Before each shipment of licensed material, the licensee shall ensure that the package with its contents satisfies the applicable requirements of this chapter and of the license. The licensee shall determine that:
(A) The package is proper for the contents to be shipped;
(B) The package is in unimpaired physical condition except for superficial defects such as marks or dents;
(C) Each closure device of the packaging, including any required gasket, is properly installed and secured and free of defects;
(D) Any system for containing liquid is adequately sealed and has adequate space or other specified provision for expansion of the liquid;
(E) Any pressure relief device is operable and set in accordance with written procedures;
(F) The package has been loaded and closed in accordance with written procedures;
(G) For fissile material, any moderator or neutron absorber, if required, is present and in proper condition;
(H) Any structural part of the package that could be used to lift or tie down the package during transport is rendered inoperable for that purpose, unless it satisfies the design requirements below:
(1) Any lifting attachment that is a structural part of a package must be designed with a minimum safety factor of three against yielding when used to lift the package in the intended manner, and it must be designed so that failure of any lifting device under excessive load would not impair the ability of the package to meet other package approval requirements in 10 C.F.R. 71, Subpart E (as published in the January 1, 2010 Code of Federal Regulations). Any other structural part of the package that could be used to lift the package must be capable of being rendered inoperable for lifting the package during transport, or must be designed with strength equivalent to that required for lifting attachments.
(2) Tie-down devices shall comply with the following:
(a) If there is a system of tie-down devices that is a structural part of the package, the system must be capable of withstanding, without generating stress in any material of the package in excess of its yield strength, a static force applied to the center of gravity of the package having a vertical component of two times the weight of the package with its contents, a horizontal component along the direction in which the vehicle travels of ten times the weight of the package with its contents, and a horizontal component in the transverse direction of five times the weight of the package with its contents.
(b) Any other structural part of the package that could be used to tie down the package must be capable of being rendered inoperable for tying down the package during transport, or must be designed with strength equivalent to that required for tie-down devices.
(c) Each tie-down device that is a structural part of a package must be designed so that failure of the device under excessive load would not impair the ability of the package to meet other requirements of this chapter.
(I) The level of non-fixed or removable radioactive contamination on the external surfaces of each package offered for shipment is as low as reasonably achievable and within the limits as specified in this paragraph;
(1) The level of non-fixed radioactive contamination may not exceed the limits set forth in table 1
|Contaminant||Maximum permissible units|
|Bq/cm 2||µCi/cm 2||dpm/cm 2|
|Beta and gamma emitters and low toxicity alpha emitters||0.4||10-5||22|
|All other alpha emitting radionuclides||0.04||10 -6||2.2|
(2) The level of non-fixed radioactive contamination shall be determined by either:
(a) Wipingiping an area of 300 cm\2\of the surface concerned with an absorbent material, using moderate pressure, and measuring the activity on the wiping material. Sufficient measurements must be taken in the most appropriate locations to yield a representativeassessment of the non-fixed contamination levels. The amount of radioactivity measured on any single wiping material, divided by the surface area wiped and divided by the efficiency of the wipe procedure (the fraction of removable contamination transferred from the surface tothe absorbent material), may not exceed the limits set forth in table 9 at any time during transport. For this purpose the actual wipe efficiency may be used, or the wipe efficiency may be assumed to be 0.10; or
(b) Alternatively, the level of non-fixed radioactive contamination may be determined by using other methods of equal or greater efficiency.
(3) Except as provided in paragraph (I)(5) of this rule, in the case of packages transported as exclusive use shipments by rail or public highway only, the removable or non-fixed radioactive contamination on any package at any time during transport may not exceed ten times the levels prescribed in paragraph (I)(1) of this rule. The levels at the beginning of transport may not exceed the levels prescribed in paragraph (I)(1) of this rule;
(4) Except as provided in paragraph (I)(5) of this rule, each transport vehicle used for transporting radioactive materials as an exclusive use shipment that utilizes the provisions of paragraph (I)(3) of this rule must be surveyed with appropriate radiation detection instruments after each use. A vehicle may not be returned to service until the radiation dose rate at each accessible surface is 0.005 millisievert per hour ( 0.5 millirem per hour) or less, and there is no significant removable or non-fixed radioactive surface contamination as specified in paragraph of this rule.
(5) Paragraphs (I)(3) and (I)(4) of this rule do not apply to any closed transport vehicle used solely for the transportation by highway or rail of radioactive material packages with contamination levels that do not exceed ten times the levels prescribed in paragraph of this rule if:
(a) A survey of the interior surfaces of the empty vehicle shows that the radiation dose rate at any point does not exceed 0.1 millisievert per hour (ten millirem per hour) at the surface or 0.02 millisievert per hour (two millirem per hour) at one meter ( 3.3 feet) from the surface;
(b) Each vehicle is stenciled with the words "for radioactive materials use only" in letters at least seventy-six millimeters (three inches) high in a conspicuous place on both sides of the exterior of the vehicle; and
(c) Each vehicle is kept closed except for loading or unloading.
(J) External radiation levels around the package, and around the vehicle if applicable, will not exceed the limits specified below at any time during transportation:
(1) Except as provided in paragraph (J)(2) of this rule, each package of radioactive materials offered for transportation must be designed and prepared for shipment so that under conditions normally incident to transportation the radiation level does not exceed two millisievert per hour (two hundred millirem per hour) at any point on the external surface of the package, and the transport index does not exceed ten;
(2) A package that exceeds the radiation level limits specified in paragraph (J)(1) of this rule must be transported by exclusive use shipment only, and the radiation levels for such shipment must not exceed the following during transportation:
(a) Two millisievert per hour (two hundred millirem per hour) on the external surface of the package, unless the following conditions are met, in which case the limit is ten millisievert per hour (one thousand millirem per hour):
(i) The shipment is made in a closed transport vehicle;
(ii) The package is secured within the vehicle so that its position remains fixed during transportation; and
(iii) There are no loading or unloading operations between the beginning and end of the transportation;
(b) Two millisievert per hour (two hundred millirem per hour) at any point on the outer surface of the vehicle, including the top and underside of the vehicle; or in the case of a flat-bed style vehicle, at any point on the vertical planes projected from the outer edges of the vehicle, on the upper surface of the load or enclosure, if used, and on the lower external surface of the vehicle; and
(c) 0.1 millisievert per hour (ten millirem per hour) at any point two meters ( 6.6 feet) from the outer lateral surfaces of the vehicle (excluding the top and underside of the vehicle); or in the case of a flat-bed style vehicle, at any point two meters ( 6.6 feet) from the vertical planes projected by the outer edges of the vehicle (excluding the top and underside of the vehicle); and
(d) 0.02 millisievert per hour (two millirem per hour) in any normally occupied space, except that this provision does not apply to private carriers, if exposed personnel under their control wear radiation dosimetry devices in conformance with rule 3701:1-38-14 of the Administrative Code.
(3) For shipments made under the provisions of paragraph (J)(2) of this rule, the shipper shall provide specific written instructions to the carrier for maintenance of the exclusive use shipment controls. The instructions must be included with the shipping paper information.
(4) The written instructions required for exclusive use shipments must be sufficient so that, when followed, they will cause the carrier to avoid actions that will unnecessarily delay delivery or unnecessarily result in increased radiation levels or radiation exposures to transport workers or members of the general public; and
(K) Accessible package surface temperatures will not exceed, in still air at thirty-eight degrees celsius (one hundred degrees fahrenheit) and in the shade, at any time during transportation:
(1) Fifty degrees celsius (one hundred twenty-two degrees fahrenheit) in a nonexclusive use shipment, or
(2) Eighty-five degrees celsius (one hundred eighty-five degrees fahrenheit) in an exclusive use shipment.
(L) A package may not incorporate a feature intended to allow continuous venting during transport.