(A) Brazilian jiu-jitsu: Also known as "Gracie Jiu-Jitsu", it is a martial art developed in Brazil by the Gracie family during the mid-20th century. Originally based on the Japanese martial art of judo as it existed before WW II, it has since developed into an independent system with a major emphasis on ground fighting and grappling, these techniques may be used in mixed martial arts events.
(B) Cage: A fenced enclosure in which some promotional organizations hold mixed martial arts competition
(C) Choke: A submission technique which restricts blood flow in the carotid arteries, resulting in a competitor either tapping-out or losing consciousness. Some of the most frequently employed chokes are the guillotine choke, rear-naked choke, leg triangle choke, and the arm triangle choke.
(D) Fish-hooking: The action of hooking (grasping) and pulling the inside of an opponent's cheek so as to control his head movement. This is illegal.
(E) Freestyle wrestling: An Olympic grappling sport which permits contestants to attack their opponent above and below the waist, these techniques may be used in mixed martial arts events.
(F) Gi: The traditional uniform worn when practicing aikido; jujitsu; judo; and karate, may not be worn in mixed martial arts events
(G) Grappling: Techniques of throwing, locking, holding, and wrestling, as opposed to kicking and punching, these techniques may be used in mixed martial arts events.
(H) Greco Roman wrestling: An Olympic grappling sport in which all holds are applied above the waist in an attempt to throw the opponent, these techniques may be used in mixed martial arts events.
(I) Ground and pound: A MMA term which describes the barrage of strikes delivered by the contestant who is in his opponents guard or in the mount position.
(J) Guard: A basic position in which one competitor lies on his back with their knees bent and legs open. If their opponent is between their legs, the opponent is in their guard. Depending upon the leg position of the fighter on their back, the guard is refereed to as being an open, closed, half, butterfly, spider, or rubber-band guard.
(K) Hammer-fist: A strike with the small finger side of the fist, as if holding a hammer.
(L) Judo: Meaning gentle way, it is a grappling art created by Jigoro Kano. Based on the techniques of jujitsu, these techniques may be used in mixed martial arts events.
(M) Judoka: Judo practitioners.
(N) Jiu-Jitsu: Also written as jujitsu, ju-jitsu, and jujutsu. Meaning gentle art, a traditional Japanese self-defense that includes kicking, striking, kneeing, throwing, choking and joint locks, and these techniques may be used in mixed martial arts events.
(O) Kickboxing: Adapted from Muay Thai, it is a striking sport which permits punches, kicks, and knees, these techniques may be used in mixed martial arts events.
(P) Mixed martial arts: A general term that describes the convergence of techniques from a variety of combative sports disciplines including boxing, wrestling, judo, jujitsu, kickboxing and others. "MMA" techniques can be broken down into two categories, striking and grappling.
(Q) Mount: A basic position in which a competitor gains top position and controls their opponent by sitting on top of them in the full mount position, or from the side of the opponent in the side mount.
(R) Muay Thai: Known as Thai boxing, it is the national sport of Thailand. It is a pure striking art in which blows are delivered with the hands, feet, knees and elbows these techniques may be used in mixed martial arts events.
(S) No-holds-barred: An erroneous description and characterization of the sport of mixed martial arts.
(T) Octagon: A fenced enclosure in which some promotional organizations hold MMA competition.
(U) Pankration: Meaning all strength or all power, this is an ancient style of Greek wrestling and boxing in which kicks, throws, and joint locks were used, these techniques may be used in mixed martial arts events.
(V) Passing the guard: This is a term which describes a fighter's attempt to escape from their opponents guard in order to secure the mount position.
(W) Shoot: A wrestling technique wherein a competitor attempts to capture his opponent's legs and takes him off his feet, these techniques may be used in mixed martial arts events..
(X) Spike, Spiking: After lifting and inverting an opponent, attempting to slam them headfirst into the canvas. This is illegal.
(Y) Sprawl: A defensive wrestling technique employed to block and counter an opponents shoot.
(Z) Strikes: A cumulative number of punches administered by a contestant to their opponent.
(AA) Submission: A grappling technique which forces a contestant to tap-out. Techniques include chokes, and the hyperextension or over-rotation of a joint.
(BB) Tap-out: The physical act of tapping the opponent, the mat, or one's self to signal a submission. When unable to physically tap-out, a submission can be vocal.