading connection.
Office and restrooms Ordinary Where there is an opening to these rooms within the extent of an indoor classified location, the room shall be classified the same as if the wall, curb or partition did not exist.
Loading through closed dome with atmospheric venting 1 Within 3 feet of open end of vent, extending in all directions.
2 Area between 3 feet and 15 feet from open end of vent, extending in all directions. Also within 3 feet of edge of dome, extending in all directions.
Loading through closed dome with vapor control 2 Within 3 feet of point of connection of both fill and vapor lines, extending in all directions.
Bottom loading with vapor control or any bottom unloading 2 Within 3 feet of point of connection, extending in all directions. Also up to 18 inches above grade within a horizontal radius of 10 feet from point of connection.
Storage and repair garage for tank vehicles 1 Pits or spaces below floor level.
2 Area up to 18 inches above floor or grade level for entire storage or repair garage.
Garages for other than tank vehicles Ordinary Where there is an opening to these rooms within the extent of an outdoor classified area, the entire room shall be classified the same as the area classification at the point of the opening.
Outdoor drum storage Ordinary  
Indoor warehousing where there is no flammable liquid transfer Ordinary Where there is an opening to these rooms within the extent of an indoor classified area, the room shall be classified the same as if the wall, curb or partition did not exist.
Indoor equipment where flammable vapor/air mixtures could exist under normal operations 1 Area within 5 feet of any edge of such equipment, extending in all directions.
2 Area between 5 feet and 8 feet of any edge of such equipment, extending in all directions. Also, area up to 3 feet above floor or grade level within 5 feet to 25 feet horizontally from any edge of such equipment.c
Outdoor equipment where flammable vapor/air mixtures could exist under normal operations 1 Area within 3 feet of any edge of such equipment, extending in all directions.
2 Area between 3 feet and 8 feet of any edge of such equipment extending in all directions. Also, area up to 3 feet above floor or grade level within 3 feet to 10 feet horizontally from any edge of such equipment.
Tank-aboveground    
Shell, ends or roof and dike area 1 Area inside dike where dike height is greater than the distance from the tank to the dike for more than 50 per cent of the tank circumference.
2 Area within 10 feet from shell, ends or roof of tank. Area inside dikes to level of top of dike.
Vent 1 Area within 5 feet of open end of vent, extending in all directions.
2 Area between 5 feet and 10 feet from open end of vent, extending in all directions.
Floating roof 1 Area above the roof and within the shell.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

a. Locations as classified in NFPA 70 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

b. When classifying the extent of area, consideration shall be given to the fact that tank cars or tank vehicles can be spotted at varying points. Therefore, the extremities of the loading or unloading positions shall be used.

c. The release of Class I liquids can generate vapors to the extent that the entire building, and possibly a zone surrounding it, are considered a Class I, Division 2 location.

(b) 3403.1.2 Classified locations for combustible liquids. Areas where Class II or III liquids are heated above their flash points shall have electrical installations in accordance with paragraph (C)(1)(3403.1.1) of this rule.

Exception: Solvent distillation units in accordance with paragraph (E)(4)( 3405.4 ) of this rule.

(c) 3403.1.3 Other applications. The fire code official is authorized to determine the extent of the Class I electrical equipment and wiring location when a condition is not specifically covered by these requirements or NFPA 70 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

(2)3403.2 Fire protection. Fire protection for the storage, use, dispensing, mixing, handling and on-site transportation of flammable and combustible liquids shall be in accordance with this rule and applicable paragraphs of rule 1301:7-7-09 of the Administrative Code.

(a) 3403.2.1 Portable fire extinguishers and hose lines. Portable fire extinguishers shall be provided in accordance with paragraph (F)(906) of rule 1301:7-7-09 of the Administrative Code.Hose lines shall be provided in accordance with paragraph (E)(905) of rule 1301:7-7-09 of the Administrative Code.

(3)3403.3 Site assessment. In the event of a spill, leak or discharge from a tank system, a site assessment shall be completed by the owner or operator of such tank system if the fire code official determines that a potential fire or explosion hazard exists. Such site assessments shall be conducted to ascertain potential fire hazards and shall be completed and submitted to the fire department within a time period established by the fire code official, not to exceed 60 days.

(4)3403.4 Spill control and secondary containment. Where the maximum allowable quantity per control area is exceeded and when required by paragraph (D)(2)( 2704.2 ) of rule 1301:7-7-27 of the Administrative Code,rooms, buildings or areas used for storage, dispensing, use, mixing or handling of Class I, II and III-A liquids shall be provided with spill control and secondary containment in accordance with paragraph (D)(2)( 2704.2 ) of rule 1301:7-7-27 of the Administrative Code.

(5)3403.5 Labeling and signage. The fire code official is authorized to require warning signs for the purpose of identifying the hazards of storing or using flammable liquids. Signage for identification and warning such as for the inherent hazard of flammable liquids or smoking shall be provided in accordance with this rule and paragraphs (C)(5)( 2703.5 ) and (C)(6)( 2703.6 ) of rule 1301:7-7-27 of the Administrative Code.

(a) 3403.5.1 Style. Warning signs shall be of durable material. Signs warning of the hazard of flammable liquids shall have white lettering on a red background and shall read: "DANGER-FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS." Letters shall not be less than 3 inches (76 mm) in height and ½ inch ( 12.7 mm) in stroke.

(b) 3403.5.2 Location. Signs shall be posted in locations as required by the fire code official. Piping containing flammable liquids shall be identified in accordance with ASME A 13.1as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

(c) 3403.5.3 Warning labels. Individual containers, packages and cartons shall be identified, marked, labeled and placarded in accordance with federal regulations and applicable state laws.

(d) 3403.5.4 Identification. Color coding or other approved identification means shall be provided at the point of loading and unloading for flammable or combustible liquids to identify the contents of the tank served by the riser.

(6)3403.6 Piping systems. Piping systems and their component parts, for flammable and combustible liquids shall be in accordance with paragraphs (C)(6)(a)(3403.6.1) to (C)(6)(k)(3403.6.11) of this rule.

(a) 3403.6.1 Nonapplicability. The provisions of paragraph (C)(6)( 3403.6 ) of this rule shall not apply to gas or oil well installations; piping that is integral to stationary or portable engines, including aircraft, watercraft and motor vehicles; and piping in connection with boilers and pressure vessels regulated by the mechanical code as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

(b) 3403.6.2 Design, fabrication and installation of piping systems and components. Piping systems and components shall be designed and fabricated in accordance with the applicable standard listed in Table 3403.6.2 of this rule and Chapter 27 of NFPA 30 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code, except as modified by paragraph (C)(6)(b)(i)(3403.6.2.1) of this rule.

Table 3403.6.2

Piping standards

Piping use Standard
Power piping ASME B 31.1as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code
Process piping ASME B 31.3as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code
Pipeline transportation systems for carbons and other liquids ASME B 31.4as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code
Building services piping ASME B 31.9as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code

(i) 3403.6.2.1 Special materials. Low-melting-point materials (such as aluminum, copper or brass), materials that soften on fire exposure (such as nonmetallic materials) and nonductile material (such as cast iron) shall be acceptable for use underground in accordance with the applicable standard listed in Table 3403.6.2 of this rule. When such materials are used outdoors in aboveground piping systems or within buildings, they shall be in accordance with the applicable standard listed in Table 3403.6.2 of this rule and one of the following:

(a) Suitably protected against fire exposure.

(b) Located where leakage from failure would not unduly expose people or structures.

(c) Located where leakage can be readily controlled by operation of accessible remotely located valves.

In all cases, nonmetallic piping shall be used in accordance with section 27.4.6 of NFPA 30 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

(c) 3403.6.3 Testing. Unless tested in accordance with the applicable section of ASME B 31.9as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code,piping, before being covered, enclosed or placed in use, shall be hydrostatically tested to 150 per cent of the maximum anticipated pressure of the system, or pneumatically tested to 110 per cent of the maximum anticipated pressure of the system, but not less than 5 pounds per square inch gauge (psig) ( 34.47 kPa) at the highest point of the system. This test shall be maintained for a sufficient time period to complete visual inspection of joints and connections. For a minimum of 10 minutes, there shall be no leakage or permanent distortion. Care shall be exercised to ensure that these pressures are not applied to vented storage tanks. Such storage tanks shall be tested independently from the piping.

(i) 3403.6.3.1 Existing piping. Existing piping shall be tested in accordance with this paragraph when the fire code official has reasonable cause to believe that a leak exists. Piping that could contain flammable or combustible liquids shall not be tested pneumatically. Such tests shall be at the expense of the owner or operator.

Exception: Vapor-recovery piping is allowed to be tested using an inert gas.

(d) 3403.6.4 Protection from vehicles. Guard posts or other approved means shall be provided to protect piping, valves or fittings subject to vehicular damage in accordance with paragraph (L)(312) of rule 1301:7-7-03 of the Administrative Code.

(e) 3403.6.5 Protection from corrosion and galvanic action. Where subject to external corrosion, piping, related fluid-handling components and supports for both underground and aboveground applications shall be fabricated from noncorrosive materials, and coated or provided with corrosive protection. Dissimilar metallic parts that promote galvanic action shall not be directly joined.

(f) 3403.6.6 Valves. Piping systems shall contain a sufficient number of valves, including manual control valves and check valves to operate the system properly and to provide protection under both normal and emergency conditions. Piping systems in connection with pumps shall contain a sufficient number of such valves to control properly the flow of liquids in normal operation and in the event of physical damage or fire exposure.

(i) 3403.6.6.1 Backflow protections. Connections to pipelines or piping by which equipment (such as tank cars, tank vehicles or marine vessels) discharges liquids into storage tanks shall be provided with check valves or block valves for automatic protection against backflow where the piping arrangement is such that backflow from the system is possible. Where loading and unloading is done through a common pipe system, a check valve is not required. However, a block valve shall be provided which is located so as to be readily accessible or remotely operable.

(ii) 3403.6.6.2 Manual drainage. Manual drainage-control valves shall be located at approved locations appropriate for the facility that are remote from the tanks, diked area, drainage system and impounding basin to ensure valve operation in a fire condition.

(g) 3403.6.7 Connections. Aboveground tanks with connections located below normal liquid level shall be provided with internal or external isolation valves located as close as practical to the shell of the tank. Except for liquids whose chemical characteristics are incompatible with steel, such valves, when external, and their connections to the tank shall be of steel.

(h) 3403.6.8 Piping supports. Piping systems shall be substantially supported and protected against physical damage and excessive stresses arising from settlement, vibration, expansion, contraction or exposure to fire. The supports shall be protected against exposure to fire by one of the following:

(i) Draining liquid away from the piping system at a minimum slope of not less than 1 per cent.

(ii) Providing protection with a fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours.

(iii) Other approved methods.

(i) 3403.6.9 Flexible joints. Flexible joints shall be approved and shall be installed on underground liquid, vapor and vent piping at all of the following locations:

1. Where piping connects to underground tanks.

2. Where piping ends at pump islands and vent risers.

3. At points where differential movement in the piping can occur.

(i) 3403.6.9.1 Fiberglass-reinforced plastic piping. Fiberglass-reinforced plastic (FRP) piping is not required to be provided with flexible joints in locations where both of the following conditions are present:

(a) Piping does not exceed 4 inches (102 mm) in diameter.

(b) Piping has a straight run of not less than 4 feet (1219 mm) on one side of the connection when such connections result in a change of direction.

In lieu of the minimum 4-foot (1219 mm) straight run length, approved flexible joints are allowed to be used under dispensers and suction pumps, at submerged pumps and tanks, and where vents extend aboveground.

(j) 3403.6.10 Pipe joints. Joints shall be liquid tight and shall be welded, flanged or threaded except that approved flexible connectors are allowed in accordance with paragraph (C)(6)(i)(3403.6.9) of this rule. Threaded or flanged joints shall fit tightly by using methods and materials suitable for the type of joint. Joints in piping systems used for Class I liquids shall be welded when located in concealed spaces within buildings.

Nonmetallic joints shall be approved and shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

Pipe joints that are dependent on the friction characteristics or resiliency of combustible materials for liquid tightness of piping shall not be used in buildings. Piping shall be secured to prevent disengagement at the fitting.

(k) 3403.6.11 Bends. Pipe and tubing shall be bent in accordance with ASME B 31.9as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

(D) Section 3404 Storage

(1) 3404.1 General. The storage of flammable and combustible liquids in containers and tanks shall be in accordance with this paragraph and the applicable paragraphs of rule 1301:7-7-27 of the Administrative Code.

(a) 3404.1.1 The aboveground tank storage of flammable and combustible liquids, shall be prohibited on premises to which the public has access.

Exceptions:

1. At a bulk plant or terminal, the public may access the facility premises but shall be prohibited from the bulk storage and transfer operation area in accordance with paragraph (D)(1)(b)(3404.1.2) of this rule.

2. At a property that contains a fleet vehicle motor fuel dispensing facility, the public may access the property but shall be prohibited from the fleet vehicle facility in accordance with paragraph (F)(3)( 2206.3 ) of rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

3.At premises that have an aboveground storage tank connected to stationary pieces of equipment such as internal combustion engine driven generators, fire pumps or other fixed pieces of equipment, the public may access the property but shall be prohibited from the aboveground fuel storage area in accordance with paragraph (D)(1)(b)(3404.1.2) of this rule.

4. At a property containing a flammable or combustible liquid storage tank serving an on site electric generator used only for non-commercial purposes only at one-, two-, or three-family dwelling units where the flammable liquid storage tank(s) has a capacity of 60 gallons or greater or where the combustible liquid storage tank(s) has a capacity of 660 gallons or greater, the public may access the property but shall be prohibited access to the tank in accordance with paragraph (D)(1)(b)(3404.1.2) of this rule.

(b) 3404.1.2 Security. Storage, dispensing, use and handling shall be secured against unauthorized entry and safeguarded against public access. Aboveground tanks that are not enclosed in vaults shall be enclosed by a chain link fence at least 6 feet ( 1.8 m) high. The fence shall be separated from the tanks by at least 3 feet ( 0.9 m) and shall have a gate that is secured against unauthorized entry.

(2) 3404.2 Tank storage. The provisions of this paragraph shall apply to:

1. The storage of flammable and combustible liquids in fixed aboveground and underground storage tanks.

2. The storage of flammable and combustible liquids in fixed aboveground tanks inside of buildings.

3. The storage of flammable and combustible liquids in portable tanks whose capacity exceeds 660 gallons (2498 L).

4. The installation of such tanks and portable tanks.

(a) 3404.2.1 Change of tank contents. Tanks subject to change in contents shall be in accordance with paragraph (D)(2)(g)(3404.2.7) of this rule. Prior to a change in contents, the fire code official is authorized to require testing of a tank to verify compatibility of the proposed new contents with the existing tank.

Tanks that have previously contained Class I liquids shall not be loaded with Class II or Class III liquids until such tanks and all piping, pumps, hoses and meters connected thereto have been completely drained and flushed.

(b) 3404.2.2 Use of tank vehicles and tank cars as storage tanks. Tank cars and tank vehicles shall not be used as fixed storage tanks.

(c) 3404.2.3 Labeling and signs. Labeling and signs for storage tanks and storage tank areas shall comply with paragraphs (D)(2)(c)(i)(3404.2.3.1) and (D)(2)(c)(ii)(3404.2.3.2) of this rule.

(i) 3404.2.3.1 Smoking and open flame. Signs shall be posted in storage areas prohibiting open flames and smoking. Signs shall comply with paragraph (C)(5)( 3403.5 ) of this rule.

(ii) 3404.2.3.2 Label or placard. Tanks more than 100 gallons (379 L) in capacity, which are permanently installed or mounted and used for the storage of Class I, II or III liquids, shall bear a label and placard identifying the material therein. Placards shall be in accordance with NFPA 704 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

Exceptions:

1. Tanks of 300-gallon (1136 L) capacity or less located on private property and used for heating and cooking fuels in single-family dwellings.

2. Tanks located underground.

(d) 3404.2.4 Sources of ignition. Smoking and open flames are prohibited in storage areas in accordance with paragraph (C)(7)( 2703.7 ) of rule 1301:7-7-27 of the Administrative Code.

Exception: Areas designated as smoking and hot work areas, and areas where hot work permits have been issued in accordance with this code.

(e) 3404.2.5 Explosion control. Explosion control shall be provided in accordance with paragraph (K)(911) of rule 1301:7-7-09 of the Administrative Code.

(f) 3404.2.6 Separation from incompatible materials. Storage of flammable and combustible liquids shall be separated from incompatible materials in accordance with paragraph (C)(9)(h)(2703.9.8) of rule 1301:7-7-27 of the Administrative Code.

Weeds, combustible materials and waste Class I, II or IIIA liquids shall not be accumulated in an unsafe manner at a storage site.

(g) 3404.2.7 Design, construction and general installation requirements for tanks. The design, fabrication and construction of tanks shall comply with NFPA 30 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.Each tank shall bear a permanent nameplate or marking indicating the standard used as the basis of design.

(i) 3404.2.7.1 Materials used in tank construction. The materials used in tank construction shall be in accordance with NFPA 30 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

(ii) 3404.2.7.2 Pressure limitations for tanks. Tanks shall be designed for the pressures to which they will be subjected in accordance with NFPA 30 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

(iii) 3404.2.7.3 Tank vents for normal venting. Tank vents for normal venting shall be installed and maintained in accordance with paragraphs(D)(2)(g)(iii)(a)(3404.2.7.3.1) to (D)(2)(g)(iii)(f)(3404.2.7.3.6) of this rule.

(a) 3404.2.7.3.1 Vent lines. Vent lines from tanks shall not be used for purposes other than venting unless approved.

(b) 3404.2.7.3.2 Vent line flame arresters and venting devices. Where installed, vent-line flame arresters and venting devices shall be installed in accordance with their listings. Use of flame arresters in piping systems shall be in accordance with API 2028 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

(c) 3404.2.7.3.3 Vent pipe outlets. Vent pipe outlets for tanks storing Class I, II or IIIA liquids shall be located such that the vapors are released at a safe point outside of buildings and not less than 12 feet (3658 mm) above the finished ground level. Vapors shall be discharged upward or horizontally away from adjacent walls to assist in vapor dispersion. Vent outlets shall be located such that flammable vapors will not be trapped by eaves or other obstructions and shall be at least 5 feet (1524 mm) from building openings or lot lines of properties that can be built upon. Vent outlets on atmospheric tanks storing Class IIIB liquids are allowed to discharge inside a building if the vent is a normally closed vent.

Exception: Vent pipe outlets on tanks storing Class IIIB liquid inside buildings and connected to fuel-burning equipment shall be located such that the vapors are released to a safe location outside of buildings.

(d) 3404.2.7.3.4 Installation of vent piping. Vent piping shall be designed, sized, constructed and installed in accordance with paragraph (C)(6)( 3403.6 ) of this rule. Vent pipes shall be installed such that they will drain toward the tank without sags or traps in which liquid can collect. Vent pipes shall be installed in such a manner so as not to be subject to physical damage or vibration.

(e) 3404.2.7.3.5 Manifolding. Tank vent piping shall not be manifolded unless required for special purposes such as vapor recovery, vapor conservation or air pollution control.

(i)3404.2.7.3. 5.1 Aboveground tanks. For aboveground tanks, manifolded vent pipes shall be adequately sized to prevent system pressure limits from being exceeded when manifolded tanks are subject to the same fire exposure.

(ii) 3404.2.7.3. 5.2 Underground tanks. For underground tanks, manifolded vent pipes shall be sized to prevent system pressure limits from being exceeded when manifolded tanks are filled simultaneously.

(iii) 3404.2.7.3. 5.3 Tanks storing Class I liquids. Vent piping for tanks storing Class I liquids shall not be manifolded with vent piping for tanks storing Class II or III liquids unless positive means are provided to prevent the vapors from Class I liquids from entering tanks storing Class II and III liquids, to prevent contamination and possible change in classification of less volatile liquid.

(f) 3404.2.7.3.6 Tank venting for tanks and pressure vessels storing Class IB and IC liquids. Tanks and pressure vessels storing Class IB or IC liquids shall be equipped with venting devices which shall be normally closed except when venting under pressure or vacuum conditions, or with listed flame arresters. The vents shall be installed and maintained in accordance with section 21.4.3 of NFPA 30, or API 2000 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

(iv) 3404.2.7.4 Emergency venting. Stationary, aboveground tanks shall be equipped with additional venting that will relieve excessive internal pressure caused by exposure to fires. Emergency vents for Class I, II and IIIA liquids shall not discharge inside buildings. The venting shall be installed and maintained in accordance with section 22.7 of NFPA 30 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

Exception: Tanks larger than 12,000 gallons (45 420 L) in capacity storing Class IIIB liquids which are not within the diked area or the drainage path of Class I or II liquids do not require emergency relief venting.

(v) 3404.2.7.5 Tank openings other than vents. Tank openings for other than vents shall comply with paragraphs (D)(2)(g)(v)(a)(3404.2.7.5.1) to (D)(2)(g)(v)(h)(3404.2.7.5.8) of this rule.

(a) 3404.2.7.5.1 Connections below liquid level. Connections for tank openings below the liquid level shall be liquid tight.

(b) 3404.2.7.5.2 Filling, emptying and vapor recovery connections. Filling, emptying and vapor recovery connections to tanks containing Class I, II or IIIA liquids shall be located outside of buildings in accordance with paragraph (D)(2)(g)(v)(f)(3404.2.7.5.6) of this rule at a location free from sources of ignition and not less than 5 feet (1524 mm) away from building openings or lot lines of property that can be built on. Such openings shall be properly identified and provided with a liquid-tight cap which shall be closed when not in use.

Filling and emptying connections to indoor tanks containing Class IIIB liquids and connected to fuel-burning equipment shall be located at a finished ground level location outside of buildings. Such openings shall be provided with a liquid-tight cap which shall be closed when not in use. A sign in accordance with paragraph (C)(6)( 2703.6 ) of rule 1301:7-7-27 of the Administrative Codethat displays the following warning shall be permanently attached at the filling location:

"TRANSFERRING FUEL OTHER THAN CLASS IIIB COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID TO THIS TANK CONNECTION IS A VIOLATION OF THE FIRE CODE AND IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED"

(c) 3404.2.7.5.3 Piping, connections and fittings. Piping, connections, fittings and other appurtenances shall be installed in accordance with paragraph (C)(6)( 3403.6 ) of this rule.

(d) 3404.2.7.5.4 Manual gauging. Openings for manual gauging, if independent of the fill pipe, shall be provided with a liquid-tight cap or cover. Covers shall be kept closed when not gauging. If inside a building, such openings shall be protected against liquid overflow and possible vapor release by means of a spring-loaded check valve or other approved device.

(e) 3404.2.7.5.5 Fill pipes and discharge lines. For top-loaded tanks, a metallic fill pipe shall be designed and installed to minimize the generation of static electricity by terminating the pipe within 6 inches (152 mm) of the bottom of the tank, and it shall be installed in a manner which avoids excessive vibration.

(i)3404.2.7.5. 5.1 Class I liquids. For Class I liquids other than crude oil, gasoline and asphalt, the fill pipe shall be designed and installed in a manner which will minimize the possibility of generating static electricity by terminating within 6 inches (152 mm) of the bottom of the tank.

(ii)3404.2.7.5. 5.2 Underground tanks. For underground tanks, fill pipe and discharge lines shall enter only through the top. Fill lines shall be sloped toward the tank. Underground tanks for Class I liquids having a capacity greater than 1,000 gallons (3785 L) shall be equipped with a tight fill device for connecting the fill hose to the tank.

(f) 3404.2.7.5.6 Location of connections that are made or broken. Filling, withdrawal and vapor-recovery connections for Class I, II and IIIA liquids which are made and broken shall be located outside of buildings, not more than 5 feet above the finished ground level, in an approved location in close proximity to the parked delivery vehicle. Such location shall be away from sources of ignition and not less than 5 feet (1524 mm) away from building openings. Such connections shall be closed and liquid tight when not in use and shall be properly identified.

(g) 3404.2.7.5.7 Protection against vapor release. Tank openings provided for purposes of vapor recovery shall be protected against possible vapor release by means of a spring-loaded check valve or dry-break connections, or other approved device, unless the opening is a pipe connected to a vapor processing system. Openings designed for combined fill and vapor recovery shall also be protected against vapor release unless connection of the liquid delivery line to the fill pipe simultaneously connects the vapor recovery line. Connections shall be vapor tight.

(h) 3404.2.7.5.8 Overfill prevention. A means or method in accordance with paragraph (D)(2)(i)(vii)(f)(3404.2.9.7.6) and (D)(2)(i)(vii)(g) (3404.2.9.7.7) of this rule shall be provided to prevent the overfill of all Class I, II and IIIA liquid storage tanks. Storage tanks in refineries, bulk plants or terminals regulated by paragraphs (F)(4)( 3406.4 ) or (F)(7)( 3406.7 ) of this rule shall have overfill protection in accordance with API 2350 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

An approved means or method in accordance with paragraph (D)(2)(i)(vii)(f)(3404.2.9.7.6) of this rule shall be provided to prevent the overfilling of Class IIIB liquid storage tanks connected to fuel-burning equipment inside buildings.

Exception: Outside aboveground tanks with a capacity of 1,320 gallons (5,000 L) or less.

(vi) 3404.2.7.6 Repair, alteration or reconstruction of tanks and piping. The repair, alteration or reconstruction, including welding, cutting and hot tapping of storage tanks and piping that have been placed in service, shall be in accordance with NFPA 30 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

(vii) 3404.2.7.7 Design of supports. The design of the supporting structure for tanks shall be in accordance with the building code and NFPA 30 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

(viii) 3404.2.7.8 Locations subject to flooding. Where a tank is located in an area where it is subject to buoyancy because of a rise in the water table, flooding or accumulation of water from fire suppression operations, uplift protection shall be provided in accordance with sections 22.14 and 23.14 of NFPA 30 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

(ix) 3404.2.7.9 Corrosion protection. Where subject to external corrosion, tanks shall be fabricated from corrosion resistant materials, coated or provided with corrosion protection in accordance with section 23.3.4 of NFPA 30 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

(x) 3404.2.7.10 Leak reporting. A consistent or accidental loss of liquid, or other indication of a leak from a tank system, shall be reported immediately to the fire department, the fire code official and other authorities having jurisdiction.

(a) 3404.2.7.10.1 Leaking tank disposition. Leaking tanks shall be promptly emptied, repaired and returned to service, abandoned or removed in accordance with paragraph(D)(2)(m)(3404.2.13) or (D)(2)(n)(3404.2.14) of this rule.

(xi) 3404.2.7.11 Tank lining. Steel tanks are allowed to be lined only for the purpose of protecting the interior from corrosion, repair or providing compatibility with a material to be stored. Only those liquids tested for compatibility with the lining material are allowed to be stored in lined tanks.

(a) 3404.2.7.11.1. The local fire code official shall determine whether or not the repair of leaking and/or deteriorating underground storage tanks containing flammable or combustible liquids shall be permitted within its jurisdiction. If such repair is permitted by the local fire code official, it shall be accomplished in the manner prescribed in paragraphs (D)(2)(g)(xi)(b)(3404.2.7.11.2) to (D)(2)(g)(xi)(e)(3404.2.7.11.5) of this rule.

(b) 3404.2.7.11.2. Manufacturers desiring to have their product used in Ohio shall register the specifications for the internal coating systems for the repair of underground storage tanks containing flammable or combustible liquids with the state fire marshal. The specifications shall clearly describe the composition of the product, strength, limitations on use, preparation procedures, application procedures, quality control techniques, curing times and temperatures, field thickness testing procedures, field hardness testing procedures, and a method for determining whether an existing tank is repairable. This information, along with the results of the standards tests, shall be signed and sealed by a registered professional engineer.

(c) 3404.2.7.11.3. Each manufacturer who has registered an internal coating system must submit to the fire marshal a list of qualified applicators. It is the responsibility of the manufacturer to keep this list current. The list shall indicate that the applicator is qualified to seal metal tanks, nonmetallic tanks or both. The internal coating procedure shall be in accordance with API 1631 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

(d) 3404.2.7.11.4. The applicator shall inform the following officials of the location of each project in the following manner:

(i) The local fire official shall have in its possession a written notice stating the location of the project and the applicator's anticipated timetable for each stage of the project, prior to the commencement of the project. A copy of such written notice shall be mailed to the state fire marshal simultaneously with its delivery to the local fire official.

(ii) Any applicator who fails to make proper notification of the project location will be removed, for a period of six months, from the qualified applicator list on file with the state fire marshal. Reinstatement can be accomplished only by the manufacturer resubmitting the applicator's name after the six-month period has elapsed.

(iii) A current "Certificate of Insurance" covering the liability of the applicator shall be filed with the state fire marshal.

(iv)A sample of the "Application for Tank Repairs" may be obtained from the state fire marshal.

(e) 3404.2.7.11.5. A "Certificate of Performance" shall be utilized as follows:

(i)A "Certificate of Performance" on each field application shall be submitted to the local fire official. The certificate (to be designed by the state fire marshal and printed and supplied by the contractor) shall be signed by the qualified applicator and will confirm that the tank preparation and product application complies with the sealant manufacturer's specifications which are registered with the state fire marshal.

(ii) A sample of the "Certificate of Performance" may be obtained from the state fire marshal.

(h) 3404.2.8 Vaults. Vaults shall be allowed to be either above or below grade and shall comply with paragraphs (D)(2)(h)(i)(3404.2.8.1) to (D)(2)(h)(xviii)(3404.2.8.18) of this rule.

(i) 3404.2.8.1 Listing required. Vaults shall be listed in accordance with UL 2245 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

Exception: Where approved by the fire code official, below-grade vaults are allowed to be constructed on site, provided that the design is in accordance with the building code as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Codeand that special inspections are conducted to verify structural strength and compliance of the installation with the approved design in accordance with section 1707 of the building code as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.Installation plans for below-grade vaults that are constructed on site shall be prepared by, and the design shall bear the stamp of, a registered design professional. Consideration shall be given to soil and hydrostatic loading on the floors, walls and lid; anticipated seismic forces; uplifting by ground water or flooding; and to loads imposed from above such as traffic and equipment loading on the vault lid.

(ii) 3404.2.8.2 Design and construction. The vault shall completely enclose each tank. There shall be no openings in the vault enclosure except those necessary for access to, inspection of, and filling, emptying and venting of the tank. The walls and floor of the vault shall be constructed of reinforced concrete at least 6 inches (152 mm) thick. The top of an above-grade vault shall be constructed of noncombustible material and shall be designed to be weaker than the walls of the vault to ensure that the thrust of an explosion occurring inside the vault is directed upward before significantly high pressure can develop within the vault.

The top of an at-grade or below-grade vault shall be designed to relieve safely or contain the force of an explosion occurring inside the vault. The top and floor of the vault and the tank foundation shall be designed to withstand the anticipated loading, including loading from vehicular traffic, where applicable. The walls and floor of a vault installed below grade shall be designed to withstand anticipated soil and hydrostatic loading.

Vaults shall be designed to be wind and earthquake resistant, in accordance with the building code as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

(iii) 3404.2.8.3 Secondary containment. Vaults shall be substantially liquid tight and there shall be no backfill around the tank or within the vault. The vault floor shall drain to a sump. For premanufactured vaults, liquid tightness shall be certified as part of the listing provided by a nationally recognized testing laboratory. For field-erected vaults, liquid tightness shall be demonstrated by testing in an approved manner.

(iv) 3404.2.8.4 Internal clearance. There shall be sufficient clearance between the tank and the vault to allow for visual inspection and maintenance of the tank and its appurtenances. Dispensing devices are allowed to be installed on tops of vaults.

(v) 3404.2.8.5 Anchoring. Vaults and their tanks shall be suitably anchored to withstand uplifting by ground water or flooding, including when the tank is empty.

(vi) 3404.2.8.6 Vehicle impact protection. Vaults shall be resistant to damage from the impact of a motor vehicle, or vehicle impact protection shall be provided in accordance with paragraph (L)(312) of rule 1301:7-7-03 of the Administrative Code.

(vii) 3404.2.8.7 Arrangement. Tanks shall be listed for aboveground use, and each tank shall be in its own vault. Compartmentalized tanks shall be allowed and shall be considered as a single tank. Adjacent vaults shall be allowed to share a common wall. The common wall shall be liquid and vapor tight and shall be designed to withstand the load imposed when the vault on either side of the wall is filled with water.

(viii) 3404.2.8.8 Connections. Connections shall be provided to permit venting of each vault to dilute, disperse and remove vapors prior to personnel entering the vault.

(ix) 3404.2.8.9 Ventilation. Vaults that contain tanks of Class I liquids shall be provided with an exhaust ventilation system installed in accordance with paragraph (D)(3)( 2704.3 ) of rule 1301:7-7-27 of the Administrative Code.The ventilation system shall operate continuously or be designed to operate upon activation of the vapor or liquid detection system. The system shall provide ventilation at a rate of not less than 1 cubic foot per minute (cfm) per square foot of floor area [ 0.00508 m3/(s. m2)], but not less than 150 cfm [ 0.071 m3/s]. The exhaust system shall be designed to provide air movement across all parts of the vault floor. Supply and exhaust ducts shall extend to within 3 inches (76 mm), but not more than 12 inches (305 mm), of the floor. The exhaust system shall be installed in accordance with the mechanical code as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

(x) 3404.2.8.10 Liquid detection. Vaults shall be equipped with a detection system capable of detecting liquids, including water, and activating an alarm.

(xi) 3404.2.8.11 Monitoring and detection. Vaults shall be provided with approved vapor and liquid detection systems and equipped with on-site audible and visual warning devices with battery backup. Vapor detection systems shall sound an alarm when the system detects vapors that reach or exceed 25 per cent of the lower explosive limit (LEL) of the liquid stored. Vapor detectors shall be located no higher than 12 inches (305 mm) above the lowest point in the vault. Liquid detection systems shall sound an alarm upon detection of any liquid, including water. Liquid detectors shall be located in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Activation of either vapor or liquid detection systems shall cause a signal to be sounded at a constantly attended location within the facility serving the tanks or at an approved location. Activation of vapor detection systems shall also shut off dispenser pumps.

(xii) 3404.2.8.12 Liquid removal. Means shall be provided to recover liquid from the vault. Where a pump is used to meet this requirement, the pump shall not be permanently installed in the vault. Electric-powered portable pumps shall be suitable for use in Class I, Division 1 or Zone 0 locations, as defined in NFPA 70 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

(xiii) 3404.2.8.13 Normal vents. Vent pipes that are provided for normal tank venting shall terminate at least 12 feet (3658 mm) above ground level.

(xiv) 3404.2.8.14 Emergency vents. Emergency vents shall be vapor tight and shall be allowed to discharge inside the vault. Long-bolt manhole covers shall not be allowed for this purpose.

(xv) 3404.2.8.15 Accessway. Vaults shall be provided with a personnel accessway with a minimum dimension of 30 inches (762 mm) and with a permanently affixed, nonferrous ladder. Accessways shall be designed to be nonsparking. Travel distance from any point inside a vault to an accessway shall not exceed 20 feet (6096 mm). At each entry point, a warning sign indicating the need for procedures for safe entry into confined spaces shall be posted. Entry points shall be secured against unauthorized entry and vandalism.

(xvi) 3404.2.8.16 Fire protection. Vaults shall be provided with a suitable means to admit a fire suppression agent.

(xvii) 3404.2.8.17 Classified area. The interior of a vault containing a tank that stores a Class I liquid shall be designated a Class I, Division 1 or Zone 0 location, as defined in NFPA 70 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

(xviii) 3404.2.8.18 Overfill protection. Overfill protection shall be provided in accordance with paragraph (D)(2)(i)(vii)(f)(3404.2.9.7.6) of this rule. The use of a float vent valve shall be prohibited.

(i) 3404.2.9 Aboveground tanks. Aboveground storage of flammable and combustible liquids in tanks shall comply with paragraph (D)(2)( 3404.2 ) of this rule and paragraphs (D)(2)(i)(i)(3404.2.9.1) to (D)(2)(i)(vii)(j)(3404.2.9.7.10) of this rule. Existing aboveground tank installations, even if previously approved, that are determined to constitute a hazard by the fire code official shall not be continued in service. Unsafe tanks shall be brought into compliance with the provisions of this code or removed as required by the fire code official and in accordance with this code.

(i) 3404.2.9.1 Fire protection. Fire protection for aboveground tanks shall comply with paragraphs (D)(2)(i)(i)(a)(3404.2.9.1.1) to (D)(2)(i)(i)(d)(3404.2.9.1.4) of this rule.

(a) 3404.2.9.1.1 Required foam fire protection systems. When required by the fire code official, foam fire protection shall be provided for aboveground tanks, other than pressure tanks operating at or above 1 pound per square inch gauge (psig) ( 6.89 kPa) when such tank, or group of tanks spaced less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) apart measured shell to shell, has a liquid surface area in excess of 1,500 square feet (139 m2), and is in accordance with one of the following:

(i) Used for the storage of Class I or II liquids.

(ii) Used for the storage of crude oil.

(iii)Used for in-process products and is located within 100 feet (30 480 mm) of a fired still, heater, related fractioning or processing apparatus or similar device at a processing plant or petroleum refinery as herein defined.

(iv) Considered by the fire code official as posing an unusual exposure hazard because of topographical conditions; nature of occupancy, proximity on the same or adjoining property, and height and character of liquids to be stored; degree of private fire protection to be provided; and facilities of the fire department to cope with flammable liquid fires.

(b) 3404.2.9.1.2 Foam fire protection system installation. Where foam fire protection is required, it shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 11 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

(i)3404.2.9.1. 2.1 Foam storage. Where foam fire protection is required, foam-producing materials shall be stored on the premises.

Exception: Storage of foam-producing materials off the premises is allowed as follows:

1. Such materials stored off the premises shall be of the proper type suitable for use with the equipment at the installation where required.

2. Such materials shall be readily available at the storage location at all times.

3. Adequate loading and transportation facilities shall be provided.

4. The time required to deliver such materials to the required location in the event of fire shall be consistent with the hazards and fire scenarios for which the foam supply is intended.

5. At the time of a fire, these off-premises supplies shall be accumulated in sufficient quantities before placing the equipment in operation to ensure foam production at an adequate rate without interruption until extinguishment is accomplished.

(c) 3404.2.9.1.3 Fire protection of supports. Supports or pilings for aboveground tanks storing Class I, II or IIIA liquids elevated more than 12 inches (305 mm) above grade shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours in accordance with the fire exposure criteria specified in ASTM E 1529 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

Exceptions:

1. Structural supports tested as part of a protected aboveground tank in accordance with UL 2085 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

2. Stationary tanks located outside of buildings when protected by a water-spray system designed in accordance with rule 1301:7-7-09 of the Administrative Code and NFPA 15 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

3. Stationary tanks located inside of buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system designed in accordance with paragraph (C)(3)(a)(i)(903.3.1.1) of rule 1301:7-7-09 of the Administrative Code.

(d) 3404.2.9.1.4 Inerting of tanks with boilover liquids. Liquids with boilover characteristics shall not be stored in fixed roof tanks larger than 150 feet (45 720 mm) in diameter unless an approved gas enrichment or inerting system is provided on the tank.

Exception: Crude oil storage tanks in production fields with no other exposures adjacent to the storage tank.

(ii) 3404.2.9.2 Supports, foundations and anchorage. Supports, foundations and anchorages for aboveground tanks shall be designed and constructed in accordance with NFPA 30 and the building code as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

(iii) 3404.2.9.3 Stairs, platforms and walkways. Stairs, platforms and walkways shall be of noncombustible construction and shall be designed and constructed in accordance with NFPA 30 and the building code as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

(iv) 3404.2.9.4 Aboveground tanks inside of buildings. Tanks storing Class I, II and IIIA liquids inside buildings shall be equipped with a device or other means to prevent overflow into the building including, but not limited to: a float valve; a preset meter on the fill line; a valve actuated by the weight of the tank's contents; a low-head pump that is incapable of producing overflow; or a liquid-tight overflow pipe at least one pipe size larger than the fill pipe and discharging by gravity back to the outside source of liquid or to an approved location.

Tanks containing Class IIIB liquids and connected to fuel-burning equipment shall be provided with a means to prevent overflow into buildings in accordance with paragraph (D)(2)(g)(v)(h)(3404.2.7.5.8) of this rule.

(v) 3404.2.9.5 Aboveground tanks outside of buildings. Aboveground tanks outside of buildings shall comply with paragraphs (D)(2)(i)(v)(a)(3404.2.9.5.1) to (D)(2)(i)(v)(c)(3404.2.9.5.3) of this rule.

(a) 3404.2.9.5.1 Locations where aboveground tanks are prohibited. The aboveground tank storage of flammable and combustible liquids, shall be prohibited on premises to which the public has access.

Exceptions:

1.At a bulk plant or terminal, the public may access the facility premises but shall be prohibited from the bulk storage and transfer operation area.

2. At a property that contains a fleet vehicle motor fuel dispensing facility, the public may access the property but shall be prohibited from the fleet vehicle facility.

(i)3404.2.9.5. 1.1 Location of tanks with pressures2.5 psig or less. Aboveground tanks operating at pressures not exceeding 2.5 psig ( 17.2 kPa) for storage of Class I, II or IIIA liquids, which are designed with a floating roof, a weak roof-to-shell seam or equipped with emergency venting devices limiting pressure to 2.5 psig ( 17.2 kPa), shall be located in accordance with Table 22.4.1.1(a) of NFPA 30 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

Exceptions:

1. Vertical tanks having a weak roof-to-shell seam and storing Class IIIA liquids are allowed to be located at one-half the distances specified in Table 22.4.1.1(a) of NFPA 30 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code,provided the tanks are not within a diked area or drainage path for a tank storing Class I or II liquids.

2. Liquids with boilover characteristics and unstable liquids in accordance with paragraphs (D)(2)(i)(v) (a)(iii)(3404.2.9.5. 1.3 ) and (D)(2)(i) (v)(a)(iv)(3404.2.9.5. 1.4 ) of this rule.

3. For protected aboveground tanks in accordance with paragraph (D)(2)(i)(vi)(3404.2.9.6) of this rule and tanks in at-grade or above-grade vaults in accordance with paragraph (D)(2)(h)(3404.2.8) of this rule, the distances in Table 22.4.1.1(b) of NFPA 30 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Codeshall apply and shall be reduced by one-half but not less than 5 feet (1524 mm).

(ii) 3404.2.9.5. 1.2 Location of tanks with pressures exceeding 2.5 psig. Aboveground tanks for the storage of Class I, II or IIIA liquids operating at pressures exceeding 2.5 psig ( 17.2 kPa) or equipped with emergency venting allowing pressures to exceed 2.5 psig ( 17.2 kPa) shall be located in accordance with Table 22.4.1.3 of NFPA 30 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

Exception: Liquids with boilover characteristics and unstable liquids in accordancewithparagraphs(D) (2)(i)(v)(a)(iv)(3404.2.9.5. 1.4 ) and (D)(2)(i)(v)(a)(v)(3404.2.9.5. 1.5 ) of this rule.

(iii) 3404.2.9.5. 1.3 Location of tanks for boilover liquids. Aboveground tanks for the storage of liquids with boilover characteristics shall be located in accordance with Table 22.4.1.4 of NFPA 30 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

(iv) 3404.2.9.5. 1.4 Location of tanks storing unstable liquids. Aboveground tanks for the storage of unstable liquids shall be located in accordance with Table 22.4.1.5 of NFPA 30 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

(v) 3404.2.9.5. 1.5 Location of tanks storing Class IIIB liquids. Aboveground tanks for the storage of Class IIIB liquids, excluding unstable liquids, shall be located in accordance with Table 22.4.1.6 of NFPA 30 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code,except when located within a diked area or drainage path for a tank or tanks storing Class I or II liquids. Where a Class IIIB liquid storage tank is within the diked area or drainage path for a Class I or II liquid, distances requiredbyparagraph (D)(2)(i)(v)(a)(ii)(3404.2.9.5. 1.2 ) of this rule shall apply.

(vi) 3404.2.9.5. 1.6 Reduction of separation distances to adjacent property. Where two tank properties of diverse ownership have a common boundary, the fire code official is authorized to, with the written consent of the owners of the two properties, apply the distances in paragraphs (D)(2)(i)(v)(a)(ii)(3404.2.9.5. 1.2 ) to (D)(2)(i)(v)(a)(v)(3404.2.9.5. 1.5 ) of this rule assuming a single property.

(b) 3404.2.9.5.2 Separation between adjacent stable or unstable liquid tanks. The separation between tanks containing stable liquids shall be in accordance with Table 22.4.2.1 of NFPA 30 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.Where tanks are in a diked area containing Class I or II liquids, or in the drainage path of Class I or II liquids, and are compacted in three or more rows or in an irregular pattern, the fire code official is authorized to require greater separation than specified in Table 22.4.2.1 of NFPA 30 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Codeor other means to make tanks in the interior of the pattern accessible for fire-fighting purposes.

Exception: Tanks used for storing Class IIIB liquids are allowed to be spaced 3 feet (914 mm) apart unless within a diked area or drainage path for a tank storing Class I or II liquids.

The separation between tanks containing unstable liquids shall not be less than one-half the sum of their diameters.

(c) 3404.2.9.5.3 Separation between adjacent tanks containing flammable and combustible liquids and LP-gas. The minimum horizontal separation between an LP-gas container and a Class I, II or IIIA liquid storage tank shall be 20 feet (6096 mm) except in the case of Class I, II or IIIA liquid tanks operating at pressures exceeding 2.5 psig ( 17.2 kPa) or equipped with emergency venting allowing pressures to exceed 2.5 psig ( 17.2 kPa), in which case the provisions of paragraph (D)(2)(i)(v)(b) (3404.2.9.5.2) of this rule shall apply.

Dikes, diversion curbs, grading or other method approved by the fire code official shall be provided to prevent the accumulation of Class I, II or IIIA liquids under adjacent LP-gas containers. When flammable or combustible liquid storage tanks are within a diked area, the LP-gas containers shall be outside the diked area and at least 10 feet (3048 mm) away from the centerline of the wall of the diked area.

Exceptions:

1. Liquefied petroleum gas containers of 125 gallons (473 L) or less in capacity installed adjacent to fuel-oil supply tanks of 660 gallons (2498 L) or less in capacity.

2. Horizontal separation is not required between aboveground LP-gas containers and underground flammable and combustible liquid tanks.

(vi) 3404.2.9.6 Additional requirements for protected aboveground tanks. In addition to the requirements of this rule for aboveground tanks, the installation of protected aboveground tanks shall be in accordance with paragraphs (D)(2)(i)(vi)(a)(3404.2.9.6.1) to (D)(2)(i)(vi)(j)(3404.2.9.6.10) of this rule.

(a)3404.2.9.6.1 Tank construction. The construction of a protected aboveground tank and its primary tank shall be in accordance with paragraph (D)(2)(g)(3404.2.7) of this rule.

(b) 3404.2.9.6.2 Normal and emergency venting. Normal and emergency venting for protected aboveground tanks shall be provided in accordance with paragraphs (D)(2)(g)(iii)(3404.2.7.3) and (D)(2)(g)(iv)(3404.2.7.4) of this rule. The vent capacity reduction factor shall not be allowed.

(c) 3404.2.9.6.3 Flame arresters. Approved flame arresters or pressure vacuum breather valves shall be installed in normal vents.

(d) 3404.2.9.6.4 Secondary containment. Protected aboveground tanks shall be provided with secondary containment drainage control or diking in accordance with paragraph (D)(2)( 2704.2 ) of rule 1301:7-7-27 of the Administrative Code. A means shall be provided to establish the integrity of the secondary containment in accordance with NFPA 30 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

(e) 3404.2.9.6.5 Vehicle impact protection. Where protected aboveground tanks, piping, electrical conduit or dispensers are subject to vehicular impact, they shall be protected therefrom, either by having the impact protection incorporated into the system design in compliance with the impact test protocol of UL 2085 as listed in rule 1301:7-7- 47 of the Administrative Code, or by meeting the provisions of paragraph (L)(312) of rule 1301:7-7-03 of the Administrative Code, or where necessary, a combination of both. Where guard posts or other approved barriers are provided, they shall be independent of each aboveground tank.

(f) 3404.2.9.6.6 Overfill prevention. Protected aboveground tanks shall not be filled in excess of 95 per cent of their capacity. An overfill prevention system shall be provided for each tank. During tank-filling operations, the system shall comply with one of the following:

1. The system shall:

1.1 Provide an independent means of notifying the person filling the tank that the fluid level has reached 90 per cent of tank capacity by providing an audible or visual alarm signal, providing a tank level gauge marked at 90 per cent of tank capacity, or other approved means;and

1.2 Automatically shut off the flow of fuel to the tank when the quantity of liquid in the tank reaches 95 per cent of tank capacity. For rigid hose fuel-delivery systems, an approved means shall be provided to empty the fill hose into the tank after the automatic shutoff device is activated.

2. The system shall reduce the flow rate to not more than 15 gallons per minute ( 0.95 L/sec) so that at the reduced flow rate, the tank will not overfill for 30 minutes, and automatically shut off flow into the tank so that none of the fittings on the top of the tank are exposed to product because of overfilling.

(i) 3404.2.9.6. 6.1 Information signs. A permanent sign shall be provided at the fill point for the tank, documenting the filling procedure and the tank calibration chart.

Exception: Where climatic conditions are such that the sign may be obscured by ice or snow, or weathered beyond readability or otherwise impaired, said procedures and chart shall be located in the office window, lock box or other area accessible to the person filling the tank.

(ii) 3404.2.9.6. 6.2 Determination of available tank capacity. The filling procedure shall require the person filling the tank to determine the gallonage (literage) required to fill it to 90 per cent of capacity before commencing the fill operation.

(g) 3404.2.9.6.7 Fill pipe connections. The fill pipe shall be provided with a means for making a direct connection to the tank vehicle's fuel delivery hose so that the delivery of fuel is not exposed to the open air during the filling operation. Where any portion of the fill pipe exterior to the tank extends below the level of the top of the tank, a check valve shall be installed in the fill pipe not more than 12 inches (305 mm) from the fill hose connection.

(h) 3404.2.9.6.8 Spill containers. A spill container having a capacity of not less than 5 gallons (19 L) shall be provided for each fill connection. For tanks with a top fill connection, spill containers shall be noncombustible and shall be fixed to the tank and equipped with a manual drain valve that drains into the primary tank. For tanks with a remote fill connection, a portable spill container shall be allowed.

(/)3404.2.9.6.9 Tank openings. Tank openings in protected aboveground tanks shall be through the top only.

(j)3404.2.9.6.10 Antisiphon devices. Approved antisiphon devices shall be installed in each external pipe connected to the protected aboveground tank when the pipe extends below the level of the top of the tank.

(j) 3404.2.10 Drainage and diking. The area surrounding a tank or group of tanks shall be provided with drainage control or shall be diked to prevent accidental discharge of liquid from endangering adjacent tanks, adjoining property or reaching waterways.

Exceptions:

1. The fire code official is authorized to alter or waive these requirements based on a technical report which demonstrates that such tank or group of tanks does not constitute a hazard to other tanks, waterways or adjoining property, after consideration of special features such as topographical conditions, nature of occupancy and proximity to buildings on the same or adjacent property, capacity, and construction of proposed tanks and character of liquids to be stored, and nature and quantity of private and public fire protection provided.

2. Drainage control and diking is not required for listed secondary containment tanks.

(i) 3404.2.10.1 Volumetric capacity. The volumetric capacity of the diked area shall not be less than the greatest amount of liquid that can be released from the largest tank within the diked area. The capacity of the diked area enclosing more than one tank shall be calculated by deducting the volume of the tanks other than the largest tank below the height of the dike.

(ii) 3404.2.10.2 Diked areas containing two or more tanks. Diked areas containing two or more tanks shall be subdivided in accordance with NFPA 30 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

(iii) 3404.2.10.3 Protection of piping from exposure fires. Piping shall not pass through adjacent diked areas or impounding basins, unless provided with a sealed sleeve or otherwise protected from exposure to fire.

(iv) 3404.2.10.4 Combustible materials in diked areas. Diked areas shall be kept free from combustible materials, drums and barrels.

(v) 3404.2.10.5 Equipment, controls and piping in diked areas. Pumps, manifolds and fire protection equipment or controls shall not be located within diked areas or drainage basins or in a location where such equipment and controls would be endangered by fire in the diked area or drainage basin. Piping above ground shall be minimized and located as close as practical to the shell of the tank in diked areas or drainage basins.

Exceptions:

1. Pumps, manifolds and piping integral to the tanks or equipment being served which is protected by intermediate diking, berms, drainage or fire protection such as water spray, monitors or fire resistive coating.

2. Fire protection equipment or controls which are appurtenances to the tanks or equipment being protected, such as foam chambers or foam piping and water or foam monitors and hydrants, or hand and wheeled extinguishers.

(k) 3404.2.11 Underground tanks. Underground storage of flammable and combustible liquids in tanks shall comply with paragraph (D)(2)( 3404.2 ) of this rule and paragraphs (D)(2)(k)(i)(3404.2.11.1) to (D)(2)(k)(v)(b)(3404.2.11.5.2) of this rule.

(i) 3404.2.11.1 Contents. Underground tanks shall not contain petroleum products containing mixtures of a nonpetroleum nature, such as ethanol or methanol blends, without evidence of compatibility.

(ii) 3404.2.11.2 Location. Flammable and combustible liquid storage tanks located underground, either outside or under buildings, shall be in accordance with all of the following:

(a) Tanks shall be located with respect to existing foundations and supports such that the loads carried by the latter cannot be transmitted to the tank.

(b) The distance from any part of a tank storing liquids to the nearest wall of a basement, pit, cellar or lot line shall not be less than 3 feet (914 mm).

(c) A minimum distance of 1 foot (305 mm), shell to shell, shall be maintained between underground tanks.

(iii) 3404.2.11.3 Depth and cover. Excavation for underground storage tanks shall be made with due care to avoid undermining of foundations of existing structures. Underground tanks shall be set on firm foundations and surrounded with at least 6 inches (152 mm) of noncorrosive inert material, such as clean sand.

(iv) 3404.2.11.4 Overfill protection and prevention systems. Underground storage tanks shall be equipped with a spill container and an overfill prevention system in accordance with NFPA 30 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

(v) 3404.2.11.5 Leak prevention. Leak prevention for underground tanks shall comply with paragraphs (D)(2)(k)(v)(a)(3404.2.11.5.1) and (D)(2)(k)(v)(b)(3404.2.11.5.2) of this rule.

(a) 3404.2.11.5.1 Inventory control. Daily inventory records shall be maintained for underground storage tank systems.

(b) 3404.2.11.5.2 Leak detection. Underground storage tank systems shall be provided with a method of leak detection that is designed and installed in accordance with NFPA 30 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

(l) 3404.2.12 Testing. Tank testing shall comply with paragraphs (D)(2)(l)(i)(3404.2.12.1) and (D)(2)(l)(ii)(3404.2.12.2) of this rule.

(i) 3404.2.12.1 Acceptance testing. Prior to being placed into service, tanks shall be tested in accordance with section 21.5 of NFPA 30 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

(ii) 3404.2.12.2 Testing of underground tanks. Before being covered or placed in use, tanks and piping connected to underground tanks shall be tested for tightness in the presence of the fire code official. Piping shall be tested in accordance with paragraph (C)(6)(c)(3403.6.3) of this rule. The system shall not be covered until it has been approved.

(m) 3404.2.13 Abandonment and status of tanks. Tanks taken out of service shall be removed in accordance with paragraph (D)(2)(n)(3404.2.14) of this rule, or safeguarded in accordance with paragraphs (D)(2)(m)(i)(3404.2.13.1) to (D)(2)(m)(ii)(c)(3404.2.13.2.3) of this rule, and API 1604 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

(i) 3404.2.13.1 Underground tanks. Underground tanks taken out of service shall comply with paragraphs (D)(2)(m)(i)(a) (3404.2.13.1.1) to (D)(2)(m)(i)(e)(3404.2.13.1.5) of this rule.

(a) 3404.2.13.1.1 Temporarily out of service. Underground tanks temporarily out of service shall have the fill line, gauge opening, vapor return and pump connection secured against tampering. Vent lines shall remain open and be maintained in accordance with paragraphs (D)(2)(g)(iii)(3404.2.7.3) and (D)(2)(g)(iv)(3404.2.7.4) of this rule.

(b) 3404.2.13.1.2 Out of service for 90 days. Underground tanks not used for a period of 90 days shall be safeguarded in accordance with all the following or be removed in accordance with paragraph (D)(2)(n)(3404.2.14) of this rule.

(i) Flammable or combustible liquids shall be removed from the tank to the extent practical. No more than one-inch of liquid shall remain in the tank.

(ii) All piping, including fill line, gauge opening, vapor return and pump connection, shall be capped or plugged and secured from tampering.

(iii) Vent lines shall remain open and be maintained in accordance with paragraphs (D)(2)(g)(iii) (3404.2.7.3) and (D)(2)(g)(iv)(3404.2.7.4) of this rule.

(c) 3404.2.13.1.3 Out of service for one year. Underground tanks that have been out of service for a period of one year shall be removed from the ground in accordance with paragraph (D)(2)(n)(3404.2.14) of this rule or abandoned in place in accordance with paragraph (D)(2)(m)(i)(d)(3404.2.13.1.4) of this rule.

Exception: Those underground tank systems that are out of service for more than one year where an extension of the one year out of service period has been granted by the state fire marshal. Any request for an extension of the out of service period shall be submitted in writing prior to the end of the one year out of service period, or extension thereof to the state fire marshal. All such written requests for extension must contain the following information:

1. The name and address of the owner (s) of the property where the underground storage tank is located and the names and addresses of the underground storage tank owners and operators, if available;

2.The address of the site where the underground storage tank is located;

3.The date of the last use of the underground storage tank and the amount of additional time being requested; and

4. Documentation that the underground storage tank is safeguarded in accordance with paragraph(D)(2)(m)(i)(b) (3404.2.13.1.2) of this rule.

(d) 3404.2.13.1.4 Tanks abandoned in place. Tanks abandoned in place shall be abandoned as follows:

(i) Flammable and combustible liquids shall be removed from the tank and connected piping.

(ii) The suction, inlet gauge, vapor return and vapor lines shall be disconnected.

(iii) The tank shall be filled completely with an approved inert solid material.

(iv) Remaining underground piping shall be capped or plugged.

(v) A record of tank size, location and date of abandonment shall be retained.

(vi) All exterior above-grade fill piping shall be permanently removed when tanks are abandoned or removed.

(e) 3404.2.13.1.5 Reinstallation of underground tanks.Tanks which are to be reinstalled for flammable or combustible liquid service shall be in accordance with this rule, ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (section VIII), API 12-P, API 1615, UL 58 and UL 1316 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

(ii) 3404.2.13.2 Aboveground tanks. Aboveground tanks taken out of service shall comply with paragraphs (D)(2)(m)(ii)(a) (3404.2.13.2.1) to (D)(2)(m)(ii)(c)(3404.2.13.2.3) of this rule.

(a)3404.2.13.2.1 Temporarily out of service. Aboveground tanks temporarily out of service shall have all connecting lines isolated from the tank and be secured against tampering.

Exception: In-place fire protection (foam) system lines.

(b) 3404.2.13.2.2 Out of service for 90 days. Aboveground tanks not used for a period of 90 days shall be safeguarded in accordance with paragraph (D)(2)(m)(i)(b) (3404.2.13.1.2) of this rule or removed in accordance with paragraph (D)(2)(n)(3404.2.14) of this rule.

Exceptions:

1. Tanks and containers connected to oil burners that are not in use during the warm season of the year or are used as a backup heating system to gas.

2. In-place, active fire protection (foam) system lines.

(c) 3404.2.13.2.3 Out of service for one year. Aboveground tanks that have been out of service for a period of one year shall be removed in accordance with paragraph (D)(2)(n)(3404.2.14) of this rule.

Exceptions:

1. Tanks within operating facilities.

2. Aboveground tanks that have been emptied of liquid, rendered vapor free and safeguarded against trespassing when approved by the fire code official.

(n) 3404.2.14 Removal and disposal of tanks. Removal and disposal of tanks shall comply with paragraphs (D)(2)(n)(i)(3404.2.14.1) and (D)(2)(n)(ii)(3404.2.14.2) of this rule.

(i) 3404.2.14.1 Removal. Removal of aboveground and underground tanks shall be in accordance with all of the following:

(a) Flammable and combustible liquids shall be removed from the tank and connected piping.

(b) Piping at tank openings that is not to be used further shall be disconnected.

(c) Piping shall be removed from the ground.

Exception: Piping is allowed to be abandoned in place where the fire code official determines that removal is not practical. Abandoned piping shall be capped and safeguarded as required by the fire code official.

(d) Tank openings shall be capped or plugged, leaving a 1/8-inch to 1/4 inch diameter ( 3.2 mm to 6.4 mm) opening for pressure equalization.

(e) Tanks shall be purged of vapor and inerted prior to removal.

(f) All exterior above-grade fill and vent piping shall be permanently removed.

Exception: Piping associated with bulk plants, terminal facilities and refineries.

(ii) 3404.2.14.2 Disposal. Tanks shall be disposed of in accordance with federal, state and local regulations.

(o) 3404.2.15 Maintenance. Aboveground tanks, connected piping and ancillary equipment shall be maintained in a safe operating condition. Tanks shall be maintained in accordance with their listings. Damage to aboveground tanks, connected piping or ancillary equipment shall be repaired using materials having equal or greater strength and fire resistance or the equipment shall be replaced or taken out of service.

(3) 3404.3 Container and portable tank storage. Storage of flammable and combustible liquids in closed containers that do not exceed 60 gallons (227 L) in individual capacity and portable tanks that do not exceed 660 gallons (2498 L) in individual capacity, and limited transfers incidental thereto, shall comply with paragraphs (D)(3)(a)(3404.3.1) to (D)(3)(h)(v)(3404.3.8.5) of this rule.

(a) 3404.3.1 Design, construction and capacity of containers and portable tanks. The design, construction and capacity of containers for the storage of Class I, II and IIIA liquids shall be in accordance with this paragraph and section 9.4 of NFPA 30 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

(i) 3404.3.1.1 Approved containers. Only approved containers and portable tanks shall be used.

(b) 3404.3.2 Liquid storage cabinets. Where other sections of this code require that liquid containers be stored in storage cabinets, such cabinets and storage shall be in accordance with paragraphs (D)(3)(b)(i)(3404.3.2.1) to (D)(3)(b)(ii)(3404.3.2.2) of this rule.

(i) 3404.3.2.1 Design and construction of storage cabinets. Design and construction of liquid storage cabinets shall be in accordance with paragraphs (D)(3)(b)(i)(a)(3404.3.2.1.1) to (D)(3)(b)(i)(d)(3404.3.2.1.4) of this rule.

(a)3404.3.2.1.1 Materials. Cabinets shall be listed in accordance with UL 1275 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code,or constructed of wood or metal in accordance with the following:

(i) Unlisted metal cabinets shall be constructed of steel having a thickness of not less than 0.044 inch ( 1.12 mm) (18 gage). The cabinet including the door, shall be double walled with 1½-inch (38 mm) airspace between the walls. Joints shall be riveted or welded and shall be tight fitting.

(ii) Unlisted wooden cabinets, including doors, shall be constructed of not less than 1-inch (25 mm) exterior grade plywood. Joints shall be rabbeted and shall be fastened in two directions with wood screws. Door hinges shall be of steel or brass. Cabinets shall be painted with an intumescent-type paint.

(b) 3404.3.2.1.2 Labeling. Cabinets shall be provided with a conspicuous label in red letters on contrasting background which reads: "FLAMMABLE-KEEP FIRE AWAY."

(c) 3404.3.2.1.3 Doors. Doors shall be well fitted, self-closing and equipped with a three-point latch.

(d) 3404.3.2.1.4 Bottom. The bottom of the cabinet shall be liquid tight to a height of at least 2 inches (51 mm).

(ii) 3404.3.2.2 Capacity. The combined total quantity of liquids in a cabinet shall not exceed 120 gallons (454 L).

(c) 3404.3.3 Indoor storage. Storage of flammable and combustible liquids inside buildings in containers and portable tanks shall be in accordance with paragraphs (D)(3)(c)(i)(3404.3.3.1) to (D)(3)(c)(x)(3404.3.3.10) of this rule.

Exceptions:

1. Liquids in the fuel tanks of motor vehicles, aircraft, boats or portable or stationary engines.

2. The storage of distilled spirits and wines in wooden barrels or casks.

(i) 3404.3.3.1 Portable fire extinguishers. Portable fire extinguishers shall be provided in accordance with specific paragraphs of this rule and paragraph (F)(906) of rule 1301:7-7-09 of the Administrative Code.

(ii) 3404.3.3.2 Incompatible materials. Materials that will react with water or other liquids to produce a hazard shall not be stored in the same room with flammable and combustible liquids in accordance with paragraph (C)(9)(h)(2703.9.8) of rule 1301:7-7-27 of the Administrative Code.

(iii) 3404.3.3.3 Clear means of egress. Storage of any liquids, including stock for sale, shall not be stored near or be allowed to obstruct physically the route of egress.

(iv) 3404.3.3.4 Empty containers or portable tank storage. The storage of empty tanks and containers previously used for the storage of flammable or combustible liquids, unless free from explosive vapors, shall be stored as required for filled containers and portable tanks. Portable tanks and containers, when emptied, shall have the covers or plugs immediately replaced in openings.

(v) 3404.3.3.5 Shelf storage. Shelving shall be of approved construction, adequately braced and anchored. Seismic requirements shall be in accordance with the building code as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

(a)3404.3.3.5.1 Use of wood. Wood of at least 1 inch (25 mm) nominal thickness is allowed to be used as shelving, racks,dunnage, scuffboards, floor overlay and similar ( ) installations.

(b) 3404.3.3.5.2 Displacement protection. Shelves shall be of sufficient depth and provided with a lip or guard to prevent individual containers from being displaced.

Exception: Shelves in storage cabinets or on laboratory furniture specifically designed for such use.

(c)3404.3.3.5.3 Orderly storage. Shelf storage of flammable and combustible liquids shall be maintained in an orderly manner.

(vi) 3404.3.3.6 Rack storage. Where storage on racks is allowed elsewhere in this code, a minimum 4-foot-wide (1219 mm) aisle shall be provided between adjacent rack sections and any adjacent storage of liquids. Main aisles shall be a minimum of 8 feet (2438 mm) wide.

(vii) 3404.3.3.7 Pile or palletized storage. Solid pile and palletized storage in liquid warehouses shall be arranged so that piles are separated from each other by at least 4 feet (1219 mm). Aisles shall be provided and arranged so that no container or portable tank is more than 20 feet (6096 mm) from an aisle. Main aisles shall be a minimum of 8 feet (2438 mm) wide.

(viii) 3404.3.3.8 Limited combustible storage. Limited quantities of combustible commodities are allowed to be stored in liquid storage areas where the ordinary combustibles, other than those used for packaging the liquids, are separated from the liquids in storage by a minimum of 8 feet (2438 mm) horizontally, either by open aisles or by open racks, and where protection is provided in accordance with rule 1301:7-7-09 of the Administrative Code.

(ix) 3404.3.3.9 Idle combustible pallets. Storage of empty or idle combustible pallets inside an unprotected liquid storage area shall be limited to a maximum pile size of 2,500 square feet (232 m ) and to a maximum storage height of 6 feet (1829 mm). Storage of empty or idle combustible pallets inside a protected liquid storage area shall comply with NFPA 13 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.Pallet storage shall be separated from liquid storage by aisles that are at least 8 feet (243 8 mm) wide.

(x) 3404.3.3.10 Containers in piles. Containers in piles shall be stacked in such a manner as to provide stability and to prevent excessive stress on container walls. Portable tanks stored more than one tier high shall be designed to nest securely, without dunnage. Material-handling equipment shall be suitable to handle containers and tanks safely to the upper tier level.

(d) 3404.3.4 Quantity limits for storage. Liquid storage quantity limitations shall comply with paragraphs (D)(3)(d)(i)(3404.3.4.1) to (D)(3)(d)(iv)(3404.3.4.4) of this rule.

(i) 3404.3.4.1 Maximum allowable quantity per control area. For occupancies other than Group M wholesale and retail sales uses, indoor storage of flammable and combustible liquids shall not exceed the maximum allowable quantities per control area indicated in Table 2703.1.1(1) of rule 1301:7-7-27 of the Administrative Codeand shall not exceed the additional limitations set forth in this paragraph.

For Group M occupancy wholesale and retail sales uses, indoor storage of flammable and combustible liquids shall not exceed the maximum allowable quantities per control area indicated in Table 3404.3.4.1 of this rule.

Storage of hazardous production material flammable and combustible liquids in Group H-5 occupancies shall be in accordance with rule 1301:7-7-18 of the Administrative Code.

Table 3404.3.4.1

Maximum allowable quantity per control area of flammable and combustible liquids in wholesale and retail sales occupanciesa

Type of liquid Maximum allowable quantity per control area (gallons)
Sprinkleredb per footnote densities and arrangements Sprinklered per Tables 3404.3.6.3(4) to 3404.3.6.3(8) and Table 3404.3.7.5.1 of this rule Nonsprinklered
Class IA 60 60 30
Class IB, IC, II and IIIA 7,500c 15,000c 1,600
Class IIIB Unlimited Unlimited 13,200

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.00929 m2 , 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 gallon per minute per square foot = 40.75 L/min/m2 .

a. Control areas shall be separated from each other by not less than a 1-hour fire barrier wall.

b. To be considered as sprinklered, a building shall be equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system with a design providing minimum densities as follows:

1. For uncartoned commodities on shelves 6 feet or less in height where the ceiling height does not exceed 18 feet, quantities are those allowed with a minimum sprinkler design density of Ordinary Hazard Group 2.

2. For cartoned, palletized or racked commodities where storage is 4 feet 6 inches or less in height and where the ceiling height does not exceed 18 feet, quantities are those allowed with a minimum sprinkler design density of 0.21 gallon per minute per square foot over the most remote 1,500-square-foot area.

c. Where wholesale and retail sales or storage areas exceed 50,000 square feet in area, the maximum allowable quantities are allowed to be increased by 2 per cent for each 1,000 square feet of area in excess of 50,000 square feet, up to a maximum of 100 per cent of the table amounts. A control area separation is not required. The cumulative amounts, including amounts attained by having an additional control area, shall not exceed 30,000 gallons.

(ii) 3404.3.4.2 Occupancy quantity limits. The following limits for quantities of stored flammable or combustible liquids shall not be exceeded:

(a) Group A occupancies: Quantities in Group A occupancies shall not exceed that necessary for demonstration, treatment laboratory work, maintenance purposes and operation of equipment, and shall not exceed quantities set forth in Table 2703.1.1(1) of rule 1301:7-7-27 of the Administrative Code.

(b) Group B occupancies: Quantities in drinking, dining, office and school uses within Group B occupancies shall not exceed that necessary for demonstration, treatment, laboratory work, maintenance purposes and operation of equipment, and shall not exceed quantities set forth in Table 2703.1.1(1) of rule 1301:7-7-27 of the Administrative Code.

(c) Group E occupancies: Quantities in Group E occupancies shall not exceed that necessary for demonstration, treatment, laboratory work, maintenance purposes and operation of equipment, and shall not exceed quantities set forth in Table 2703.1.1(1) of rule 1301:7-7-27 of the Administrative Code.

(d) Group F occupancies: Quantities in dining, office, and school uses within Group F occupancies shall not exceed that necessary for demonstration, laboratory work, maintenance purposes and operation of equipment, and shall not exceed quantities set forth in Table 2703.1.1(1) of rule 1301:7-7-27 of the Administrative Code.

(e) Group I occupancies: Quantities in Group I occupancies shall not exceed that necessary for demonstration, laboratory work, maintenance purposes and operation of equipment, and shall not exceed quantities set forth in Table 2703.1.1(1) of rule 1301:7-7-27 of the Administrative Code.

(f) Group M occupancies: Quantities in dining, office, and school uses within Group M occupancies shall not exceed that necessary for demonstration, laboratory work, maintenance purposes and operation of equipment, and shall not exceed quantities set forth in Table 2703.1.1(1) of rule 1301:7-7-27 of the Administrative Code.The maximum allowable quantities for storage in wholesale and retail sales areas shall be in accordance with paragraph (D)(3)(d)(i)(3404.3.4.1) of this rule.

(g) Group R occupancies: Quantities in Group R occupancies shall not exceed that necessary for maintenance purposes and operation of equipment, and shall not exceed quantities set forth in Table 2703.1.1(1) of rule 1301:7-7-27 of the Administrative Code.

(h) Group S occupancies: Quantities in dining and office uses within Group S occupancies shall not exceed that necessary for demonstration, laboratory work, maintenance purposes and operation of equipment, and shall not exceed quantities set forth in Table 2703.1.1(1) of rule 1301:7-7-27 of the Administrative Code.

(iii) 3404.3.4.3 Quantities exceeding limits for control areas.Quantities exceeding those allowed in control areas set forth in paragraph (D)(3)(d)(i)(3404.3.4.1) of this rule shall be in liquid storage rooms or liquid storage warehouses in accordance with paragraphs (D)(3)(g)(3404.3.7) and (D)(3)(h)(3404.3.8) of this rule.

(iv) 3404.3.4.4 Liquids for maintenance and operation of equipment. In all occupancies, quantities of flammable and combustible liquids in excess of 10 gallons (38 L) used for maintenance purposes and the operation of equipment shall be stored in liquid storage cabinets in accordance with paragraph (D)(3)(b)(3404.3.2) of this rule. Quantities not exceeding 10 gallons (38 L) are allowed to be stored outside of a cabinet when in approved containers located in private garages or other approved locations.

(e) 3404.3.5 Storage in control areas. Storage of flammable and combustible liquids in control areas shall be in accordance with paragraphs (D)(3)(e)(i)(3404.3.5.1) to (D)(3)(e)(iv)(3404.3.5.4) of this rule.

(i) 3404.3.5.1 Basement storage. Class I liquids shall be allowed to be stored in basements in amounts not exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area for use-open systems in Table 2703.1.1(1) of rule 1301:7-7-27 of the Administrative Code,provided that automatic suppression and other fire protection are provided in accordance with rule 1301:7-7-09 of the Administrative Code.Class II and IIIA liquids shall also be allowed to be stored in basements, provided that automatic suppression and other fire protection are provided in accordance with rule 1301:7-7-09 of the Administrative Code.

(ii) 3404.3.5.2 Storage pile heights. Containers having less than a 30-gallon (114 L) capacity which contain Class I or II liquids shall not be stacked more than 3 feet ( 914.4 mm) or two containers high, whichever is greater, unless stacked on fixed shelving or otherwise satisfactorily secured. Containers of Class I or II liquids having a capacity of 30 gallons (114 L) or more shall not be stored more than one container high. Containers shall be stored in an upright position.

(iii) 3404.3.5.3 Storage distance from ceilings and roofs. Piles of containers or portable tanks shall not be stored closer than 3 feet (914 mm) to the nearest beam, chord, girder or other obstruction, and shall be 3 feet (914 mm) below sprinkler deflectors or discharge orifices of water spray or other overhead fire protection system.

(iv) 3404.3.5.4 Combustible materials. In areas that are inaccessible to the public, Class I, II and IIIA liquids shall not be stored in the same pile or rack section as ordinary combustible commodities unless such materials are packaged together as kits.

(f) 3404.3.6 Wholesale and retail sales uses. Flammable and combustible liquids in Group M occupancy wholesale and retail sales uses shall be in accordance with paragraphs (D)(3)(f)(i)(3404.3.6.1)to (D)(3)(f)(v)(3404.3.6.5) of this rule or sections 1010.2, 12.3.8, 16.4, Tables 16.5.2.1 to 16.5.2.6 and figures 16.4.1 (a) to (c) of NFPA 30 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

(i) 3404.3.6.1 Container type. Containers for Class I liquids shall be metal.

Exception: In sprinklered buildings, an aggregate quantity of 120 gallons (454 L) of water-miscible Class IB and Class IC liquids is allowed in nonmetallic containers, each having a capacity of 16 ounces ( 0.473 L) or less.

(ii) 3404.3.6.2 Container capacity. Containers for Class I liquids shall not exceed a capacity of 5 gallons (19 L).

Exception: Metal containers not exceeding 55 gallons (208 L) are allowed to store up to 240 gallons (908 L) of the maximum allowable quantity per control area of Class IB and IC liquids in a control area. The building shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Table 3404.3.4.1 of this rule. The containers shall be provided with plastic caps without cap seals and shall be stored upright. Containers shall not be stacked or stored in racks and shall not be located in areas accessible to the public.

(iii) 3404.3.6.3 Fire protection and storage arrangements. Fire protection and container storage arrangements shall be in accordance with Table 3404.3.6.3(1) of this rule or the following:

(a) Storage on shelves shall not exceed 6 feet (1829 mm) in height and shelving shall be metal.

(b) Storage on pallets or in piles greater than 4 feet 6 inches (1372 mm) in height, or where the ceiling exceeds 18 feet (5486 mm) in height, shall be protected in accordance with Table 3404.3.6.3(4) of this rule, and the storage heights and arrangements shall be limited to those specified in Table3404.3.6.3(2) of this rule.

(c) Storage on racks greater than 4 feet 6 inches (1372 mm) in height, or where the ceiling exceeds 18 feet (5486 mm) in height shall be protected in accordance with Tables 3404.3.6.3(5), 3404.3.6.3(6), and 3404.3.6.3(7) of this rule as appropriate, and the storage heights and arrangements shall be limited to those specified in Table 3404.3.6.3(3) of this rule.

Combustible commodities shall not be stored above flammable and combustible liquids.

Table 3404.3.6.3(1)

Maximum storage height in control area

Type of liquid Nonsprinklered area (feet) Sprinklered areaa (feet) Sprinklered with in-rack protectiona,b (feet)
Flammable liquids:      
Class IA 4 4 4
Class IB 4 8 12
Class IC 4 8 12
Combustible liquids:      
Class II 6 8 12
Class IIIA 8 12 16
Class IIIB 8 12 20

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

a. In buildings protected by an automatic sprinkler system, the storage height for containers and portable tanks shall not exceed the maximum storage height permitted for the fire protection scheme set forth in NFPA 30 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Codeor the maximum storage height demonstrated in a full-scale fire test, whichever is greater. NFPA 30 criteria as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Codeand fire test results for metallic containers and portable tanks shall not be applied to nonmetallic containers and portable tanks.

b. In-rack protection shall be in accordance with Table 3404.3.6.3(5), 3404.3.6.3(6) or 3404.3.6.3(7) of this rule.

Table 3404.3.6.3(2)

Storage arrangements for palletized or solid-pile storage

in liquid storage rooms and warehouses

Class Storage level Maximum storage height Maximum quantity per pile (gallons) Maximum quantity per rooma (gallons)
Drums Containersb (feet) Portable tanksb (feet) Containers Portable tanks Containers Portable tanks
IA Ground floor 1 5 Not allowed 3,000 Not allowed 12,000 Not allowed
Upper floors 1 5 Not allowed 2,000 Not allowed 8,000 Not allowed
Basements 0 Not allowed Not allowed Not allowed Not allowed Not allowed Not allowed
IB Ground floor 1 6.5 7 5,000 20,000 15,000 40,000
Upper floors 1 6.5 7 3,000 10,000 12,000 20,000
Basements 0 Not allowed Not allowed Not allowed Not allowed Not allowed Not allowed
IC Ground floord 1 6.5c 7 5,000 20,000 15,000 40,000
Upper floors 1 6.5c 7 3,000 10,000 12,000 20,000
Basements 0 Not allowed Not allowed Not allowed Not allowed Not allowed Not allowed
II Ground floord 3 10 14 10,000 40,000 25,000 80,000
Upper floors 3 10 14 10,000 40,000 25,000 80,000
Basements 1 5 7 7,500 20,000 7,500 20,000
III Ground floor 5 20 14 15,000 60,000 50,000 100,000
Upper floors 5 20 14 15,000 60,000 50,000 100,000
Basements 3 10 7 10,000 20,000 25,000 40,000

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 gallon = 3.785 L.

a. See paragraph (D)(3)(h)(i)(3404.3.8.1) of this rule for unlimited quantities in liquid storage warehouses.

b. In buildings protected by an automatic sprinkler system, the storage height for containers and portable tanks shall not exceed the maximum storage height permitted for the fire protection scheme set forth in NFPA 30 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Codeor the maximum storage height demonstrated in a full-scale fire test, whichever is greater. NFPA 30 criteria as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Codeand fire test results for metallic containers and portable tanks shall not be applied to nonmetallic containers and portable tanks.

c. These height limitations are allowed to be increased to 10 feet for containers having a capacity of 5 gallons or less.

d. For palletized storage of unsaturated polyester resins (UPR) in relieving-style metal containers with 50 per cent or less by weight Class IC or II liquid and no Class IA or IB liquid, height and pile quantity limits shall be permitted to be 10 feet and 15,000 gallons, respectively, provided that such storage is protected by sprinklers in accordance with NFPA 30 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Codeand that the UPR storage area is not located in the same containment area or drainage path for other Class I or II liquids.

Table 3404.3.6.3(3)

Storage arrangements for rack storage in liquid storage rooms and warehouses

Class Type rack Storage level Maximum storage height (feet)b Maximum quantity per rooma (gallons)
Containers Containers
IA Double row or single row Ground floor 25 7,500
Upper floors 15 4,500
Basements Not allowed Not allowed
IBIC Double row or single row Ground floor 25 15,000
Upper floors 15 9,000
Basements Not allowed Not allowed
II Double row or single row Ground floor 25 24,000
Upper floors 25 24,000
Basements 15 9,000
III Multirow Ground floor 40 48,000
Double row Upper floors 20 48,000
Single row Basements 20 24,000

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 gallon = 3.785 L.

a. See paragraph (D)(3)(h)(i)(3404.3.8.1) of this rule for unlimited quantities in liquid storage warehouses.

b. In buildings protected by an automatic sprinkler system, the storage height for containers and portable tanks shall not exceed the maximum storage height permitted for the fire protection scheme set forth in NFPA 30 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Codeor the maximum storage height demonstrated in a full-scale fire test, whichever is greater. NFPA 30 criteria as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Codeand fire test results for metallic containers and portable tanks shall not be applied to nonmetallic containers and portable tanks.

Table 3404.3.6.3(4)

Automatic sprinkler protection for solid-pile and palletized storage of liquids in metal containers and portable tanksa

Storage conditions Ceiling sprinkler design and demand Minimum hose stream demand (gpm) Minimum duration sprinklers and hose streams (hours)
Density (gpm/ft2) Area (square feet) Maximum spacing (square feet)
Class liquid Container size and arrangement High temperature sprinklers Ordinary temperature sprinklers
lA 5 gallons or less, with or without cartons, palletized or solid pileb 0.30 3,000 5,000 100 750 2
Containers greater than 5 gallons, on end or side, palletized or solid pile 0.60 5,000 8,000 80 750
IB, IC and II 5 gallons or less, with or without cartons, palletized or solid pileb 0.30 3,000 5,000 100 500 2
Containers greater than 5 gallons on pallets or solid pile, one high 0.25 5,000 8,000 100
II Containers greater than 5 gallons on pallets or solid pile, more than one high, on end or side 0.60 5,000 8,000 80 750 2
IB, IC, II Portable tanks, one high 0.30 3,000 5,000 100 500 2
II Portable tanks, two high 0.60 5,000 8,000 80 750 2
III 5 gallons or less, with or without cartons, palletized or solid pile 0.25 3,000 5,000 120 500 1
Containers greater than 5 gallons on pallets or solid pile, on end or sides, up to three high 0.25 3,000 5,000 120 500 1
Containers greater than 5 gallons, on pallets or solid pile, on end or sides, up to 18 feet high 0.35 3,000 5,000 100 750 2
Portable tanks, one high 0.25 3,000 5,000 120 500 1
Portable tanks, two high 0.50 3,000 5,000 80 750 2

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m, 1 gallon per minute per square foot = 40.75 L/min/m2 .

a. The design area contemplates the use of Class II standpipe systems. Where Class I standpipe systems are used, the area of application shall be increased by 30 per cent without revising density.

b. For storage heights above 4 feet or ceiling heights greater than 18 feet, an approved design shall be provided.

Table 3404.3.6.3(5)

Automatic sprinkler protection requirements for rack storage of liquids in metal containers of 5-gallon capacity or less with or without cartons on conventional wood palletsa

Class liquid Ceiling sprinkler design and demand In-rack sprinkler arrangement and demand Minimum hose stream demand (gpm) Minimum duration sprinkler and hose stream (hours)
Density (gpm/ft2) Area (square feet) Maximum spacing Racks up to 9 feet deep Racks more than 9 feet to 12 feet deep 30 psi (standard orifice) Number of sprinklers operating
High temperature sprinklers Ordinary temperature sprinklers 14 psi (large orifice)
I (maximum 25-foot height) Option 1 0.40 3,000 5,000 80 ft2/head 1. Ordinary temperature, quick-response sprinklers, maximum 8 feet 3 inches horizontal spacing2. One line sprinklers above each level of storage3. Locate in longitudinal flue space, staggered vertical4. Shields required where multi-level 1.Ordinary temperature, quick-response sprinklers, maximum 8 feet 3 inches horizontal spacing2. One line sprinklers above each level of storage3. Locate in transverse flue spaces, staggered vertical and within 20 inches of aisle4. Shields required where multilevel 30 psi ( 0.5 -mch orifice) 1. Eight sprinklers if only one level2. Six sprinklers each on two levels if only two levels3. Six sprinklers each on top three levels, if three or more levels4. Hydraulically most remote 750 2
I (maximum 25-foot height) Option 2 0.55 2,000b Not applicable 100 ft2/head 1. Ordinary temperature, quick-response sprinklers, maximum 8 feet 3 inches horizontal spacing2. See 2 above3. See 3 above4. See 4 above 1. Ordinary temperature, quick-response sprinklers, maximum 8 feet 3 inches, horizontal spacing2. See 2 above3. See 3 above4. See 4 above 14 psi ( 0.53 -inch orifice) See 1 through 4 above 500 2
I and II (maximum 14-foot storage height) (maximum three tiers) 0.55c 2,000b,d Not applicable 100 ft2/head Not applicable None for maximum 6-foot-deep racks Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable 500 2
II (maximum 25-foot height) 0.30 3,000 5,000 120 ft2/head 1. Ordinary temperature sprinklers 8 feet apart horizontally2. One line sprinklers between levels at nearest 10-foot vertical intervals3. Locate in longitudinal flue space, staggered vertical4. Shields required where multi-level 1. Ordinary temperature sprinklers 8 feet apart horizontally2. Two lines between levels at nearest 10-foot vertical intervals3. Locate in transverse flue spaces, staggered vertical and within 20 inches of aisle4. Shields required where multilevel 30 psi Hydraulically most remote-six sprinklers at each level. up to a maximum of three levels 750 2
III (40-foot height) 0.25 3,000 5,000 120 ft2/head Same as for Class II liquids Same as for Class II liquids 30 psi Same as for Class II liquids 500 2

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2 , 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m, 1 gallon per minute per square foot = 40.75 L/min/m2 .

a. The design area contemplates the use of Class II standpipe systems. Where Class I standpipe systems are used, the area of application shall be increased by 30 per cent without revising density.

b. Using listed or approved extra-large orifices, high-temperature quick-response or standard element sprinklers under a maximum 30-foot ceiling with minimum 7.5 foot aisles.

c. For friction lid cans and other metal containers equipped with plastic nozzles or caps, the density shall be increased to 0.65 gpm per square foot using listed or approved extra-large orifice, high-temperature quick-response sprinklers.

d. Using listed or approved extra-large orifice, high-temperature quick-response or standard element sprinklers under a maximum 18-foot ceiling with minimum 7.5 foot aisles and metal containers.

Table 3404.3.6.3(6)

Automatic sprinkler protection requirements for rack storage of liquids in metal containers greater than 5 gallon capacitya

Class liquid Ceiling sprinkler design and demand In-rack sprinkler arrangement and demand Minimum hose stream demand (gpm) Minimum duration sprinkler and hose stream (hours)
Density (gpm/ft2) Area (square feet) Maximum spacing On-side storage racks up to 9 foot deep racks On-end storage (on pallets) up to 9 foot deep racks Minimum nozzle pressure Number of sprinklers operating
High temperature sprinklers Ordinary temperature sprinklers
IA (maximum 25 foot height) 0.60 3,000 5,000 80 ft2/head 1. Ordinary temperature sprinklers 8 feet apart horizontally2. One line sprinklers above each tier of storage3. Locate in longitudinal flue space, staggered vertical4. Shields required where multilevel 1. Ordinary temperature sprinklers 8 feet apart horizontally2. One line sprinklers above each tier of storage3. Locate in longitudinal flue space, staggered vertical4. Shields required where multilevel 30 psi Hydraulically most remote-six sprinklers at each level 1,000 2
IB, IC and II (maximum 25-foot height) 0.60 3,000 5,000 100 ft2/head 1. See 1 above2. One line sprinklers every three tiers of storage3. See 3 above4. See 4 above 1.See 1 above2.See 2 above3.See 3 above4.See 4 above 30 psi Hydraulically most remote-six sprinklers at each level 750 2
III (maximum 40-foot height) 0.25 3,000 5,000 120 ft2/head 1. See 1 above2. One line sprinklers every sixth level (maximum)3. See 3 above4. See 4 above 1. See 1 above2. One line sprinklers ever third level (maximum)3. See 3 above4. See 4 above 15 psi Hydraulically most remote- six sprinklers each level 500 1

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2 , 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m, 1 gallon per minute per square foot = 40.75 L/min/m2 .

a. The design assumes the use of Class II standpipe systems. Where a Class I standpipe system is used, the area of application shall be increased by 30 per cent without revising density.

Table 3404.3.6.3(7)

Automatic AFFF water protection requirements for rack storage of liquids in metal containers greater than 5 gallon capacitya,b

Class liquid Ceiling sprinkler design and demand In-rack sprinkler arrangement and demandc Duration AFFF supply (minimum) Duration water supply (hours)
Density (gpm/ft2) Area (square feet) On-end storage of drums on pallets, up to 25 feet Minimum nozzle pressure (psi) Number of sprinklers operating Hose steam demandd (gpm)
High temperature sprinklers Ordinary temperature sprinklers
IA, IB, IC, II 0.30 1,500 2,500 1. Ordinary temperature sprinkler up to 10 feet horizontally2. One line sprinklers above each level of storage3. Locate in longitudinal flue space, staggered vertically4. Shields required for multilevel 30 Three sprinklers 500 15 2

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2 , 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m, 1 gallon per minute per square foot = 40.75 L/min/m2 .

a. System shall be closed-head wet system with approved devices for proportioning aqueous film-forming foam.

b. Except as modified herein, in-rack sprinklers shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 13 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

c. The height of storage shall not exceed 25 feet.

d. Hose stream demand includes 1½-inch inside hand hose, when required.

Table 3404.3.6.3(8)

Automatic sprinkler protection requirements for Class I liquid storage in metal containers of 1-gallon capacity or less with uncartoned or case-cut shelf display up to 6.5 feet, and palletized storage above in a double row rack arraya

Storage height Ceiling sprinkler design and demand            
Density (gpm/ft2) Area (square feet) Maximum spacing Racks up to 9 feet deep Racks 9 to 12 feet Minimum nozzle pressure Number of sprinklers operating Minimum hose stream demand (gpm) Minimum duration sprinklers and hose stream (hours)
High temperature Ordinary temperature
Maximum 20-foot storage height 0.60 2,000b Not applicable 100 ft2/head 1. Ordinary temperature quick response sprinklers, maximum 8 feet 3 inches horizontal spacing2. One line sprinklers at the 6 foot level and the 11.5 foot level of storage3. Locate in longitudinal flue space, staggered vertical4. Shields required where multilevel Not applicable 30 psi (standard orifice) or 14 psi (large orifice) 1. Six sprinklers each on two levels2. Hydraulically most remote 12 sprinklers 500 2

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2 , 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m, 1 gallon per minute per square foot = 40.75 L/min/m2 .

a. This table shall not apply to racks with solid shelves.

b. Using extra-large orifice sprinklers under a ceiling 30 feet or less in height. Minimum aisle width is 7.5 feet.

(iv) 3404.3.6.4 Warning for containers. All cans, containers and vessels containing flammable liquids or flammable liquid compounds or mixtures offered for sale shall be provided with a warning indicator, painted or printed on the container and stating that the liquid is flammable, and shall be kept away from heat and an open flame.

(v) 3404.3.6.5 Storage plan. When required by the fire code official, aisle and storage plans shall be submitted in accordance with rule 1301:7-7-27 of the Administrative Code.

(g) 3404.3.7 Liquid storage rooms. Liquid storage rooms shall comply with paragraphs (D)(3)(g)(i)(3404.3.7.1) to (D)(3)(g)(v)(b)(3404.3.7.5.2) of this rule.

(i) 3404.3.7.1 General. Quantities of liquids exceeding those set forth in paragraph (D)(3)(d)(i)(3404.3.4.1) of this rule for storage in control areas shall be stored in a liquid storage room complying with this paragraph and constructed and separated as required by the building code as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

(ii) 3404.3.7.2 Quantities and arrangement of storage. The quantity limits and storage arrangements in liquid storage rooms shall be in accordance with Tables 3404.3.6.3(2) and 3404.3.6.3(3) of this rule and paragraphs (D)(3)(g)(ii)(a)(3404.3.7.2.1) to (D)(3)(g)(ii)(c)(3404.3.7.2.3) of this rule.

(a) 3404.3.7.2.1 Mixed storage. Where two or more classes of liquids are stored in a pile or rack section:

(i) The quantity in that pile or rack shall not exceed the smallest of the maximum quantities for the classes of liquids stored in accordance with Table 3404.3.6.3(2) or 3404.3.6.3(3) of this rule; and

(ii) The height of storage in that pile or rack shall not exceed the smallest of the maximum heights for the classes of liquids stored in accordance with Table 3404.3.6.3(2) or 3404.3.6.3(3) of this rule.

(b) 3404.3.7.2.2 Separation and aisles. Piles shall be separated from each other by at least 4-foot (1219 mm) aisles. Aisles shall be provided so that all containers are 20 feet (6096 mm) or less from an aisle. Where the storage of liquids is on racks, a minimum 4 foot wide (1219 mm) aisle shall be provided between adjacent rows of racks and adjacent storage of liquids. Main aisles shall be a minimum of 8 feet (2438 mm) wide.

Additional aisles shall be provided for access to doors, required windows and ventilation openings, standpipe connections, mechanical equipment and switches. Such aisles shall be at least 3 feet (914 mm) in width, unless greater widths are required for separation of piles or racks, in which case the greater width shall be provided.

(c) 3404.3.7.2.3 Stabilizing and supports. Containers and piles shall be separated by pallets or dunnage to provide stability and to prevent excessive stress to container walls. Portable tanks stored over one tier shall be designed to nest securely without dunnage.

Requirements for portable tank design shall be in accordance with chapters 9 and 12 of NFPA 30 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.Shelving, racks, dunnage, scuffboards, floor overlay and similar installations shall be of noncombustible construction or of wood not less than a 1-inch (25 mm) nominal thickness. Adequate material-handling equipment shall be available to handle tanks safely at upper tier levels.

(iii) 3404.3.7.3 Spill control and secondary containment. Liquid storage rooms shall be provided with spill control and secondary containment in accordance with paragraph (D)(2)( 2704.2 ) of rule 1301:7-7-27 of the Administrative Code.

(iv) 3404.3.7.4 Ventilation. Liquid storage rooms shall be ventilated in accordance with paragraph (D)(3)( 2704.3 ) of rule 1301:7-7-27 of the Administrative Code.

(v) 3404.3.7.5 Fire protection. Fire protection for liquid storage rooms shall comply with, paragraphs (D)(3)(g)(v)(a)(3404.3.7.5.1) and (D)(3)(g)(v)(b)(3404.3.7.5.2) of this rule.

(a)3404.3.7.5.1 Fire-extinguishing systems. Liquid storage rooms shall be protected by automatic sprinkler systems installed in accordance with rule 1301:7-7-09 of the Administrative Codeand Tables 3404.3.6.3(4) to 3404.3.6.3(7) and Table 3404.3.7.5.1 of this rule. In-rack sprinklers shall also comply with NFPA 13 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

Automatic foam-water systems and automatic aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) water sprinkler systems shall not be used except when approved.

Protection criteria developed from the fire modeling or full-scale fire testing conducted at a testing laboratory listed in rule 1301:7-7-01 of the Administrative Codeare allowed in lieu of the protection as shown in Tables 3404.3.6.3(2) to 3404.3.6.3(7) and Table 3404.3.7.5.1 of this rule when approved.

Table 3404.3.7.5.1

Automatic AFFF water protection requirements for solid-pile and palletized storage of liquids in metal containers of 5-gallon capacity or lessa,b

Package type Class liquid Ceiling sprinkler design and demand Orifice size (inch) Storage height (feet) Hose demand (gpm)c Duration AFFF supply (minimum) Duration water supply (hours)
Density (gpm/ft2) Area (square feet) Temperature rating Maximum spacing
Cartoned IB, IC, II and III 0.40 2,000 286°F 100 ft2/head 0.531 11 500 15 2
Uncartoned IB, IC, II and III 0.30 2,000 286°F 100 ft2/head 0.5 or 0.531 12 500 15 2

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2 , 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m, 1 gallon per minute per square foot = 40.75 L/min/m2 , °C = [(°F)-32]/ 1.8.

a. System shall be a closed-head wet system with approved devices for proportioning aqueous film-forming foam.

b. Maximum ceiling height of 30 feet.

c. Hose stream demand includes 1½-inch inside hand hose, when required.

(b) 3404.3.7.5.2 Portable fire extinguishers. A minimum of one portable fire extinguisher complying with paragraph (F)(906) of rule 1301:7-7-09 of the Administrative Code and having a rating of not less than 20-B shall be located not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) or more than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from any Class I or II liquid storage area located outside of a liquid storage room.

A minimum of one portable fire extinguisher having a rating of not less than 20-B shall be located outside of, but not more than 10 feet (3048 mm) from, the door opening into a liquid storage room.

(h) 3404.3.8 Liquid storage warehouses. Buildings used for storage of flammable or combustible liquids in quantities exceeding those set forth in paragraph (D)(3)(d)(3404.3.4) of this rule for control areas and paragraph (D)(3)(g)(3404.3.7) of this rule for liquid storage rooms shall comply with paragraphs (D)(3)(h)(i)(3404.3.8.1) to (D)(3)(h)(v)(3404.3.8.5) of this rule and shall be constructed and separated as required by the building code as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

(i) 3404.3.8.1 Quantities and storage arrangement. The total quantities of liquids in a liquid storage warehouse shall not be limited. The arrangement of storage shall be in accordance with Table 3404.3.6.3(2) or 3404.3.6.3(3) of this rule.

(a) 3404.3.8.1.1 Mixed storage. Mixed storage shall be in accordance with paragraph (D)(3)(g)(ii)(a)(3404.3.7.2.1) of this rule.

(b) 3404.3.8.1.2 Separation and aisles. Separation and aisles shall be in accordance with paragraph (D)(3)(g)(ii)(b)(3404.3.7.2.2) of this rule.

(ii) 3404.3.8.2 Spill control and secondary containment. Liquid storage warehouses shall be provided with spill control and secondary containment as set forth in paragraph (D)(2)( 2704.2 ) of rule 1301:7-7-27 of the Administrative Code.

(iii) 3404.3.8.3 Ventilation. Liquid storage warehouses storing containers greater than 5 gallons (19 L) in capacity shall be ventilated at a rate of not less than 0.25 cfm/square foot ( 0.075 m3 /min per m2 ) of floor area over the storage area.

(iv) 3404.3.8.4 Fire-extinguishing systems. Liquid storage warehouses shall be protected by automatic sprinkler systems installed in accordance with rule 1301:7-7-09 of the Administrative Codeand Tables 3404.3.6.3(4) to 3404.3.6.3(7) and Table 3404.3.7.5.1 of this rule or section 16.4 and Tables 16.5.2.1 to 16.5.2.6 of NFPA 30, as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.In-rack sprinklers shall also comply with NFPA 13 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

Automatic foam water systems and automatic AFFF water sprinkler systems shall not be used except when approved.

Protection criteria developed from fire modeling or full-scale fire testing conducted at a testing laboratory listed in rule 1301:7-7-01 of the Administrative Codeare allowed in lieu of the protection as shown in Tables 3404.3.6.3(2) to 3404.3.6.3(7) and Table 3404.3.7.5.1 of this rule when approved.

(v) 3404.3.8.5 Warehouse hose lines. In liquid storage warehouses, either 1½-inch (3 8 mm) lined or 1 inch (25 mm) hard rubber hand hose lines shall be provided in sufficient number to reach all liquid storage areas and shall be in accordance with paragraph (C)(903) or paragraph (E)(905) of rule 1301:7-7-09 of the Administrative Code.

(4) 3404.4 Outdoor storage of containers and portable tanks. Storage of flammable and combustible liquids in closed containers and portable tanks outside of buildings shall be in accordance with paragraph (C)(3403) and paragraphs (D)(4)(a)(3404.4.1) to (D)(4)(h)(3404.4.8) of this rule. Capacity limits for containers and portable tanks shall be in accordance with paragraph (D)(3)( 3404.3 ) of this rule.

(a) 3404.4.1 Plans. Storage of flammable and combustible liquids in closed containers and portable tanks outside of buildings shall be in accordance with approved site storage plans. Such site storage plans shall be submitted to the fire code official at the time of notification or with the permit application as required in rule 1301:7-7-01 of the Administrative Code.

(b) 3404.4.2 Location on property. Outdoor storage of liquids in closed containers and portable tanks shall be in accordance with Table 3404.4.2 of this rule. Storage of liquids near buildings located on the same property shall be in accordance with this paragraph.

Table 3404.4.2

Outdoor liquid storage in closed containers and portable tanks

Class of liquid Closed container storage maximum per pile Portable tank storage maximum per pile Minimum distance between piles or racks (feet) Minimum distance to lot line of property that can be built uponc,d (feet) Minimum distance to public street, public alley or public wayd (feet)
Quantitya,b (gallons) Height (feet) Quantitya,b (gallons) Height (feet)
IA 1,100 10 2,200 7 5 50 10
IB 2,200 12 4,400 14 5 50 10
IC 4,400 12 8,800 14 5 50 10
II 8,800 12 17,600 14 5 25 5
III 22,000 18 44,000 14 5 10 5

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 gallon = 3.785 L.

a. For mixed class storage, see paragraph (D)(4)(b)(3404.4.2) of this rule.

b. For storage in racks, the quantity limits per pile do not apply, but the rack arrangement shall be limited to a maximum of 50 feet in length and two rows or 9 feet in depth.

c. If protection by a public fire department or private fire brigade capable of providing cooling water streams is not available, the distance shall be doubled.

d. When the total quantity stored does not exceed 50 per cent of the maximum allowed per pile, the distances are allowed to be reduced 50 per cent, but not less than 3 feet.

(i) 3404.4.2.1 Mixed liquid piles. Where two or more classes of liquids are stored in a single pile, the quantity in the pile shall not exceed the smallest of maximum quantities for the classes of material stored.

(ii) 3404.4.2.2 Access. Storage of closed containers or portable tanks shall be provided with fire apparatus access roads in accordance with rule 1301:7-7-05 of the Administrative Code.

(iii) 3404.4.2.3 Security. The storage area shall be protected against tampering or trespassers in accordance with paragraph (D)(1)(b)(3404.1.2) of this rule and shall be kept clear of weeds, debris and other combustible materials not necessary to the storage.

(iv) 3404.4.2.4 Storage adjacent to buildings. A maximum of 1,100 gallons (4163 L) of liquids stored in closed containers and portable tanks is allowed adjacent to a building located on the same premises and under the same management provided that:

(a) The building does not exceed one story in height. Such building shall be of fire-resistance-rated construction with noncombustible exterior surfaces or noncombustible construction and shall be used principally for the storage of liquids; or

(b) The exterior building wall adjacent to the storage area shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours, having no openings to above grade areas within 10 feet (3048 mm) horizontally of such storage and no openings to below grade areas within 50 feet (15 240 mm) horizontally of such storage.

The quantity of liquids stored adjacent to a building protected in accordance with paragraph (D)(4)(b)(iv)(b)of this rule is allowed to exceed 1,100 gallons (4163 L), provided that the maximum quantity per pile does not exceed 1,100 gallons (4163 L) and each pile is separated by a 10 foot minimum (3048 mm) clear space along the common wall.

Where the quantity stored exceeds 1,100 gallons (4163 L) adjacent to a building complying with paragraph (D)(4)(b)(iv)(a)of this rule, or the provisions of paragraph (D)(4)(b)(iv)(a)of the rule cannot be met, a minimum distance in accordance with column 7 ("Minimum distance to lot line of property that can be built upon") in Table 3404.4.2 of this rule shall be maintained between buildings and the nearest closed container or portable tank.

(c) 3404.4.3 Spill control and secondary containment. Storage areas shall be provided with spill control and secondary containment in accordance with paragraph (C)(4)( 3403.4 ) of this rule.

Exception: Closed containers stored on containment pallets in accordance with paragraph (D)(2)(c)(2704.2.3) of rule 1301:7-7-27 of the Administrative Codeand closed containers stored in cabinets and lockers with integral spill containment.

(d) 3404.4.4 Security. Storage areas shall be protected against tampering or trespassers by fencing or other approved control measures.

(e) 3404.4.5 Protection from vehicles. Guard posts or other means shall be provided to protect exterior storage tanks from vehicular damage. When guard posts are installed, the posts shall be installed in accordance with paragraph (L)(312) of rule 1301:7-7-03 of the Administrative Code.

(f) 3404.4.6 Clearance from combustibles. The storage area shall be kept free from weeds, debris and combustible materials not necessary to the storage. The area surrounding an exterior storage area shall be kept clear of such materials for a minimum distance of 15 feet (4572 mm).

(g) 3404.4.7 Weather protection. Weather protection for outdoor storage shall be in accordance with paragraph (D)(13)( 2704.13 ) of rule 1301:7-7-27 of the Administrative Code.

(h) 3404.4.8 Empty closed containers and portable tank storage. The storage of empty portable tanks and closed containers previously used for the storage of flammable or combustible liquids, unless free from explosive vapors, shall be stored as required for filled closed containers and portable tanks. Portable tanks and closed containers when emptied shall have the covers or plugs immediately replaced in openings.

(E) Section 3405 Dispensing, use, mixing and handling

(1)3405.1 Scope. Dispensing, use, mixing and handling of flammable liquids shall be in accordance with paragraph (C)(3403) of this rule and this paragraph. Tank vehicle and tank car loading and unloading and other special operations shall be in accordance with paragraph (F)(3406) of this rule.

Exception: Containers of organic coatings having no fire point and which are opened for pigmentation are not required to comply with this paragraph.

(2)3405.2 Liquid transfer. Liquid transfer equipment and methods for transfer of Class I, II and IIIA liquids shall be approved and be in accordance with paragraphs (E)(2)(a)(3405.2.1) to (E)(2)(f)(3405.2.6) of this rule.

(a)3405.2.1 Pumps. Positive-displacement pumps shall be provided with pressure relief discharging back to the tank, pump suction or other approved location, or shall be provided with interlocks to prevent over-pressure.

(b) 3405.2.2 Pressurized systems. Where gases are introduced to provide for transfer of Class I liquids, or Class II and III liquids transferred at temperatures at or above their flash points by pressure, only inert gases shall be used. Controls, including pressure relief devices, shall be provided to limit the pressure so that the maximum working pressure of tanks, containers and piping systems cannot be exceeded. Where devices operating through pressure within a tank or container are used, the tank or container shall be a pressure vessel approved for the intended use. Air or oxygen shall not be used for pressurization.

Exception: Air transfer of Class II and Class III liquids at temperatures below their flash points.

(c) 3405.2.3 Piping, hoses and valves. Piping, hoses and valves used in liquid transfer operations shall be approved for the intended use.

(d) 3405.2.4 Class I, II and III liquids. Class I liquids or Class II and Class III liquids that are heated up to or above their flash points shall be transferred by one of the following methods:

(i) From safety cans complying with UL 30 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

(ii) Through an approved closed piping system.

(iii) From containers or tanks by an approved pump taking suction through an opening in the top of the container or tank.

(iv) For Class IB, IC, II and III liquids, from containers or tanks by gravity through an approved self-closing or automatic-closing valve when the container or tank and dispensing operations are provided with spill control and secondary containment in accordance with paragraph (C)(4)( 3403.4 ) of this rule. Class IA liquids shall not be dispensed by gravity from tanks.

(v) Approved liquid transfer systems.

Exception: Liquids in containers not exceeding 5.3 -gallon (20 L) capacity.

(e) 3405.2.5 Manual container filling operations. Class I liquids or Class II and Class III liquids that are heated up to or above their flash points shall not be transferred into containers unless the nozzle and containers are electrically interconnected. Acceptable methods of electrical interconnection include:

(i) Metallic floor plates on which containers stand while filling, when such floor plates are electrically connected to the fill stem; or

(ii) Where the fill stem is bonded to the container during filling by means of a bond wire.

(f) 3405.2.6 Automatic container-filling operations for Class I liquids. Container filling operations for Class I liquids involving conveyor belts or other automatic feeding operations shall be designed to prevent static accumulations.

(3) 3405.3 Use, dispensing and mixing inside of buildings. Indoor use, dispensing and mixing of flammable and combustible liquids shall be in accordance with paragraphs (E)(2)( 3405.2 ) and (E)(3)(a)(3405.3.1) to (E)(3)(e)(iii)(3405.3.5.3) of this rule.

(a) 3405.3.1 Closure of mixing or blending vessels. Vessels used for mixing or blending of Class I liquids and Class II or III liquids heated up to or above their flash points shall be provided with self-closing, tight-fitting, noncombustible lids that will control a fire within such vessel.

Exception: Where such devices are impractical, approved automatic or manually controlled fire extinguishing devices shall be provided.

(b) 3405.3.2 Bonding of vessels. Where differences of potential could be created, vessels containing Class I liquids or liquids handled at or above their flash points shall be electrically connected by bond wires, ground cables, piping or similar means to a static grounding system to maintain equipment at the same electrical potential to prevent sparking.

(c) 3405.3.3 Heating, lighting and cooking appliances. Heating, lighting and cooking appliances which utilize Class I liquids shall not be operated within a building or structure.

Exception: Operation in single-family dwellings.

(d) 3405.3.4 Location of processing vessels. Processing vessels shall be located with respect to distances to lot lines of adjoining property which can be built on, in accordance with Tables 3405.3.4(1) and 3405.3.4(2) of this rule.

Exception: Where the exterior wall facing the adjoining lot line is a blank wall having a fire-resistance rating of not less than 4 hours, the fire code official is authorized to modify the distances. The distance shall not be less than that set forth in the building code as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code,and when Class IA or unstable liquids are involved, explosion control shall be provided in accordance with paragraph (K)(911) of rule 1301:7-7-09 of the Administrative Code.

Table 3405.3.4(1)

Separation of processing vessels from lot lines

Processing vessels with emergency relief venting Locationa
Stable liquids Unstable liquids
Not in excess of 2.5 psig Table 3405.3.4(2) of this rule 2.5 times Table 3405.3.4(2) of this rule
Over 2.5 psig 1.5 times Table 3405.3.4(2) of this rule 4 times Table 3405.3.4(2) of this rule

For SI: 1 pound per square inch gauge = 6.895 kPa.

a. Where protection of exposures by a public fire department or private fire brigade capable of providing cooling water streams on structures is not provided, distances shall be doubled.

Table 3405.3.4(2)

Reference table for use with Table 3405.3.4(1) of this rule

Tank capacity (gallons) Minimum distance from lot line of a lot which is or can be built upon, including the opposite side of a public way (feet) Minimum distance from nearest side of any public way or from nearest important building on the same property (feet)
275 or less 5 5
276 to 750 10 5
751 to 12,000 15 5
12,001 to 30,000 20 5
30,001 to 50,000 30 10
50,001 to 100,000 50 15
100,001 to 500,000 80 25
500,001 to 1,000,000 100 35
1,000,001 to 2,000,000 135 45
2,000,001 to 3,000,000 165 55
3,000,001 or more 175 60

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 gallon = 3.785 L.

(e) 3405.3.5 Quantity limits for use. Liquid use quantity limitations shall comply with paragraphs (E)(3)(e)(i)(3405.3.5.1) to (E)(3)(e)(iii)(3405.3.5.3) of this rule.

(i) 3405.3.5.1 Maximum allowable quantity per control area. Indoor use, dispensing and mixing of flammable or combustible liquids shall not exceed the maximum allowable quantity per control area indicated in Table 2703.1.1(1) of rule 1301:7-7-27 of the Administrative Codeand shall not exceed the additional limitations set forth in paragraph (E)(3)(e)(3405.3.5) of this rule.

Exception: Cleaning with Class I, II and IIIA liquids shall be in accordance with paragraph (E)(3)(f)(3405.3.6) of this rule.

Use of hazardous production material flammable and combustible liquids in Group H-5 occupancies shall be in accordance with rule 1301:7-7-18 of the Administrative Code.

(ii) 3405.3.5.2 Occupancy quantity limits. The following limits for quantities of flammable and combustible liquids used, dispensed or mixed based on occupancy classification shall not be exceeded.

Exception: Cleaning with Class I, II or IIIA liquids shall be in accordance with paragraph (E)(3)(f)(3405.3.6) of this rule.

(a) Group A occupancies: Quantities in Group A occupancies shall not exceed that necessary for demonstration, treatment, laboratory work, maintenance purposes and operation of equipment and shall not exceed quantities set forth in Table 2703.1.1(1) of rule 1301:7-7-27 of the Administrative Code.

(b) Group B occupancies: Quantities in drinking, dining, office and school uses within Group B occupancies shall not exceed that necessary for demonstration, treatment, laboratory work, maintenance purposes and operation of equipment, and shall not exceed quantities set forth in Table 2703.1.1(1) of rule 1301:7-7-27 of the Administrative Code.

(c) Group E occupancies: Quantities in Group E occupancies shall not exceed that necessary for demonstration, treatment, laboratory work, maintenance purposes and operation of equipment, and shall not exceed quantities set forth in Table 2703.1.1(1) of rule 1301:7-7-27 of the Administrative Code.

(d) Group F occupancies: Quantities in dining, office and school uses within Group F occupancies shall not exceed that necessary for demonstration, laboratory work, maintenance purposes and operation of equipment, and shall not exceed quantities set forth in Table 2703.1.1(1) of rule 1301:7-7-27 of the Administrative Code.

(e) Group I occupancies: Quantities in Group I occupancies shall not exceed that necessary for demonstration, laboratory work, maintenance purposes and operation of equipment, and shall not exceed quantities set forth in Table 2703.1.1(1) of rule 1301:7-7-27 of the Administrative Code.

(f) Group M occupancies: Quantities in dining, office and school uses within Group M occupancies shall not exceed that necessary for demonstration, laboratory work, maintenance purposes and operation of equipment, and shall not exceed quantities set forth in Table 2703.1.1(1) of rule 1301:7-7-27 of the Administrative Code.

(g) Group R occupancies: Quantities in Group R occupancies shall not exceed that necessary for maintenance purposes and operation of equipment, and shall not exceed quantities set forth in Table 2703.1.1(1) of rule 1301:7-7-27 of the Administrative Code.

(h) Group S occupancies: Quantities in dining and office uses within Group S occupancies shall not exceed that necessary for demonstration, laboratory work, maintenance purposes and operation of equipment, and shall not exceed quantities set forth in Table 2703.1.1(1) of rule 1301:7-7-27 of the Administrative Code.

(iii) 3405.3.5.3 Quantities exceeding limits for control areas. Quantities exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area indicated in paragraphs (E)(3)(e)(i)(3405.3.5.1) and (E)(3)(e)(ii)(3405.3.5.2) of this rule shall be in accordance with the following:

(a) For open systems, indoor use, dispensing and mixing of flammable and combustible liquids shall be within a room or building complying with the building code as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Codeand paragraphs (E)(3)(g)(i)(3405.3.7.1) to (E)(3)(g)(v)(3405.3.7.5) of this rule.

(b) For closed systems, indoor use, dispensing and mixing of flammable and combustible liquids shall be within a room or building complying with the building code as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Codeand paragraphs (E)(3)(g)(3405.3.7) to (E)(3)(g)(iv)(3405.3.7.4) and (E)(3)(g)(vi)(3405.3.7.6) of this rule.

(f) 3405.3.6 Cleaning with flammable and combustible liquids. Cleaning with Class I, II and IIIA liquids shall be in accordance with paragraphs (E)(3)(f)(i)(3405.3.6.1) to (E)(3)(f)(ii)(g)(3405.3.6.2.7) of this rule.

Exceptions:

1. Dry cleaning shall be in accordance with rule 1301:7-7-12 of the Administrative Code.

2. Spray-nozzle cleaning shall be in accordance with paragraph (C)(3)(e)(1503.3.5) of rule 1301:7-7-15 of the Administrative Code.

(i) 3405.3.6.1 Cleaning operations. Class IA liquids shall not be used for cleaning. Cleaning with Class IB, IC or II liquids shall be conducted as follows:

(a) In a room or building in accordance with paragraph (E)(3)(g)(3405.3.7) of this rule; or

(b) In a machine listed and approved for the purpose in accordance with paragraph (E)(3)(f)(ii)(3405.3.6.2) of this rule.

Exception: Materials used in commercial and industrial process-related cleaning operations in accordance with other provisions of this code and not involving facilities maintenance cleaning operations.

(ii) 3405.3.6.2 Approved machines. Parts cleaning and degreasing conducted in approved machines in accordance with paragraph (E)(3)(f)(i)(3405.3.6.1) of this rule shall be in accordance with paragraphs (E)(3)(f)(ii)(a)(3405.3.6.2.1) to (E)(3)(f)(ii)(g)(3405.3.6.2.7) of this rule.

(a)3405.3.6.2.1 Solvents. Solvents shall be classified and shall be compatible with the machines within which they are used.

(b) 3405.3.6.2.2 Machine capacities. The quantity of solvent shall not exceed the listed design capacity of the machine for the solvent being used with the machine.

(c) 3405.3.6.2.3 Solvent quantity limits. Solvent quantities shall be limited as follows:

(i) Machines without remote solvent reservoirs shall be limited to quantities set forth in paragraph (E)(3)(e)(3405.3.5) of this rule.

(ii) Machines with remote solvent reservoirs using Class I liquids shall be limited to quantities set forth in paragraph (E)(3)(e)(3405.3.5) of this rule.

(iii) Machines with remote solvent reservoirs using Class II liquids shall be limited to 35 gallons (132 L) per machine. The total quantities shall not exceed an aggregate of 240 gallons (908 L) per control area in buildings not equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with rule 1301:7-7-09 of the Administrative Code. The total quantities shall not exceed an aggregate of 480 gallons (1817 L) per control area in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with paragraph (C)(3)(a)(i)(903.3.1.1) of rule 1301:7- 7-09 of the Administrative Code.

(iv) Machines with remote solvent reservoirs using Class IIIA liquids shall be limited to 80 gallons (303 L) per machine.

(d) 3405.3.6.2.4 Immersion soaking of parts. Work areas of machines with remote solvent reservoirs shall not be used for immersion soaking of parts.

(e) 3405.3.6.2.5 Separation. Multiple machines shall be separated from each other by a distance of not less than 30 feet (9144 mm) or by a fire barrier with a minimum 1 hour fire-resistance rating.

(f) 3405.3.6.2.6 Ventilation. Machines shall be located in areas adequately ventilated to prevent accumulation of vapors.

(g) 3405.3.6.2.7 Installation. Machines shall be installed in accordance with their listings.

(g) 3405.3.7 Rooms or buildings for quantities exceeding the maximum quantity per control area. Where required by paragraph (E)(3)(e)(iii)(3405.3.5.3) or (E)(3)(f)(i)(3405.3.6.1) of this rule, rooms or buildings used for use, dispensing or mixing of flammable and combustible liquids shall be in accordance with paragraphs (E)(3)(g)(i)(3405.3.7.1) to (E)(3)(g)(iv)(c)(3405.3.7.6.3) of this rule.

(i) 3405.3.7.1 Construction, location and fire protection. Rooms or buildings classified in accordance with the building code as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Codeas Group H-2 or H-3 occupancies based on use, dispensing or mixing of flammable or combustible liquids shall be constructed in accordance with the building code as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

(ii) 3405.3.7.2 Basements. In rooms or buildings classified in accordance with the building code as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Codeas Group H-2 or H-3, dispensing or mixing of flammable or combustible liquids shall not be conducted in basements.

(iii) 3405.3.7.3 Fire protection. Rooms or buildings classified in accordance with the building code as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Codeas Group H-2 or H-3 occupancies shall be equipped with an automatic fire-extinguishing system in accordance with rule 1301:7-7-09 of the Administrative Code.

(iv) 3405.3.7.4 Doors. Interior doors to rooms or portions of such buildings shall be self-closing fire doors in accordance with the building code as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

(v) 3405.3.7.5 Open systems. Use, dispensing and mixing of flammable and combustible liquids in open systems shall be in accordance with paragraphs (E)(3)(g)(v)(a)(3405.3.7.5.1) to (E)(3)(g)(v)(c)(3405.3.7.5.3) of this rule.

(a) 3405.3.7.5.1 Ventilation. Continuous mechanical ventilation shall be provided at a rate of not less than 1 cubic foot per minute per square foot [ 0.00508 m3 /(s . m2 )] of floor area over the design area. Provisions shall be made for introduction of makeup air in such a manner to include all floor areas or pits where vapors can collect. Local or spot ventilation shall be provided when needed to prevent the accumulation of hazardous vapors. Ventilation system design shall comply with the building code and mechanical code as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

Exception: Where natural ventilation can be shown to be effective for the materials used, dispensed or mixed.

(b) 3405.3.7.5.2 Explosion control. Explosion control shall be provided in accordance with paragraph (K)(911) of rule 1301:7-7-09 of the Administrative Code.

(c) 3405.3.7.5.3 Spill control and secondary containment. Spill control shall be provided in accordance with paragraph (C)(4)( 3403.4 ) of this rule where Class I, II or IIIA liquids are dispensed into containers or tanksexceeding a 1.3 gallon (5 L) capacity or mixed or used in open containers, tanks or systems exceeding a 5.3 -gallon (20 L) capacity. Spill control and secondary containment shall be provided in accordance with paragraph (C)(4)( 3403.4 ) of this rule when the capacity of an individual container or tank exceeds 55 gallons (208 L) or the aggregate capacity of multiple containers or tanks exceeds 100 gallons ( 378.5 L).

(h) 3405.3.8 Use, dispensing and handling outside of buildings. Outside use, dispensing and handling shall be in accordance with paragraphs (E)(3)(h)(i)(3405.3.8.1) to (E)(3)(h)(iv)(3405.3.8.4) of this rule.

Dispensing of flammable and combustible liquids at motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall be in accordance with rule 1301:7-7-22 of the Administrative Code.

(i) 3405.3.8.1 Spill control and drainage control. Outside use, dispensing and handling areas shall be provided with spill control as set forth in paragraph (C)(4)( 3403.4 ) of this rule.

(ii) 3405.3.8.2 Location on property. Dispensing activities which exceed the quantities set forth in Table 3405.3.8.2 of this rule shall not be conducted within 15 feet (4572 mm) of buildings or combustible materials or within 25 feet (7620 mm) of building openings, lot lines, public streets, public alleys or public ways. Dispensing activities that exceed the quantities set forth in Table 3405.3.8.2 of this rule shall not be conducted within 15 feet (4572 mm) of storage of Class I, II or III liquids unless such liquids are stored in tanks which are listed and labeled as 2-hour protected tank assemblies in accordance with UL 2085 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

Exceptions:

1. The requirements shall not apply to areas where only the following are dispensed: Class III liquids; liquids that are heavier than water; water-miscible liquids; and liquids with viscosities greater than 10,000 centipoise (cp) (10 Pa. s).

2. Flammable and combustible liquid dispensing in refineries, chemical plants, process facilities, gas and crude oil production facilities and oil blending and packaging facilities, terminals and bulk plants.

Table 3405.3.8.2

Maximum allowable quantities for dispensing of flammable and combustible liquids in outdoor control areasa,b

Class of liquid Quantity (gallons)
Flammable  
Class IA 10
Class IB 15
Class IC 20
Combination Class IA, IB and IC 30c
Combustible  
Class II 30
Class IIIA 80
Class IIIB 3,300

For SI: 1 gallon = 3.785 L.

a. For definition of "Outdoor Control Area," see paragraph (B)(1)( 2702.1 ) of rule 1301:7-7-27 of the Administrative Code.

b. The fire code official is authorized to impose special conditions regarding locations, types of containers, dispensing units, fire control measures and other factors involving fire safety.

c. Containing not more than the maximum allowable quantity per control area of each individual class.

(iii) 3405.3.8.3 Location of processing vessels. Processing vessels shall be located with respect to distances to lot lines which can be built on in accordance with Table 3405.3.4(1) of this rule.

Exception: In refineries and distilleries.

(iv) 3405.3.8.4 Weather protection. Weather protection for outdoor use shall be in accordance with paragraph (E)(3)(i)(2705.3.9) of rule 1301:7-7-27 of the Administrative Code.

(4) 3405.4 Solvent distillation units. Solvent distillation units shall comply with paragraphs (E)(4)(a)(3405.4.1) to (E)(4)(i)(3405.4.9) of this rule.

(a) 3405.4.1 Unit with a capacity of 60 gallons or less. Solvent distillation units used to recycle Class I, II or IIIA liquids having a distillation chamber capacity of 60 gallons (227 L) or less shall be listed, labeled and installed in accordance with paragraph (E)(4)( 3405.4 ) of this rule and UL 2208 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

Exceptions:

1. Solvent distillation units installed in dry cleaning plants in accordance with rule 1301:7-7-12 of the Administrative Code.

2. Solvent distillation units used in continuous through-put industrial processes where the source of heat is remotely supplied using steam, hot water, oil or other heat transfer fluids, the temperature of which is below the auto-ignition point of the solvent.

3. Solvent distillation units listed for and used in laboratories.

4. Approved research, testing and experimental processes.

(b) 3405.4.2 Units with a capacity exceeding 60 gallons. Solvent distillation units used to recycle Class I, II or IIIA liquids, having a distillation chamber capacity exceeding 60 gallons (227 L) shall be used in locations that comply with the use and mixing requirements of paragraph (E)(3405) of this rule and other applicable provisions in this rule.

(c) 3405.4.3 Prohibited processing. Class I, II and IIIA liquids also classified as unstable (reactive) shall not be processed in solvent distillation units.

Exception: Appliances listed for the distillation of unstable (reactive) solvents.

(d) 3405.4.4 Labeling. A permanent label shall be affixed to the unit by the manufacturer. The label shall indicate the capacity of the distillation chamber, and the distance the unit shall be placed away from sources of ignition. The label shall indicate the products for which the unit has been listed for use or refer to the instruction manual for a list of the products.

(e) 3405.4.5 Manufacturer's instruction manual. An instruction manual shall be provided. The manual shall be readily available for the user and the fire code official. The manual shall include installation, use and servicing instructions. It shall identify the liquids for which the unit has been listed for distillation purposes along with each liquid's flash point and auto-ignition temperature. For units with adjustable controls, the manual shall include directions for setting the heater temperature for each liquid to be instilled.

(f) 3405.4.6 Location. Solvent distillation units shall be used in locations in accordance with the listing. Solvent distillation units shall not be used in basements.

(g) 3405.4.7 Storage of liquids. Distilled liquids and liquids awaiting distillation shall be stored in accordance with paragraph (D)(3404) of this rule.

(h) 3405.4.8 Storage of residues. Hazardous residue from the distillation process shall be stored in accordance with paragraph (D)(3404) of this rule.

(i) 3405.4.9 Portable fire extinguishers. Portable fire extinguishers shall be provided in accordance with paragraph (F)(906) of rule 1301:7-7-09 of the Administrative Code.At least one portable fire extinguisher having a rating of not less than 40-B shall be located not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) or more than 30 feet (9144 mm) from any solvent distillation unit.

(5) 3405.5 Alcohol-based hand rubs classified as Class I or II liquids. The use of wall-mounted dispensers containing alcohol-based hand rubs classified as Class I or II liquids shall be in accordance with all of the following:

1. The maximum capacity of each dispenser shall be 68 ounces (2 L).

2. The minimum separation between dispensers shall be 48 inches (1219 mm).

3. The dispensers shall not be installed directly adjacent to, directly above or below an electrical receptacle, switch, appliance, device or other ignition source. The wall space between the dispenser and the floor shall remain clear and unobstructed.

4. Dispensers shall be mounted so that the bottom of the dispenser is a minimum of 42 inches (1067 mm) and a maximum of 48 inches (1219 mm) above the finished floor.

5. Dispensers shall not release their contents except when the dispenser is manually activated.

Exception: Facilities may install and use automatically activated alcohol based handrub dispensing devices only in compliance with paragraph (E)(5)( 3405.5 ) of this rule and as follows:

1. The automatically activated dispensing device shall be listed as being in compliance with UL/CE 60601-1 and IEC 60601-1-2 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

2. The facility or person responsible for the dispensers shall test the dispensers each time a new refill is installed per the manufacturer's instructions.

3.The dispensing device shall be designed and must operate in a manner that ensures accidental and/or malicious activations of the dispensing device are minimized.

4. At a minimum, all devices subject to or used in accordance withthis paragraph shall have the following safety features:

4.1 Any activations of the dispensing device shall only occur when an object is placed within 4 inches ( 101.6 mm) of the sensing device.

4.2 The dispenser shall not dispense more than the required product for hand hygiene consistent with label instructions as regulated by the "Food and Drug Administration."

4.3 No further activations of the dispenser can occur until the object causing the initial activation is removed from the activation area.

4.4 The manufacturer must certify that the dispenser has an auto-calibration feature that will respond to environmental stimulus and reduce activation sensitivity upon repetitive activations making it increasingly more difficult to activate the unit.

6. Storage and use of alcohol-based hand rubs shall be in accordance with the applicable provisions of paragraphs (D)(3404) and (E)(3405) of this rule.

7. Dispensers installed in occupancies with carpeted floors shall only be allowed in smoke compartments or fire areas equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with paragraph (C)(3)(a)(i)(903.3.1.1) or (C)(3)(a)(ii)(903.3.1.2) of rule 1301:7-7-09 of the Administrative Code.

(a) 3405.5.1 Corridor installations. Where wall-mounted dispensers containing alcohol-based hand rubs are installed in corridors, they shall be in accordance with all of the following:

(i) Level 2 and 3 aerosol containers shall not be allowed in corridors.

(ii) The maximum capacity of each Class I or II liquid dispenser shall be 41 ounces ( 1.2 L) and the maximum capacity of each Level 1 aerosol dispenser shall be 18 ounces ( 0.51 kg).

(iii) The maximum quantity allowed in a corridor within a control area shall be 10 gallons ( 37.85 L) of Class I or II liquids or 1135 ounces ( 32.2 kg) of Level 1 aerosols, or a combination of Class I or II liquids and Level 1 aerosols not to exceed, in total, the equivalent of 10 gallons ( 37.85 L) or 1135 ounces ( 32.2 kg) such that the sum of the ratios of the liquid and aerosol quantities divided by the allowable quantity of liquids and aerosols, respectively, shall not exceed one.

(iv) The minimum corridor width shall be 72 inches (1829 mm).

(v) Projections into a corridor shall be in accordance with paragraph (C)(3)(c)(1003.3.3) of rule 1301:7-7-10 of the Administrative Code.

(F) Section 3406 Special operations

(1)3406.1 General. This paragraph shall cover the provisions for special operations which include, but are not limited to, storage, use, dispensing, mixing or handling of flammable and combustible liquids. The following special operations shall be in accordance with paragraphs (A)(3401), (C)(3403), (D)(3404) and (E)(3405) of this rule, except as provided in paragraph (F)(3406) of this rule.

(a) Storage and dispensing of flammable and combustible liquids on farms and construction sites.

(b) "Reserved for future use."

(c) Bulk plants or terminals.

(d) Bulk transfer and process transfer operations utilizing tank vehicles and tank cars.

(e) Tank vehicles and tank vehicle operation.

(f) Refineries.

(g) Vapor recovery and vapor-processing systems.

(2)3406.2 Storage and dispensing of flammable and combustible liquids on farms and construction sites. Permanent and temporary storage and dispensing of Class I and II liquids for private use at areas used for agricultural purposes and at construction sites, earth-moving projects, gravel pits and borrow pits shall be in accordance with paragraphs (F)(2)(a)(3406.2.1) to (F)(2)(h)(i)(3406.2.8.1) of this rule.

Exception: Storage and use of fuel oil and containers connected with oil-burning equipment regulated by paragraph (C)(603) of rule 1301:7-7-06 of the Administrative Codeand the mechanical code as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

(a) 3406.2.1 Combustibles and open flames near tanks. Storage areas shall be kept free from weeds and extraneous combustible material. Open flames and smoking are prohibited in flammable or combustible liquid storage areas.

(b) 3406.2.2 Marking of tanks and containers. Tanks and containers for the storage of liquids above ground shall be conspicuously marked with the name of the product which they contain and the words: "FLAMMABLE-KEEP FIRE AND FLAME AWAY." Tanks shall bear the additional marking: "KEEP 50 FEET FROM BUILDINGS."

(c) 3406.2.3 Containers for storage and use. Metal containers used for storage of Class I or II liquids shall be in accordance with DOTn requirements or shall be of an approved design.

Discharge devices shall be of a type that do not develop an internal pressure on the container. Pumping devices or approved self-closing faucets used for dispensing liquids shall not leak and shall be well maintained. Individual containers shall not be interconnected and shall be kept closed when not in use.

Containers stored outside of buildings shall be in accordance with paragraph (D)(3404) of this rule and the building code as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

(d) 3406.2.4 Permanent and temporary tanks. The capacity of permanent aboveground tanks containing Class I or II liquids shall not exceed 1,100 gallons (4164 L). The capacity of temporary aboveground tanks containing Class I or II liquids shall not exceed 10,000 gallons (37 854 L). Tanks shall be of the single-compartment design.

Exception: Permanent aboveground tanks of greater capacity which meet the requirements of paragraph (D)(2)( 3404.2 ) of this rule.

(i) 3406.2.4.1 Fill opening security. Fill openings shall be equipped with a locking closure device. Fill openings shall be separate from vent openings.

(ii) 3406.2.4.2 Vents. Tanks shall be provided with a method of normal and emergency venting. Normal vents shall also be in accordance with paragraph (D)(2)(g)(iii)(3404.2.7.3) of this rule.

Emergency vents shall be in accordance with paragraph (D)(2)(g)(iv)(3404.2.7.4) of this rule. Emergency vents shall be arranged to discharge in a manner which prevents localized overheating or flame impingement on any part of the tank in the event that vapors from such vents are ignited.

(iii) 3406.2.4.3 Location. Tanks containing Class I or II liquids shall be kept outside and at least 50 feet (15 240 mm) from buildings and combustible storage. Additional distance shall be provided when necessary to ensure that vehicles, equipment and containers being filled directly from such tanks will not be less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from structures, haystacks or other combustible storage.

(e) 3406.2.5 Type of tank. Tanks shall be provided with top openings only or shall be elevated for gravity discharge.

(i) 3406.2.5.1 Tanks with top openings only. Tanks with top openings shall be mounted as follows:

1. On well constructed metal legs connected to shoes or runners designed so that the tank is stabilized and the entire tank and its supports can be moved as a unit; or

2. For stationary tanks, on a stable base of timbers or blocks approximately 6 inches (152 mm) in height which prevents the tank from contacting the ground.

(a) 3406.2.5.1.1 Pumps and fittings. Tanks with top openings only shall be equipped with a tightly and permanently attached, approved pumping device having an approved hose of sufficient length for filling vehicles, equipment or containers to be served from the tank. Either the pump or the hose shall be equipped with a padlock to its hangar to prevent tampering. An effective antisiphoning device shall be included in the pump discharge unless a self-closing nozzle is provided. Siphons or internal pressure discharge devices shall not be used.

(ii) 3406.2.5.2 Tanks for gravity discharge. Tanks with a connection in the bottom or the end for gravity dispensing liquids shall be mounted and equipped as follows:

(a) Supports to elevate the tank for gravity discharge shall be designed to carry all required loads and provide stability.

(b) Bottom or end openings for gravity discharge shall be equipped with a valve located adjacent to the tank shell which will close automatically in the event of fire through the operation of an effective heat-activated releasing device. Where this valve cannot be operated manually, it shall be supplemented by a second, manually operated valve.

The gravity discharge outlet shall be provided with an approved hose equipped with a self-closing valve at the discharge end of a type that can be padlocked to its hanger.

(f) 3406.2.6 Spill control, drainage control and diking. Indoor storage and dispensing areas shall be provided with spill control and drainage control as set forth in paragraph (C)(4)( 3403.4 ) of this rule. Outdoor storage areas shall be provided with drainage control or diking as set forth in paragraph (D)(2)(j)(3404.2.10) of this rule.

(g) 3406.2.7 Portable fire extinguishers. Portable fire extinguishers with a minimum rating of 20-B:C and complying with paragraph (F)(906) of rule 1301:7-7-09 of the Administrative Codeshall be provided where required by the fire code official.

(h) 3406.2.8 Dispensing from tank vehicles. Where approved, liquids used as fuels are allowed to be transferred from tank vehicles into the tanks of motor vehicles or special equipment, provided:

1. The tank vehicle's functions shall include supplying fuel to motor vehicle fuel tanks.

2. The dispensing hose shall not be exceeded from the reel or be more than 100 feet (30 480 mm) in length.

3. The dispensing nozzle and hose is an approved type.

4. The dispensing hose is properly placed on a reel or in a compartment before the tank vehicle is moved.

5. Signs prohibiting smoking or open flames within 25 feet (7620 mm) of the vehicle or the point of refueling are prominently posted on the tank vehicle.

6. Electrical devices and wiring in areas where fuel dispensing is conducted are in accordance with NFPA 70 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

7. Tank vehicle dispensing equipment is operated only by designated personnel who are trained to handle and dispense motor fuels.

8. Provisions are made for controlling and mitigating unauthorized discharges.

(i) 3406.2.8.1 Separation distance. Dispensing from tank vehicles shall be conducted at least 15 feet (4572 mm) from structures, property lines or combustible storage.

(3)3406.3 Well drilling and operating. Facilities and activities that are engaged in the exploration, development and production of crude oil and natural gas and that are regulated under Chapter 1509. of the Revised Code and rule 1501 of the Administrative Code are hereby excluded from regulation under the provisions of this code.

(4)3406.4 Bulk plants or terminals. Portions of properties where flammable and combustible liquids are received by tank vessels, pipelines, tank cars or tank vehicles and which are stored or blended in bulk for the purpose of distributing such liquids by tank vessels, pipelines, tank cars, tank vehicles or containers shall be in accordance with paragraphs (F)(4)(a)(3406.4.1) to (F)(4)(j)(iv)(3406.4.10.4) of this rule.

(a) 3406.4.1 Building construction. Buildings shall be constructed in accordance with the building code as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

(b) 3406.4.2 Means of egress. Rooms in which liquids are stored, used or transferred by pumps shall have means of egress arranged to prevent occupants from being trapped in the event of fire.

(c) 3406.4.3 Heating. Rooms in which Class I liquids are stored or used shall be heated only by means not constituting a source of ignition, such as steam or hot water. Rooms containing heating appliances involving sources of ignition shall be located and arranged to prevent entry of flammable vapors.

(d) 3406.4.4 Ventilation. Ventilation shall be provided for rooms, buildings and enclosures in which Class I liquids are pumped, used or transferred. Design of ventilation systems shall consider the relatively high specific gravity of the vapors. When natural ventilation is used, adequate openings in outside walls at floor level, unobstructed except by louvers or coarse screens, shall be provided. When natural ventilation is inadequate, mechanical ventilation shall be provided in accordance with the mechanical code as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

(i) 3406.4.4.1 Basements and pits. Class I liquids shall not be stored or used within a building having a basement or pit into which flammable vapors can travel, unless such area is provided with ventilation designed to prevent the accumulation of flammable vapors therein.

(ii) 3406.4.4.2 Dispensing of Class I liquids. Containers of Class I liquids shall not be drawn from or filled within buildings unless a provision is made to prevent the accumulation of flammable vapors in hazardous concentrations. Where mechanical ventilation is required, it shall be kept in operation while flammable vapors could be present.

(e) 3406.4.5 Storage. Storage of Class I, II and IIIA liquids in bulk plants shall be in accordance with the applicable provisions of paragraph (D)(3404) of this rule.

(f) 3406.4.6 Overfill protection of Class I and II liquids. Manual and automatic systems shall be provided to prevent overfill during the transfer of Class I and II liquids from mainline pipelines and marine vessels in accordance with API 2350 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code

(g) 3406.4.7 Wharves. This paragraph shall apply to all wharves, piers, bulkheads and other structures over or contiguous to navigable water having a primary function of transferring liquid cargo in bulk between shore installations and tank vessels, ships, barges, lighter boats or other mobile floating craft.

Exception: Marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities in accordance with rule 1301:7-7-22 of the Administrative Code.

(i) 3406.4.7.1 Transferring approvals. Handling packaged cargo of liquids, including full and empty drums, bulk fuel and stores, over a wharf during cargo transfer shall be subject to the approval of the wharf supervisor and the senior deck officer on duty.

(ii) 3406.4.7.2 Transferring location. Wharves at which liquid cargoes are to be transferred in bulk quantities to or from tank vessels shall be at least 100 feet (30 480 mm) from any bridge over a navigable waterway; or from an entrance to, or superstructure of, any vehicular or railroad tunnel under a waterway. The termination of the fixed piping used for loading or unloading at a wharf shall be at least 200 feet (60 960 mm) from a bridge or from an entrance to, or superstructures of, a tunnel.

(iii) 3406.4.7.3 Superstructure and decking material. Superstructure and decking shall be designed for the intended use. Decking shall be constructed of materials that will afford the desired combination of flexibility, resistance to shock, durability, strength and fire resistance.

(iv) 3406.4.7.4 Tanks allowed. Tanks used exclusively for ballast water or Class II or III liquids are allowed to be installed on suitably designed wharves.

(v) 3406.4.7.5 Transferring equipment. Loading pumps capable of building up pressures in excess of the safe working pressure of cargo hose or loading arms shall be provided with bypasses, relief valves or other arrangements to protect the loading facilities against excessive pressure. Relief devices shall be tested at least annually to determine that they function satisfactorily at their set pressure.

(vi) 3406.4.7.6 Piping, valves and fittings. Piping, valves and fittings shall be in accordance with paragraph (C)(6)( 3403.6 ) of this rule except as modified by the following:

(a) Flexibility of piping shall be ensured by appropriate layout and arrangement of piping supports so that motion of the wharf structure resulting from wave action, currents, tides or the mooring of vessels will not subject the pipe to repeated excessive strain.

(b) Pipe joints that depend on the friction characteristics of combustible materials or on the grooving of pipe ends for mechanical continuity of piping shall not be used.

(c) Swivel joints are allowed in piping to which hoses are connected and for articulated, swivel-joint transfer systems, provided the design is such that the mechanical strength of the joint will not be impaired if the packing materials fail such as by exposure to fire.

(d) Each line conveying Class I or II liquids leading to a wharf shall be provided with a readily accessible block valve located on shore near the approach to the wharf and outside of any diked area. Where more than one line is involved, the valves shall be grouped in one location.

(e) Means shall be provided for easy access to cargo line valves located below the wharf deck.

(f) Piping systems shall contain a sufficient number of valves to operate the system properly and to control the flow of liquid in normal operation and in the event of physical damage.

(g) Piping on wharves shall be bonded and grounded where Class I and II liquids are transported. Where excessive stray currents are encountered, insulating joints shall be installed. Bonding and grounding connections on piping shall be located on the wharf side of hose riser insulating flanges, where used, and shall be accessible for inspection.

(h) Hose or articulated swivel-joint pipe connections used for cargo transfer shall be capable of accommodating the combined effects of change in draft and maximum tidal range, and mooring lines shall be kept adjusted to prevent surge of the vessel from placing stress on the cargo transfer system.

(i) Hoses shall be supported to avoid kinking and damage from chafing.

(vii) 3406.4.7.7 Loading and unloading. Loading or discharging shall not commence until the wharf superintendent and officer in charge of the tank vessel agree that the tank vessel is properly moored and connections are properly made.

(viii) 3406.4.7.8 Mechanical work. Mechanical work shall not be performed on the wharf during cargo transfer, except under special authorization by the fire code official based on a review of the area involved, methods to be employed and precautions necessary.

(h) 3406.4.8 Sources of ignition. Class I, II or IIIA liquids shall not be used, drawn or dispensed where flammable vapors can reach a source of ignition. Smoking shall be prohibited except in designated locations. "No Smoking" signs complying with paragraph (J)(310) of rule 1301:7-7-03 of the Administrative Codeshall be conspicuously posted where a hazard from flammable vapors is normally present.

(i) 3406.4.9 Drainage control. Loading and unloading areas shall be provided with drainage control in accordance with paragraph (D)(2)(j)(3404.2.10) of this rule.

(j) 3406.4.10 Fire protection. Fire protection shall be in accordance with rule 1301:7-7-09 of the Administrative Codeand paragraphs (F)(4)(j)(i)(3406.4.10.1) to (F)(4)(j)(iv)(3406.4.10.4) of this rule.

(i) 3406.4.10.1 Portable fire extinguishers. Portable fire extinguishers with a rating of not less than 20-B and complying with paragraph (F)(906) of rule 1301:7-7-09 of the Administrative Codeshall be located within 75 feet (22 860 mm) of hose connections, pumps and separator tanks.

(ii) 3406.10.2 Fire hoses. Where piped water is available, ready-connected fire hose in a size appropriate for the water supply shall be provided in accordance with paragraph (E)(905) of rule 1301:7-7-09 of the Administrative Codeso that manifolds where connections are made and broken can be reached by at least one hose stream.

(iii) 3406.4.10.3 Obstruction of equipment. Material shall not be placed on wharves in such a manner that would obstruct access to fire-fighting equipment or important pipeline control valves.

(iv) 3406.4.10.4 Fire apparatus access. Where the wharf is accessible to vehicular traffic, an unobstructed fire apparatus access road to the shore end of the wharf shall be maintained in accordance with rule 1301:7-7-05 of the Administrative Code.

(k) 3406.4.11 Dispensing from bulk plants prohibited. The dispensing of flammable or combustible liquids from aboveground bulk storage tanks located at a bulk plant shall be prohibited.

Exception: The dispensing of diesel fuel at a terminal or bulk plant into a motor vehicle that is transporting petroleum products or equipment essential to the operation of the terminal or bulk plant, provided that the motor vehicle is owned or leased by or operated under a contract with a person who has been issued a motor fuel dealers license under section 5735.02 of the Revised Code. For such dispensing, the provisions of this rule governing capacity limitations shall not apply.

(i) 3406.4.11.1. Aboveground storage tanks and associated dispensers utilized for dispensing purposes at a fleet vehicle motor fuel dispensing facility located at a bulk plant shall be separated from bulk plant operations (bulk tanks and loading racks) by a minimum of 100 feet.

(a) 3406.4.11.1.1. The dispensing tanks and dispensers shall be installed in compliance with paragraphs (D)(3404) and (E)(3405) of this rule.

(b) 3406.4.11.1.2. The individual capacity of the tanks shall not exceed 12,000 gallons and the aggregate capacity shall not exceed 48,000 gallons. Dispensing areas containing the maximum aggregate capacity shall be separated from each other and the bulk plant operations by a minimum of 100 feet.

(c) 3406.4.11.1.3. At a property that contains a fleet vehicle motor fuel dispensing facility, the public may access the property but shall be prohibited from the fleet vehicle facility.

(5) 3406.5 Bulk transfer and process transfer operations. Bulk transfer and process transfer operations shall be in accordance with paragraphs (F)(5)(a)(3406.5.1) to (F)(5)(d)(v)(3406.5.4.5) of this rule. Motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall comply with rule 1301:7-7-22 of the Administrative Code.

(a) 3406.5.1 General. The provisions of paragraphs (F)(5)(a)(i)(3406.5.1.1) to (F)(5)(a)(xviii)(3406.5.1.18) of this rule shall apply to bulk transfer and process transfer operations; paragraphs (F)(5)(b)(3406.5.2) and (F)(5)(b)(i)(3406.5.2.1) of this rule shall apply to bulk transfer operations; paragraphs (F)(5)(c)(3406.5.3) to (F)(5)(c)(iii)(3406.5.3.3) of this rule shall apply to process transfer operations and paragraphs (F)(5)(d)(3406.5.4) to (F)(5)(d)(v)(3406.5.4.5) of this rule shall apply to dispensing from tank vehicles and tank cars.

(i) 3406.5.1.1 Location. Bulk transfer and process transfer operations shall be conducted in locations properly protected from ignition sources. Tank cars shall be unloaded only on private sidings or railroad-siding facilities equipped for transferring flammable or combustible liquids. Tank vehicle transfer facilities and tank car transfer facilities shall be separated from buildings, aboveground tanks, combustible materials, lot lines, public streets, public alleys or public ways by a distance of 25 feet (7620 mm) for Class I liquids and 15 feet (4572 mm) for Class II and III liquids measured from the nearest position of any loading or unloading valve. Buildings for pumps or shelters for personnel shall be considered part of the transfer facility.

(ii) 3406.5.1.2 Weather protection canopies. Where weather protection canopies are provided, they shall be constructed in accordance with paragraph (D)(13)( 2704.13 ) of rule 1301:7-7-27 of the Administrative Code.Weather protection canopies shall not be located within 15 feet (4572 mm) of a building or combustible material or within 25 feet (7620 mm) of building openings, lot lines, public streets, public alleys or public ways.

(iii) 3406.5.1.3 Ventilation. Ventilation shall be provided to prevent accumulation of vapors in accordance with paragraph (E)(3)(h)(v)(a)(3405.3.7.5.1) of this rule.

(iv) 3406.5.1.4 Sources of ignition. Sources of ignition shall be controlled or eliminated in accordance with paragraph (C)(7)( 2703.7 ) of rule 1301:7-7-27 of the Administrative Code.

(v) 3406.5.1.5 Spill control and secondary containment. Areas where transfer operations are located shall be provided with spill control and secondary containment in accordance with paragraph (C)(4)( 3403.4 ) of this rule. The spill control and secondary containment system shall have a design capacity capable of containing the capacity of the largest tank compartment located in the area where transfer operations are conducted. Containment of the rainfall volume specified in paragraph (D)(2)(b)(vi)(2704.2.2.6) of rule 1301:7-7-27 of the Administrative Codeis not required.

(vi) 3406.5.1.6 Fire protection. Fire protection shall be in accordance with paragraph (C)(2)( 3403.2 ) of this rule.

(vii) 3406.5.1.7 Static protection. Static protection shall be provided to prevent the accumulation of static charges during transfer operations. Bonding facilities shall be provided during the transfer through open domes where Class I liquids are transferred, or where Class II and III liquids are transferred into tank vehicles or tank cars which could contain vapors from previous cargoes of Class I liquids.

Protection shall consist of metallic bond wire permanently electrically connected to the fill stem. The fill pipe assembly shall form a continuous electrically conductive path downstream from the point of bonding. The free end of such bond wire shall be provided with a clamp or equivalent device for convenient attachment to a metallic part in electrical contact with the cargo tank of the tank vehicle or tank car. For tank vehicles, protection shall consist of a flexible bond wire of adequate strength for the intended service and the electrical resistance shall not exceed 1 megohm. For tank cars, bonding shall be provided where the resistance of a tank car to ground through the rails is 25 ohms or greater.

Such bonding connection shall be fastened to the vehicle, car or tank before dome covers are raised and shall remain in place until filling is complete and all dome covers have been closed and secured.

Exceptions:

1. Where vehicles and cars are loaded exclusively with products not having a static-accumulating tendency, such as asphalt, cutback asphalt, most crude oils, residual oils and water-miscible liquids.

2. When Class I liquids are not handled at the transfer facility and the tank vehicles are used exclusively for Class II and III liquids.

3. Where vehicles and cars are loaded and unloaded through closed top or bottom connections whether the hose is conductive or nonconductive.

Filling through open domes into the tanks of tank vehicles or tank cars that contain vapor-air mixtures within the flammable range, or where the liquid being filled can form such a mixture, shall be by means of a downspout which extends to near the bottom of the tank.

(viii) 3406.5.1.8 Stray current protection. Tank car loading facilities where Class I, II or IIIA liquids are transferred through open domes shall be protected against stray currents by permanently bonding the pipe to at least one rail and to the transfer apparatus. Multiple pipes entering the transfer areas shall be permanently electrically bonded together. In areas where excessive stray currents are known to exist all pipes entering the transfer area shall be provided with insulating sections to isolate electrically the transfer apparatus from the pipelines.

(ix) 3406.5.1.9 Top loading. When top loading a tank vehicle with Class I and II liquids without vapor control, valves used for the final control of flow shall be of the self-closing type and shall be manually held open except where automatic means are provided for shutting off the flow when the tank is full. When used, automatic shutoff systems shall be provided with a manual shutoff valve located at a safe distance from the loading nozzle to stop the flow if the automatic system fails.

When top loading a tank vehicle with vapor control, flow control shall be in accordance with paragraph (F)(5)(a)(x)(3406.5.1.10) of this rule. Self-closing valves shall not be tied or locked in the open position.

(x) 3406.5.1.10 Bottom loading. When bottom loading a tank vehicle or tank car with or without vapor control, a positive means shall be provided for loading a predetermined quantity of liquid, together with an automatic secondary shutoff control to prevent overfill. The connecting components between the transfer equipment and the tank vehicle or tank car required to operate the secondary control shall be functionally compatible.

(a) 3406.5.1.10.1 Dry disconnect coupling. When bottom loading a tank vehicle, the coupling between the liquid loading hose or pipe and the truck piping shall be a dry disconnect coupling.

(b) 3406.5.1.10.2 Venting. When bottom loading a tank vehicle or tank car that is equipped for vapor control and vapor control is not used, the tank shall be vented to the atmosphere to prevent pressurization of the tank. Such venting shall be at a height equal to or greater than the top of the cargo tank.

(c) 3406.5.1.10.3 Vapor-tight connection. Connections to the plant vapor control system shall be designed to prevent the escape of vapor to the atmosphere when not connected to a tank vehicle or tank car.

(d) 3406.5.1.10.4 Vapor-processing equipment. Vapor-processing equipment shall be separated from aboveground tanks, warehouses, other plant buildings, transfer facilities or nearest lot line of adjoining property that can be built on by a distance of at least 25 feet (7620 mm). Vapor-processing equipment shall be protected from physical damage by remote location, guardrails, curbs or fencing.

(xi) 3406.5.1.11 Switch loading. Tank vehicles or tank cars which have previously contained Class I liquids shall not be loaded with Class II or Class III liquids until such vehicles and all piping, pumps, hoses and meters connected thereto have been completely drained and flushed.

(xii) 3406.5.1.12 Loading racks. Where provided, loading racks, stairs or platforms shall be constructed of noncombustible materials. Buildings for pumps or for shelter of loading personnel are allowed to be part of the loading rack. Wiring and electrical equipment located within 25 feet (7620 mm) of any portion of the loading rack shall be in accordance with paragraph (C)(1)(a)(3403.1.1) of this rule.

(xiii) 3406.5.1.13 Transfer apparatus. Bulk and process transfer apparatus shall be of an approved type.

(xiv) 3406.5.1.14 Inside buildings. Tank vehicles and tank cars shall not be located inside a building while transferring Class I, II or IIIA liquids, unless approved by the fire code official.

Exception: Tank vehicles are allowed under weather protection canopies and canopies of automobile motor vehicle fuel-dispensing stations.

(xv) 3406.5.1.15 Tank vehicle and tank car certification. Certification shall be maintained for tank vehicles and tank cars in accordance with DOTn 49 CFR, Parts 100 - 185as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

(xvi) 3406.5.1.16 Tank vehicle and tank car stability. Tank vehicles and tank cars shall be stabilized against movement during loading and unloading in accordance with paragraphs (F)(5)(a)(xvi)(a)(3406.5.1.16.1) to (F)(5)(a)(xvi)(c)(3406.5.1.16.3) of this rule.

(a) 3406.5.1.16.1 Tank vehicles. When the vehicle is parked for loading or unloading, the cargo trailer portion of the tank vehicle shall be secured in a manner that will prevent unintentional movement.

(b) 3406.5.1.16.2 Chock blocks. At least two chock blocks not less than 5 inches by 5 inches by 12 inches (127 mm by 127 mm by 305 mm) in size and dished to fit the contour of the tires shall be used during transfer operations of tank vehicles.

(c) 3406.5.1.16.3 Tank cars. Brakes shall be set and the wheels shall be blocked to prevent rolling.

(xvii) 3406.5.1.17 Monitoring. Transfer operations shall be monitored by an approved monitoring system or by an attendant. When monitoring is by an attendant, the operator or other competent person shall be present at all times.

(xviii) 3406.5.1.18 Security. Transfer operations shall be surrounded by a chain link fence not less than 6 feet ( 1.8 m) in height. Tank vehicles and tank cars shall not be loaded or unloaded unless such vehicles are entirely within the fenced area.

Exceptions:

1. Motor fuel-dispensing facilities complying with rule 1301:7-7-22 of the Administrative Code.

2. Installations where adequate public safety exists because of isolation, natural barriers or other factors as acceptable to the fire code official.

3. Facilities or properties that are entirely enclosed or protected from entry.

(b) 3406.5.2 Bulk transfer. Bulk transfer shall be in accordance with paragraphs (F)(5)(a)(3406.5.1) and (F)(5)(b)(i)(3406.5.2.1) of this rule.

(i) 3406.5.2.1 Vehicle motor. Motors of tank vehicles or tank cars shall be shut off during the making and breaking of hose connections and during the unloading operation.

Exception: Where unloading is performed with a pump deriving its power from the tank vehicle motor.

(c) 3406.5.3 Process transfer. Process transfer shall be in accordance with paragraph (F)(5)(a)(3406.5.1) of this rule and paragraphs (F)(5)(c)(i)(3406.5.3.1) to (F)(5)(c)(iii)(3406.5.3.3) of this rule.

(i) 3406.5.3.1 Piping, valves, hoses and fittings. Piping, valves, hoses and fittings which are not a part of the tank vehicle or tank car shall be in accordance with paragraph (C)(6)( 3403.6 ) of this rule. Caps or plugs which prevent leakage or spillage shall be provided at all points of connection to transfer piping.

(a) 3406.5.3.1.1 Shutoff valves. Approved automatically or manually activated shutoff valves shall be provided where the transfer hose connects to the process piping, and on both sides of any exterior fire-resistance rated wall through which the piping passes. Manual shutoff valves shall be arranged so that they are accessible from grade. Valves shall not be locked in the open position.

(b) 3406.5.3.1.2 Hydrostatic relief. Hydrostatic pressure-limiting or relief devices shall be provided where pressure buildup in trapped sections of the system could exceed the design pressure of the components of the system.

Devices shall relieve to other portions of the system or to another approved location.

(c) 3406.5.3.1.3 Antisiphon valves. Antisiphon valves shall be provided when the system design would allow siphonage.

(ii) 3406.5.3.2 Vents. Normal and emergency vents shall be maintained operable at all times.

(iii) 3406.5.3.3 Motive power. Motors of tank vehicles or tank cars shall be shut off during the making and breaking of hose connections and during the unloading operation.

Exception: When unloading is performed with a pump deriving its power from the tank vehicle motor.

(d) 3406.5.4 Dispensing from tank vehicles and tank cars. Dispensing from tank vehicles and tank cars into the fuel tanks of motor vehicles shall be prohibited unless allowed by and conducted in accordance with paragraphs (F)(5)(d)(i)(3406.5.4.1) to (F)(5)(d)(v)(3406.5.4.5) of this rule.

(i) 3406.5.4.1 Marine craft and special equipment. Liquids intended for use as motor fuels are allowed to be transferred from tank vehicles into the fuel tanks of marine craft and special equipment when approved by the fire code official, and when:

(a) The tank vehicle's specific function is that of supplying fuel to fuel tanks.

(b) The operation is not performed where the public has access or where there is unusual exposure to life and property.

(c) The dispensing line does not exceed 50 feet (15 240 mm) in length.

(d) The dispensing nozzle is approved.

(ii) 3406.5.4.2 Emergency refueling. When approved by the fire code official, dispensing of motor vehicle fuel from tank vehicles into the fuel tanks of motor vehicles is allowed during emergencies. Dispensing from tank vehicles shall be in accordance with paragraphs (F)(2)(h)(3406.2.8) and (F)(6)( 3406.6 ) of this rule.

(iii) 3406.5.4.3 Aircraft fueling. Transfer of liquids from tank vehicles to the fuel tanks of aircraft shall be in accordance with rule 1301:7-7-11 of the Administrative Code.

(iv) 3406.5.4.4 Fueling of vehicles at construction sites and similar areas. Transfer of liquid from tank vehicles to motor vehicles for private use at areas used for agricultural purposes and at construction sites, earth-moving projects, gravel pits and borrow pits is allowed in accordance with paragraph (F)(2)(h)(3406.2.8) of this rule.

(v) 3406.5.4.5 Commercial, industrial, governmental or manufacturing. Dispensing of Class I, II and III motor vehicle fuel from tank vehicles into the fuel tanks of motor vehicles located at commercial, industrial, governmental or manufacturing establishments is allowed provided such dispensing operations are conducted in accordance with the following:

(a) The owner of the mobile fueling operation shall notify the local fire code official of their intent to conduct mobile fueling operations at a commercial, industrial, governmental, or manufacturing establishment. Upon receipt of such notification, the fire code official may conduct an inspection of the premises.

(b) Mobile fueling operations shall be conducted in areas not accessible to the public or shall be limited to times when the public is not present.

(c) Dispensing operations shall not take place within 15 feet (4572 mm) of buildings, property lines, combustible storage or storm drains.

Exceptions:

1. The distance to storm drains shall not apply where an approved storm drain cover or an approved equivalent that will prevent any fuel from reaching the drain is in place prior to fueling or a fueling hose being placed within 15 feet (4572 mm) of the drain. Where placement of a storm drain cover will cause the accumulation of excessive water or difficulty in conducting the fueling, such cover shall not be used and the fueling shall not take place within 15 feet (4572 mm) of a drain.

2. The distance to storm drains shall not apply for drains that direct influent to approved oil interceptors.

(d) The tank vehicle shall comply with the requirements of NFPA 385 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Codeand local, state and federal requirements. The tank vehicle's specific functions shall include that of supplying fuel to motor vehicle fuel tanks. The vehicle and all its equipment shall be maintained in good repair.

(e) Signs prohibiting smoking or open flames within 25 feet (7620 mm) of the tank vehicle or the point of fuel shall be prominently posted on three sides of the vehicle including the back and both sides.

(f) A portable fire extinguisher within a minimum rating of 40:BC shall be provided on the vehicle with signage clearly indicating its location.

(g) The dispensing nozzles and hoses shall be of an approved and listed type.

(h) The dispensing hose shall not be extended from the reel more than 100 feet (30 480 mm) in length.

(i)Materials and equipment, such as absorbent pads, shall be provided to mitigate a minimum 5-gallon (19 L) fuel spill.

(j) Persons responsible for dispensing operations shall be trained in the appropriate mitigating actions in the event of a fire, leak or spill in accordance with 49 CFR 172.704 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.Training records shall be maintained by the dispensing company and shall be made available to the fire code official upon request.

(k) Operators of tank vehicles used for mobile fueling operations shall have in their possession at all times an emergency communications device to notify the proper authorities in the event of an emergency.

(l) The tank vehicle dispensing equipment shall be constantly attended and operated only by designated personnel who are trained to handle and dispense motor fuels.

(m) Fuel dispensing shall be prohibited within 25 feet of any source of ignition.

(n) The engines of vehicles being fueled shall be shut off during the dispensing operation unless the continued operation of the engine is necessary to protect the cargo of the vehicle or to maintain the vehicle's operation.

(o) Nighttime fueling operations shall only take place in adequately lighted areas.

(p) The tank vehicle shall be positioned with respect to vehicles being fueled to prevent traffic from driving over the delivery hose.

(q) During fueling operations, tank vehicle brakes shall be set and warning lights shall be in operation.

(r) Sufficient space shall be left in the motor vehicle tank to allow for the possible expansion of motor vehicle fuel.

(s) The dispensing hose shall be properly placed on a reel or in a compartment prior to moving the tank vehicle.

(t) In the event of an unauthorized discharge, action shall be taken to prevent liquids spilled during dispensing operations from flowing into buildings or offsite.

(u) The fire code official and other appropriate authorities shall be notified when a reportable spill or unauthorized discharge occurs.

(v) Operators shall place a drip pan or an absorbent pillow under each fuel fill opening prior to and during dispensing operations. Drip pans shall be liquid-tight. The pan or absorbent pillow shall have a capacity of not less than 3 gallons ( 11.36 L). Spills retained in the drip pan or absorbent pillow need not be reported. Operators, when fueling, shall have on their person an absorbent pad capable of capturing diesel foam overfills. Except during fueling, the nozzle shall face upward and an absorbent pad shall be kept under the nozzle to catch drips. Contaminated absorbent pads or pillows shall be disposed of regularly in accordance with local, state and federal requirements.

(6) 3406.6 Tank vehicles and vehicle operation. Tank vehicles shall be designed, constructed, equipped and maintained in accordance with NFPA 385 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code and paragraphs(F)(6)(a)(3406.6.1) to (F)(6)(d)(3406.6.4) of this rule.

(a) 3406.6.1 Operation of tank vehicles. Tank vehicles shall be utilized and operated in accordance with NFPA 385 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Codeand paragraphs (F)(6)(a)(i)(3406.6.1.1) to (F)(6)(a)(xi)(3406.6.1.11) of this rule.

(i) 3406.6.1.1 Vehicle maintenance. Tank vehicles shall not be operated unless they are in a proper state of repair and free from accumulation of grease, oil or other flammable substance, and leaks.

(ii) 3406.6.1.2 Leaving vehicle unattended. The driver, operator, or attendant of a tank vehicle shall not remain in the vehicle cab and shall not leave the vehicle while it is being filled or discharged. The delivery hose, when attached to a tank vehicle, shall be considered to be a part of the tank vehicle.

(iii) 3406.6.1.3 Vehicle motor shutdown. Motors of tank vehicles or tractors shall be shut down during the making or breaking of hose connections. If loading or unloading is performed without the use of a power pump, the tank vehicle or tractor motor shall be shut down throughout such operations.

(iv) 3406.6.1.4 Outage. A cargo tank or compartment thereof used for the transportation of flammable or combustible liquids shall not be loaded to absolute capacity. The vacant space in a cargo tank or compartment thereof used in the transportation of flammable or combustible liquids shall not be less than 1 per cent. Sufficient space shall be left vacant to prevent leakage from or distortion of such tank or compartment by expansion of the contents caused by rise in temperature in transit.

(v) 3406.6.1.5 Overfill protection. The driver, operator or attendant of a tank vehicle shall, before making delivery to a tank, determine the unfilled capacity of such tank by a suitable gauging device. To prevent overfilling, the driver, operator or attendant shall not deliver in excess of that amount.

(vi) 3406.6.1.6 Securing hatches. During loading, hatch covers shall be secured on all but the receiving compartment.

(vii) 3406.6.1.7 Liquid temperature. Materials shall not be loaded into or transported in a tank vehicle at a temperature above the material's ignition temperature unless safeguarded in an approved manner.

(viii) 3406.6.1.8 Bonding to underground tanks. An external bond-wire connection or bond-wire integral with a hose shall be provided for the transferring of flammable liquids through open connections into underground tanks.

(ix) 3406.6.1.9 Smoking. Smoking by tank vehicle drivers, helpers or other personnel is prohibited while they are driving, making deliveries, filling or making repairs to tank vehicles.

(x) 3406.6.1.10 Hose connections. Delivery of flammable liquids to underground tanks with a capacity of more than 1,000 gallons (3785 L) shall be made by means of approved liquid and vapor-tight connections between the delivery hose and fill tank pipe. Where underground tanks are equipped with any type of vapor recovery system, all connections required to be made for the safe and proper functioning of the particular vapor recovery process shall be made. Such connections shall be made liquid and vapor tight and remain connected throughout the unloading process. Vapors shall not be discharged at grade level during delivery.

(a) 3406.6.1.10.1 Simultaneous delivery. Simultaneous delivery to underground tanks of any capacity from two or more discharge hoses shall be made by means of mechanically tight connections between the hose and fill pipe.

(xi) 3406.6.1.11 Hose protection. Upon arrival at a point of delivery and prior to discharging any flammable or combustible liquids into underground tanks, the driver, operator or attendant of the tank vehicle shall ensure that all hoses utilized for liquid delivery and vapor recovery, where required, will be protected from physical damage by motor vehicles. Such protection shall be provided by positioning the tank vehicle to prevent motor vehicles from passing through the area or areas occupied by hoses, or by other approved equivalent means.

(b) 3406.6.2 Parking. Parking of tank vehicles shall be in accordance with paragraphs (F)(6)(b)(i)(3406.6.2.1) to (F)(6)(b)(iii)(3406.6.2.3) of this rule.

Exception: In cases of accident, breakdown or other emergencies, tank vehicles are allowed to be parked and left unattended at any location while the operator is obtaining assistance.

(i) 3406.6.2.1 Parking near residential, educational and institutional occupancies and other high-risk areas. Tank vehicles shall not be left unattended at any time on residential streets, or within 500 feet (152 m) of a residential area, apartment or hotel complex, educational facility, hospital or care facility. Tank vehicles shall not be left unattended at any other place that would, in the opinion of the fire chief, pose an extreme life hazard.

(ii) 3406.6.2.2 Parking on thoroughfares. Tank vehicles shall not be left unattended on a public street, highway, public avenue or public alley.

Exceptions:

1. The necessary absence in connection with loading or unloading the vehicle. During actual fuel transfer, paragraph (F)(6)(a)(ii)(3406.6.1.2) of this rule shall apply.

2. Stops for meals during the day or night, if the street is well lighted at the point of parking. The vehicle location shall be in accordance with paragraph (F)(6)(b)(i)(3406.6.2.1) of this rule.

(iii) 3406.6.2.3 Durations exceeding 1 hour. Tank vehicles parked at one point for longer than 1 hour shall be located off of public streets, highways, public avenues or alley, and:

(a) Inside of a bulk plant and either 10 feet or more from the nearest lot line or within a building approved for such use in accordance with the building code as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code; or

(b) At other approved locations not less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from buildings other than those approved in accordance with the building code as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Codefor the storage or servicing of such vehicles.

(c) 3406.6.3 Garaging. Tank vehicles shall not be parked or garaged in buildings other than those specifically approved for such use by the fire code official in accordance with the building code as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

(d) 3406.6.4 Portable fire extinguisher. Tank vehicles shall be equipped with a portable fire extinguisher complying with paragraph (F)(906) of rule 1301:7-7-09 of the Administrative Codeand having a minimum rating of 2-A:20-B:C.

During unloading of the tank vehicle, the portable fire extinguisher shall be out of the carrying device on the vehicle and shall be 15 feet (4572 mm) or more from the unloading valves.

(7)3406.7 Refineries. Plants and portions of plants in which flammable liquids are produced on a scale from crude petroleum, natural gasoline or other hydrocarbon sources shall be in accordance with paragraphs (F)(7)(a)(3406.7.1) to (F)(7)(c)(3406.7.3) of this rule. Petroleum processing plants and facilities or portions of plants or facilities in which flammable or combustible liquids are handled, treated or produced on a commercial scale from crude petroleum, natural gasoline, or other hydrocarbon sources shall also be in accordance with API 651, API 653, API 752, API 1615, API 2001, API 2003, API 2009, API 2015, API 2023, API 2201, and API 2350 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

(a) 3406.7.1 Corrosion protection. Aboveground tanks and piping systems shall be protected against corrosion in accordance with API 651 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

(b) 3406.7.2 Cleaning of tanks. The safe entry and cleaning of petroleum storage tanks shall be conducted in accordance with API 2015 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

(c) 3406.7.3 Storage of heated petroleum products. Where petroleum-derived asphalts and residues are stored in heated tanks at refineries and bulk storage facilities or in tank vehicles, such products shall be in accordance with API 2023 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

(8)3406.8 Vapor recovery and vapor-processing systems. Vapor-processing systems in which the vapor source operates at pressures from vacuum, up to and including 1 psig ( 6.9 kPa) or in which a potential exists for vapor mixtures in the flammable range, shall comply with paragraphs (F)(8)(a)(3406.8.1) to (F)(8)(e)(3406.8.5) of this rule.

Exceptions:

1. Marine systems complying with federal transportation waterway regulations such as DOTn 33 CFR, Parts 154 through 156 and CGR 46 CFR, Parts 30, 32, 35 and 39as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

2. Motor fuel-dispensing facility systems complying with rule 1301:7-7-22 of the Administrative Code.

(a) 3406.8.1 Over-pressure/vacuum protection. Tanks and equipment shall have independent venting for over-pressure or vacuum conditions that might occur from malfunction of the vapor recovery or processing system.

Exception: For tanks, venting shall comply with paragraph (D)(2)(g)(iii)(3404.2.7.3) of this rule.

(b) 3406.8.2 Vent location. Vents on vapor-processing equipment shall be not less than 12 feet (3658 mm) from adjacent ground level, with outlets located and directed so that flammable vapors will disperse to below the lower flammable limit (LFL) before reaching locations containing potential ignition sources.

(c) 3406.8.3 Vapor collection systems and overfill protection. The design and operation of the vapor collection system and overfill protection shall be in accordance with this paragraph and section 19.5 of NFPA 30 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code.

(d) 3406.8.4 Liquid-level monitoring. A liquid knock-out vessel used in the vapor collection system shall have a means to verify the liquid level and a high-liquid-level sensor that activates an alarm. For unpopulated facilities, the high-liquid-level sensor shall initiate the shutdown of liquid transfer into the vessel and shutdown of vapor recovery or vapor-processing systems.

(e) 3406.8.5 Overfill protection. Storage tanks served by vapor recovery or processing systems shall be equipped with overfill protection in accordance with paragraph (D)(2)(g)(v)( h)(3404.2.7.5.8) of this rule

(9) 3406.9 Fuel for kerosene heaters. The state fire marshal recognizes and hereby adopts standard specification ASTM D3699-98 as listed in rule 1301:7-7-47 of the Administrative Code, issued by the"American Society for Testing and Materials, " for the purpose of prescribing two grades of kerosene suitable for use in kerosene heaters, as follows:

(a) 3406.9.1 No. 1-K kerosene. This is a special low-sulfur grade kerosene with a maximum sulfur content of four-hundredths of one per cent ( 0.04 per cent) by weight, suitable for use in unvented kerosene heaters.

(b) 3406.9.2 No. 2-K kerosene. This is a regular grade kerosene with a maximum sulfur content of thirty-hundredths of one per cent ( 0.30 per cent) by weight, suitable for use in vented or flue-connected kerosene heaters.

Replaces: 1301:7-7-34

Effective: 11/01/2011
R.C. 119.032 review dates: 11/01/2016
Promulgated Under: 119.03
Statutory Authority: 3701.82 , 3737.22 , 3737.82
Rule Amplifies: 3701.82 , 3737.22 , 3737.82
Prior Effective Dates: 7/1/79, 6/1/85, 6/15/92, 7/1/93, 9/1/95, 3/30/98, 9/1/05, 7/1/07