(A) The purpose for adopting the rules in this chapter, which comprise the operating standards for Ohio school districts and elementary and secondary schools, is to assure that all students are provided a general education of high quality. The rules in this chapter establish specific expectations for school districts and schools to use in creating the best learning conditions for meeting the personalized and individualized needs of each student and achieving state and local educational goals and objectives. The operating standards focus on the most critical expectations for school districts and schools in order to foster a regulatory system that focuses on improving outputs and student outcomes.
(B) The following terms are defined as they are used in this chapter:
(1) "Assessment" means the measuring of student achievement of performance goals and objectives.
(2) "Benchmark" means a higher performing school district or school, whether similar or not, used to compare performance.
(3) "Blended Learning" means the delivery of instruction in a combination of time in a supervised physical location away from home and online delivery whereby the student has some element of control over time, place, path, or pace of learning.
(4) "Board of education" means the locally elected, governing body of a school district or the governing body of a STEM school, nonpublic school, municipal school district or college preparatory boarding school.
(5) "Classified staff" means nonteaching school personnel who are assigned to positions that do not require a certificate, license, permit or other credentialing document and that are listed in accordance with section 3317.12 of the Revised Code.
(6) "Continuous improvement plan" means a document used to guide educators, students and their families, business people, and community members in the process of achieving and measuring substantial improvements in the school district's or school's performance. The continuous improvement plan is part of the strategic plan. All school continuous improvement plans must align with the school district's continuous improvement plans.
(7) "Credentialed staff" means faculty or staff who hold a certificate, license, permit or other document issued under section 3301.071 or Chapter 3319. of the Revised Code. For non-chartered, non-tax supported schools, credentialed includes holding a bachelor's degree from a university or college; or certification of any administrator, supervisor, or teacher who has attended and received a diploma from a "bible college" or "bible institute" as described in division (E) of section 1713.02 of the Revised Code.
(8) "Credit flexibility" means that students may earn high school graduation credit by demonstrating subject area competency through the completion of traditional coursework, testing out or otherwise demonstrating mastery of course content and/or pursuing an approved educational option pursuant to the model for credit flexibility adopted by the state board of education (education.ohio.gov).
(9) "Digital learning" means learning facilitated by technology that gives students some element of control over time, place, path or pace of learning.
(10) "Digital learning tools" means computers, tablets, software, applications, or other technology necessary to access a school's program of digital learning.
(11) "Dropout prevention and recovery program" means an approved program that has received a waiver from the department of education pursuant to section 3313.603 of the Revised Code, which may permit enrolled students to qualify for high school graduation by successfully completing a competency-based instructional program administered by the dropout prevention and recovery program in lieu of completing the Ohio course requirements described in division (C) of section 3313.603 of the Revised Code.
(12) "Educational options" means learning experiences or activities that are designed to extend, enhance, supplement, or serve as an alternative to classroom instruction and meet the personalized and individualized needs of each student. Educational options are offered in accordance with the models adopted by the state board of education (education.ohio.gov), local board of education policy and with parental approval.
(13) "Educational service personnel" are specially qualified individuals who possess the knowledge, skills and expertise to support the educational, instructional, health, mental health and college and career readiness needs for all students. All educational service personnel shall hold appropriate qualifications, including applicable special teaching certificates, multi-age licensure or specific licensure in the areas to which they are assigned.
(a) Educational service personnel that support educational, instructional and college and career readiness programs include, but are not limited to: fine arts, music, and physical education teachers, librarian or media specialists, school counselors and reading intervention specialists;
(b) Educational service personnel that support the learning needs of the special needs student population include, but are not limited to: gifted intervention specialists, adapted physical education teacher, audiologist, interpreter, speech-language pathologists, physical and occupational therapists and English as a second language specialist;
(c) Educational service personnel that support the health and mental health of the student population include, but are not limited to: the school nurse, social worker, school psychologist, and school resource officer.
(14) "Extended learning opportunities" means a variety of initiatives that ensure students have access to a diverse array of content-rich, high-quality opportunities that expand the time they are actively engaged in learning. These opportunities provide students with structured opportunities for academic support and enrichment, extra-curricular activities, service-learning; mentoring, recreation, character education, and other developmental activities.
(16) "Intervention" means alternative or supplemental instruction designed to help students meet performance objectives.
(18) "Policies" means general principles governing the operation of a school. Policies shall be established and adopted by the board of education.
(19) "Procedures" means detailed rules, regulations and courses of action, specified in writing, for carrying out school district and school policies.
(20) "School," with the exception of the term "school" as used in rule 3301-35-08 of the Administrative Code, means an environment organized for learning and chartered pursuant to this chapter and section 3301.16 of the Revised Code to provide a community of students with the opportunity to acquire skills and knowledge necessary to meet state and local performance objectives.
(21) "School district" means a local, exempted village, city or joint vocational school district as defined in Chapter 3311. of the Revised Code. For chartered, nonpublic schools, "school district" means a school or schools under the jurisdiction of the governing authority of the chartered, nonpublic school.
(22) "School year" means the year beginning the first day of July and ending on the thirtieth day of June of the next succeeding calendar year.
(23) "Site evaluation" means an evaluation the Ohio department of education conducts in accordance with section 3302.04 of the Revised Code to determine whether a school district or school meets the operating standards in this chapter.
(24) "Stakeholder" means those who directly affect or are affected by the educational success of a school district and school. Stakeholders may include, but are not limited to, colleges and universities, school district and school staff, employers, parents, students, and other individuals or groups in the community. For nonpublic schools, the governing authority of the school identifies "stakeholders."
(25) "Teacher of record" means an educator who is responsible for a significant portion of a student's instruction within a subject or a course.