Chapter 1551:3-1 Solar, Wind, and Hydrothermal Energy Systems

1551:3-1-01 Solar energy systems.

Solar energy systems include active solar systems as defined in rule 1551:3-1-02 of the Administrative Code, photovoltaic energy conversion systems as defined in rule 1551:3-1-03 of the Administrative Code, and passive solar systems as defined in rule 1551:3-1-04 of the Administrative Code.

Eff 4-10-80
Rule promulgated under: RC Chapter 119.
Rule amplifies: RC 1551.20

1551:3-1-02 Active solar systems.

An active solar system is a system which consists of components which are not an integral part of the structure. An active solar system uses a convective system to transport the thermal energy derived from the sun to storage and/or to the conditioned space. Active solar system includes, but is not limited to, any of the following:

(A) Forced air system - a solar space conditioning system that utilizes mechanical equipment such as pumps or blowers, to transfer solar heat from collectors to living space or to storage and living space;

(B) Forced circulation water system - a solar water heating system that utilizes mechanical equipment, such as pumps, to transfer solar-heated water from the collector to storage for domestic water heating and, for space heating, to the space requiring additional heat;

(C) Thermosiphon system - a solar heating system that uses natural convection to transport heat from the collector to storage by appropriately locating the storage in relation to the collector;

(D) Integral collector/storage ("breadbox") system - an integrated solar water heating system that combines the collection and storage of solar energy in water tanks. A typical "breadbox" system consists of an insulated box containing water tanks painted black with solar glazing and insulating lids;

(E) Radiant sky cooling system utilizing collectors - a space conditioning system that circulates fluid through the collectors during those hours which have the appropriate conditions for cooling (usually night and early morning). The thermal energy is stored and later transferred to the building interior during the cooling period;

(F) Regenerative rockbed cooling system - a space conditioning system that circulates air through rock storage during those hours which have the appropriate conditions for cooling (usually night and early morning). Cool air is transferred to the building interior as required;

(G) Solar-assisted absorption cooling system - an air conditioning system that utilizes solar heat rather than conventional forms of energy as its primary power source for driving the refrigeration cycle;

(H) Solar-assisted adsorption cooling system - an air conditioning system that utilizes solar heat to dry a desicant bed used to dehumidify air cooled by evaporation;

(I) Solar-assisted heat pump system - a heat pump system that uses solar-heated fluid to increase the coefficient of performance (COP).

Eff 4-10-80
Rule promulgated under: RC Chapter 119.
Rule amplifies: RC 1551.20

1551:3-1-03 Photovoltaic energy conversion systems.

A "photovoltaic energy conversion system" is a system which converts solar energy directly to electrical energy. A photovoltaic system requires electrical transmission and storage devices. The components of a photovoltaic system include:

(A) The photovoltaic cell, and any device(s) required to mount the cell;

(B) Electrical conduits from the photovoltaic cells to the point of use or storage; and/or

(C) Storage batteries.

Eff 4-10-80
Rule promulgated under: RC Chapter 119.
Rule amplifies: RC 1551.20

1551:3-1-04 Passive solar systems.

A passive solar system consists of south facing glazing, a storage mass, and a method of isolating the storage mass from the climatic conditions. A passive solar system utilizes the materials which form the enclosure to collect, store, and distribute the solar energy.

(A) Passive solar system includes the following:

(1) Direct passive solar system, when:

(a) The glazing faces within thirty degrees due south (except when the glazing is slanted, then the angle deviation from due south may be such that the equivalent solar radiation between nine a.m. and three p.m. (solar time) is at least equal to or greater than vertical glazing facing thirty degrees from due south),

(b) Sufficient storage mass exists to receive and store fifty per cent of the solar energy transmitted by the glazed surface, and

(c) Movable insulation of at least R-5 is available to shield the entire glazed area.

(2) Indirect passive solar system, when:

(a) The glazing faces within thirty degrees due south, and

(b) Sufficient storage mass exists to receive and store fifty per cent of the solar energy transmitted through the glazed area between nine a.m. and three p.m. (solar time) at winter solstice.

(3) Attached solarium, when:

(a) The solarium is exposed to the sun at least four hours between nine a.m. and three p.m. (solar time) at winter solstice,

(b) A mechanism exists to transport the excess heat to the conditioned environment, and

(c) The solarium may be thermally isolated from the conditioned space by an equivalent R-5 insulation or R-5 movable insulation is available to cover the glazed area.

(B) The components of a passive solar system as described in paragraph (A) of this rule may include glazing materials and installation thereof, storage components, movable insulation, and any necessary control device.

(1) Glazing material consists of transparent material which transmits not less than seventy-five per cent of the solar energy which is transmitted by standard float glass, the material to seal the glazing, and the supporting structure only if the supporting structure is not a load-bearing wall for the enclosure.

(2) Storage components may include:

(a) Any non-upholstered furniture that is permanently attached to the house and is specifically designed to provide thermal storage;

(b) Thermal ceiling covers (if a mechanism exists to deflect the solar radiation to the ceiling);

(c) Floors of masonry, slate, or other thermal material if not carpeted (only the incremental cost over the cost of a standard subflooring applies, such as extra reinforcement to support the masonry, slate, or other thermal material); and/or

(d) Walls of masonry, water, or other thermal material. (If the thermal wall is an integral part of a conventional house, i.e., load-bearing wall, only the incremental cost over a conventional wall applies. In no case may more than eighty per cent of the cost of a dual purpose wall be allowed.)

(3) Movable insulation must have an equivalent of R-5 or greater. Included are ropes, tracks, pulleys, motors, or other devices for the storage of insulation, provided that the sole purpose of these items is to move and store the insulation panels and they are permanently attached to the building. The insulation devices include, but are not limited to, bead walls, thermal drapes, thermal blinds, and movable rigid panels.

(4) Control devices may be blinds or shutters to prevent overheating or to deflect the insolation to a thermal ceiling, or any electronic or mechanical device which automates the environmental controls.

Eff 4-10-80; 7-2-84
Rule promulgated under: RC Chapter 119.
Rule amplifies: RC 1551.20

1551:3-1-05 Wind energy systems.

A "wind energy system" is any non-mobile system which extracts energy from the movement of air caused by the uneven heating of the earth from the sun. The components of a wind energy system include:

(A) Any device which collects the energy from the wind such as blades, rotors, hubs, bearings, or axles;

(B) The mechanism which transmits the collected energy to the location of use or storage such as a gearbox, shaft, or bearings;

(C) The mechanism which transforms the energy to electrical or thermal energy such as a generator or pony brake;

(D) Any device used to store the energy if the storage is needed to delay the use of the energy to a later time;

(E) The tower or other supporting structure, if the purpose of the structure is solely to support and house the equipment listed in paragraphs (A), (B), (C), and (D) of this rule. (If an existing structure is used to mount the wind machine, then only the modifications, materials, and labor necessary for the installation of the wind machine apply.)

Eff 4-10-80; 4-10-80
Rule promulgated under: RC Chapter 119.
Rule amplifies: RC 1551.20

1551:3-1-06 Hydrothermal energy systems.

A hydrothermal energy system consists of any system which uses a thermal exchange with the earth: ground water, surface water, heat pipes or tubes. Hydrothermal energy system includes the following:

(A) Ground water to air heat pump - a heat pump which uses ground or surface water as the source when space heating and the sink when space cooling;

(B) Ground water to air heat exchange - a heat exchanger which has one side exposed to ground water and the other side to air for space cooling;

(C) Closed system - a heat pump which uses a stored water unit as the source and the sink. The storage unit must be in contact with the earth and below the frost line. The storage unit must be of sufficient size that it will not freeze solid during a heating season.

Eff 4-10-80
Rule promulgated under: RC Chapter 119.
Rule amplifies: RC 1551.20