(A) General background
The drug-free workplace act of 1988 and the drug-free schools and communities act amendment of 1989 require all federal contractors, federal grant recipients and recipients of any federal funds whatsoever to implement a comprehensive substance and alcohol abuse policy. Some regulatory compliance requirements under this act were effective March 18, 1989. The drug-free schools and communities act amendment of 1989 is effective October 1, 1990. Shawnee state university shall comply with all provisions of these acts. This policy shall apply to the entire university community, faculty, staff, and students.
(B) Standard of conduct
The university is committed to maintaining a workplace free of illegal drugs or the unlawful use of alcohol. Shawnee state university prohibits the possession, manufacture, distribution, dispensation, or use of illegal drugs and the unlawful use, possession, or distribution of alcohol on all university property, at any locations where employees or students are conducting university related business or activities, when using university vehicles and when using private vehicles on university business or in the conduct of university activities.
(C) Legal sanctions
(1) Applicable legal sanctions under local, state or federal law for the unlawful possession or distribution of illicit drugs and alcohol are set forth in the referenced laws.
(i) Codification ordinance of portsmouth
(ii) Chapter 624-drugs.
(i) Ohio revised code chapters
(a) 2925-drug offenses
(b) 3179-controlled substances
(c) 4301-liquor control laws
(i) Federal (harrison) narcotic act
(ii) Federal narcotic drugs import and export act
(iii) Federal food, drug and cosmetic act
(iv) Federal alcohol administration act
(d) These sanctions can include probation, fines, driver's license suspension or incarceration.
(e) Future revisions, amendments or additions to these or other applicable codes are incorporated in this policy by this reference.
(D) Health risks
The following describe the health risks of some of those substances that may cause physical or psychological damage when abused.
(1) Alcohol. Alcohol consumption causes a number of marked changes in behavior. Even low doses impair judgment and coordination, and increase the incidence of aggressive behavior. Very high doses can cause respiratory depression and death. Alcohol intoxication is equivalent to a drug overdose. If combined with other depressants of the central nervous system, the effects of alcohol are multiplied. Repeated use of alcohol can lead to change in tolerance and dependence. Cessation of alcohol intake can produce withdrawal symptoms including tremors, hallucinations, convulsions, and death. Long-term consumption of large quantities of alcohol can lead to permanent damage to vital organs such as the brain and the liver. Women who drink even small amounts of alcohol during pregnancy may give birth to infants with fetal alcohol syndrome. Children of alcoholic parents have a forty per cent greater risk of developing alcoholism than children of parents who are not alcoholic.
(2) Cannabis. The mood altering effects of marijuana are the result of the chemical delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). THC is fat soluble and remains in the body up to three weeks after smoking one marijuana cigarette. Consequently, even the occasional user can be detected through urinalysis. Research indicates that regular use may have long- term effects on the user's brain, heart and reproductive organs. The numerous carcinogenic chemicals found in marijuana smoke make it particularly harmful to the lungs. Loss of memory, lack of motivation and diminished attention span are some of the effects of regular marijuana use. Long-term use may result in psychological dependence and change in tolerance.
(3) Depressants. The use of depressants can result in a change in tolerance and physical, as well as psychological dependency. The combining of several depressants (e.g. valium and alcohol) will potentiate the depressant effects, multiplying the health hazards. Withdrawal symptoms include anxiety, vomiting, acute psychotic episodes, seizures and death.
(4) Stimulants. High doses of stimulant drugs result in intense personality disturbances including visual and auditory hallucinations, delusions and paranoia. Tolerance develops rapidly. Cross tolerance does develop among stimulant drugs, (e.g. methamphetamine and cocaine). The use of cocaine can cause death by cardiac arrest or respiratory failure. Stimulants are addictive, and while withdrawal from stimulants is less dangerous than with depressants, depression can make the person vulnerable to suicide.
(5) Narcotics. Tolerance, especially to the euphoric effects of narcotics, and physical dependence develop rapidly. In order to avoid the abstinence syndrome, the addict becomes preoccupied with acquiring the drug. Withdrawal symptoms are extremely uncomfortable; however, they are seldom life threatening.
(6) Hallucinogens phencyclidine (PCP). Large doses of PCP may result in convulsive seizure, coma and death. Mood disorders occur and the user may become violent, irrational and potentially harmful to self and others. Lysergic acid (LSD), mescaline and philocybin cause sensations and feelings to change rapidly. The user may experience panic, confusion, anxiety, depersonalization and loss of control. While relatively rare, flashbacks, the spontaneous reappearance of the drug experience after use has ceased, may occur.
(7) Anabolic-androgenic steroids. Steroid users can experience serious cardiovascular, liver, central nervous system, gastrointestinal and reproductive disorders. In males, use can result in testicular atrophy, sterility, impotence and arrested growth. Irreversible masculinization and sterility can result when women use steroids. Psychological impairments include mood swings, depression and very aggressive behavior.
(F) Substance abuse counseling and education
(1) Resource information (booklets, brochures, pamphlets, etc.) regarding health and safety concerns from substance abuse and information regarding the availability of and/or referral to community-based, approved substance abuse counseling and rehabilitation services are available through the counseling and assessment center of Shawnee state university.
(2) Education concerning substance abuse, especially of alcohol and drugs, will be provided periodically on campus. The university community is encouraged to take advantage of these opportunities to become more aware of the effects of substance abuse.
(G) Sanctions for violation of standards of conduct
Shawnee state university has used and will continue to use progressive discipline in administering sanctions for violations of this policy: however, the university reserves the right to determine when the serious nature of a violation or arrest without adjudication requires that the university take immediate action up to and including dismissal. Appropriate law enforcement authorities will be notified if any illegal substances are found on the university campus. All action will be in compliance with the negotiated contracts of SEA and CWA except in serious cases where immediate action is necessary and mandated by law. Such action may include, but is not limited to the following:
(1) Possible sanctions for employees may include
(a) Written reprimands
(b) Transfer to other duties
(f) Referral to appropriate authorities for prosecution for violations of the standards of conduct described in this policy
(g) See paragraph (G) of this rule (2)
(2) Possible sanctions for students may include
(a) Disciplinary probation
(d) Deferral to appropriate authorities for prosecution for violations of the standards of conduct described in this rule
(e) See paragraph (G) of this rule(2)
(3) Both students and employees may be referred to appropriate drug or alcohol abuse treatment facilities for treatment as a condition of continued employment and/or student standing.
(H) Conviction of illegal drug violation on the worksite
(1) It is a condition of employment with Shawnee state university that an employee who is convicted of criminal drug statute violation occurring in the workplace, notify appropriate administrative personnel no later than five days after such conviction.
(2) The university will notify the appropriate federal funding agency within ten days after receiving notice of an employee's conviction with respect to a drug-law violation occurring in the workplace.
(3) Within thirty days of such notice, the university will either take appropriate personnel action, or require the successful completion of a certified drug abuse assistance or rehabilitation program by the convicted employee.
(I) Distribution of policy
(1) SSU policy for a drug-free campus shall be distributed annually to each current employee and student, whether they are full-time or part-time, effective October 1, 1990. The division of student affairs shall formulate the procedure for the distribution to students. Distribution to employees shall comply with SSU's policy on policies and procedures, section 6.0.
(2) A copy of the policy shall be issued to each new full-time or part-time employee by the personnel office effective October 1, 1990.
(3) A copy of the policy shall be issued to every new full or part-time student effective October 1, 1990.
(4) The official SSU policy for a drug-free campus shall also be published in the university policies and procedures manual.
The counseling and assessment office shall submit the drug-free campus certification as required by section 22 of the drug-free schools and communities amendments of 1989 ( public law 101-226 ) to the secretary of the U.S. department of education.
(K) Policy review
The drug education committee shall do a biennial review of this policy to determine the effectiveness of the policy and to insure that sanctions are being consistently enforced. When recommended, changes shall be forwarded by the DEC to appropriate authority for review and for amendment of the policy.