Chapter 4101:1-12 Interior environment
[Comment: When a reference is made within this rule to a federal statutory provision, an industry consensus standard, or any other technical publication, the specific date and title of the publication as well as the name and address of the promulgating agency are listed in rule 4101:1-35-01 of the Administrative Code. The application of the referenced standards shall be limited and as prescribed in section 102.5 of rule 4101:1-1-01 of the Administrative Code.]
1201.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall govern ventilation, temperature control, lighting, yards and courts, sound transmission, room dimensions, surrounding materials and rodent proofing associated with the interior spaces of buildings.
1202.1 General. The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.
SUNROOM. A one-story structure attached to a building with a glazing area in excess of 40 percent of the gross area of the structure's exterior walls and roof.
THERMAL ISOLATION. A separation of conditioned spaces, between a sunroom addition and a dwelling unit, consisting of existing or new wall(s), doors and/or windows.
1203.1 General. Buildings shall be provided with natural ventilation in accordance with Section 1203.4, or mechanical ventilation in accordance with the mechanical code.
1203.2 Attic spaces. Enclosed attics and enclosed rafter spaces formed where ceilings are applied directly to the underside of roof framing members shall have cross ventilation for each separate space by ventilating openings protected against the entrance of rain and snow. Blocking and bridging shall be arranged so as not to interfere with the movement of air. A minimum of 1 inch (25 mm) of airspace shall be provided between the insulation and the roof sheathing. The net free ventilating area shall not be less than 1/300 of the area of the space ventilated, with 50 percent of the required ventilating area provided by ventilators located in the upper portion of the space to be ventilated at least 3 feet (914 mm) above eave or cornice vents with the balance of the required ventilation provided by eave or cornice vents.
1203.2.1 Openings into attic. Exterior openings into the attic space of any building intended for human occupancy shall be protected to prevent the entry of birds, squirrels, rodents, snakes and other similar creatures. Openings for ventilation having a least dimension of 1/16 inch ( 1.6 mm) minimum and 1/4 inch ( 6.4 mm) maximum shall be permitted. Openings for ventilation having a least dimension larger than 1/4 inch ( 6.4 mm) shall be provided with corrosion-resistant wire cloth screening, hardware cloth, perforated vinyl or similar material with openings having a least dimension of 1/16 inch ( 1.6 mm) minimum and 1/4 inch ( 6.4 mm) maximum. Where combustion air is obtained from an attic area, it shall be in accordance with Chapter 7 of the mechanical code.
1203.3 Under-floor ventilation. The space between the bottom of the floor joists and the earth under any building except spaces occupied by basements or cellars shall be provided with ventilation openings through foundation walls or exterior walls. Such openings shall be placed so as to provide cross ventilation of the under-floor space.
1203.3.1 Openings for under-floor ventilation. The minimum net area of ventilation openings shall not be less than 1 square foot for each 150 square feet ( 0.67 m2 for each 100 m2) of crawl-space area. Ventilation openings shall be covered for their height and width with any of the following materials, provided that the least dimension of the covering shall not exceed 1/4 inch (6 mm):
1. Perforated sheet metal plates not less than 0.070 inch ( 1.8 mm) thick.
2. Expanded sheet metal plates not less than 0.047 inch ( 1.2 mm) thick.
3. Cast-iron grilles or gratings.
4. Extruded load-bearing vents.
5. Hardware cloth of 0.035 inch ( 0.89 mm) wire or heavier.
6. Corrosion-resistant wire mesh, with the least dimension not exceeding 1/8 inch ( 3.2 mm).
1203.3.2 Exceptions. The following are exceptions to Sections 1203.3 and 1203.3.1:
1. Where warranted by climatic conditions, ventilation openings to the outdoors are not required if ventilation openings to the interior are provided.
2. The total area of ventilation openings is permitted to be reduced to 1/1,500 of the under-floor area where the ground surface is covered with a Class I vapor retarder material and the required openings are placed so as to provide cross ventilation of the space. The installation of operable louvers shall not be prohibited.
3. Ventilation openings are not required where continuously operated mechanical ventilation is provided at a rate of 1.0 cubic foot per minute (cfm) for each 50 square feet ( 1.02 L/s for each 10 m2) of crawl space floor area and the ground surface is covered with a Class I vapor retarder.
4. Ventilation openings are not required when the ground surface is covered with a Class I vapor retarder, the perimeter walls are insulated and the space is conditioned in accordance with the applicable energy conservation code referenced from Chapter 13.
5. For buildings in flood hazard areas as established in Section 1612.3, the openings for under-floor ventilation shall be deemed as meeting the flood opening requirements of ASCE 24 provided that the ventilation openings are designed and installed in accordance with ASCE 24.
1203.4 Natural ventilation. Natural ventilation of an occupied space shall be through windows, doors, louvers or other openings to the outdoors. The operating mechanism for such openings shall be provided with ready access so that the openings are readily controllable by the building occupants.
1203.4.1 Ventilation area required. The minimum openable area to the outdoors shall be 4 percent of the floor area being ventilated.
1203.4. 1.1 Adjoining spaces. Where rooms and spaces without openings to the outdoors are ventilated through an adjoining room, the opening to the adjoining room shall be unobstructed and shall have an area of not less than 8 percent of the floor area of the interior room or space, but not less than 25 square feet ( 2.3 m2). The minimum openable area to the outdoors shall be based on the total floor area being ventilated.
Exception: Exterior openings required for ventilation shall be permitted to open into a thermally isolated sunroom addition or patio cover provided that the openable area between the sunroom addition or patio cover and the interior room shall have an area of not less than 8 percent of the floor area of the interior room or space, but not less than 20 square feet ( 1.86 m2). The minimum openable area to the outdoors shall be based on the total floor area being ventilated.
1203.4. 1.2 Openings below grade. Where openings below grade provide required natural ventilation, the outside horizontal clear space measured perpendicular to the opening shall be one and one-half times the depth of the opening. The depth of the opening shall be measured from the average adjoining ground level to the bottom of the opening.
1203.4.2 Contaminants exhausted. Contaminant sources in naturally ventilated spaces shall be removed in accordance with the mechanical code and the fire code.
1203.4. 2.1 Bathrooms. Rooms containing bathtubs, showers, spas and similar bathing fixtures shall be mechanically ventilated in accordance with the mechanical code.
1203.4.3 Openings on yards or courts. Where natural ventilation is to be provided by openings onto yards or courts, such yards or courts shall comply with Section 1206.
1203.5 Other ventilation and exhaust systems. Ventilation and exhaust systems for occupancies and operations involving flammable or combustible hazards or other contaminant sources as covered in the mechanical code or the fire code shall be provided as required by both codes.
1204.1 Equipment and systems. Interior spaces intended for human occupancy shall be provided with active or passive space-heating systems capable of maintaining a minimum indoor temperature of 68°F (20°C) at a point 3 feet (914 mm) above the floor on the design heating day.
Exception: Interior spaces where the primary purpose is not associated with human comfort.
1205.1 General. Every space intended for human occupancy shall be provided with natural light by means of exterior glazed openings in accordance with Section 1205.2 or shall be provided with artificial light in accordance with Section 1205.3. Exterior glazed openings shall open directly onto a public way or onto a yard or court in accordance with Section 1206.
1205.2 Natural light. The minimum net glazed area shall not be less than 8 percent of the floor area of the room served.
1205.2.1 Adjoining spaces. For the purpose of natural lighting, any room is permitted to be considered as a portion of an adjoining room where one-half of the area of the common wall is open and unobstructed and provides an opening of not less than one-tenth of the floor area of the interior room or 25 square feet ( 2.32 m2), whichever is greater.
Exception: Openings required for natural light shall be permitted to open into a thermally isolated sunroom addition or patio cover where the common wall provides a glazed area of not less than one-tenth of the floor area of the interior room or 20 square feet ( 1.86 m2), whichever is greater.
1205.2.2 Exterior openings. Exterior openings required by Section 1205.2 for natural light shall open directly onto a public way, yard or court, as set forth in Section 1206.
1. Required exterior openings are permitted to open into a roofed porch where the porch:
1.1. Abuts a public way, yard or court;
1.2. Has a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet (2134 mm); and
1.3. Has a longer side at least 65 percent open and unobstructed.
2. Skylights are not required to open directly onto a public way, yard or court.
1205.3 Artificial light. Artificial light shall be provided that is adequate to provide an average illumination of 10 foot-candles (107 lux) over the area of the room at a height of 30 inches (762 mm) above the floor level.
1205.4 Stairway illumination. Stairways within dwelling units and exterior stairways serving a dwelling unit shall have an illumination level on tread runs of not less than 1 foot-candle (11 lux). Stairs in other occupancies shall be governed by Chapter 10.
1205.4.1 Controls. The control for activation of the required stairway lighting shall be in accordance with NFPA 70.
1205.5 Emergency egress lighting. The means of egress shall be illuminated in accordance with Section 1006.1.
YARDS OR COURTS
1206.1 General. This section shall apply to yards and courts adjacent to exterior openings that provide natural light or ventilation. Such yards and courts shall be on the same property as the building.
1206.2 Yards. Yards shall not be less than 3 feet (914 mm) in width for buildings two stories or less above grade plane. For buildings more than two stories above grade plane, the minimum width of the yard shall be increased at the rate of 1 foot (305 mm) for each additional story. For buildings exceeding 14 stories above grade plane, the required width of the yard shall be computed on the basis of 14 stories above grade plane.
1206.3 Courts. Courts shall not be less than 3 feet (914 mm) in width. Courts having windows opening on opposite sides shall not be less than 6 feet (1829 mm) in width. Courts shall not be less than 10 feet (3048 mm) in length unless bounded on one end by a public way or yard. For buildings more than two stories above grade plane, the court shall be increased 1 foot (305 mm) in width and 2 feet (610 mm) in length for each additional story. For buildings exceeding 14 stories above grade plane, the required dimensions shall be computed on the basis of 14 stories above grade plane.
1206.3.1 Court access. Access shall be provided to the bottom of courts for cleaning purposes.
1206.3.2 Air intake. Courts more than two stories in height shall be provided with a horizontal air intake at the bottom not less than 10 square feet ( 0.93 m2) in area and leading to the exterior of the building unless abutting a yard or public way.
1206.3.3 Court drainage. The bottom of every court shall be properly graded and drained to a public sewer or other approved disposal system complying with the plumbing code.
1207.1 Scope. This section shall apply to common interior walls, partitions and floor/ceiling assemblies between adjacent dwelling units or between dwelling units and adjacent public areas such as halls, corridors, stairs or service areas.
1207.2 Air-borne sound. Walls, partitions and floor/ceiling assemblies separating dwelling units from each other or from public or service areas shall have a sound transmission class (STC) of not less than 50 (45 if field tested) for air-borne noise when tested in accordance with ASTM E 90. Penetrations or openings in construction assemblies for piping; electrical devices; recessed cabinets; bathtubs; soffits; or heating, ventilating or exhaust ducts shall be sealed, lined, insulated or otherwise treated to maintain the required ratings. This requirement shall not apply to dwelling unit entrance doors; however, such doors shall be tight fitting to the frame and sill.
1207.2.1 Masonry. The sound transmission class of concrete masonry and clay masonry assemblies shall be calculated in accordance with TMS 0302 or determined through testing in accordance with ASTM 90.
1207.3 Structure-borne sound. Floor/ceiling assemblies between dwelling units or between a dwelling unit and a public or service area within the structure shall have an impact insulation class (IIC) rating of not less than 50 (45 if field tested) when tested in accordance with ASTM E 492.
INTERIOR SPACE DIMENSIONS
1208.1 Minimum room widths. Habitable spaces, other than a kitchen, shall not be less than 7 feet (2134 mm) in any plan dimension. Kitchens shall have a clear passageway of not less than 3 feet (914 mm) between counter fronts and appliances or counter fronts and walls. Spaces and kitchens required by Chapter 11 to be accessible or in Type A or Type-B units, shall be designed to comply with Chapter 11.
1208.2 Minimum ceiling heights. Occupiable spaces, habitable spaces and corridors shall have a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet 6 inches (2286 mm). Bathrooms, toilet rooms, kitchens, storage rooms and laundry rooms shall be permitted to have a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet (2134 mm).
2. If any room in a building has a sloped ceiling, the prescribed ceiling height for the room is required in one-half the area thereof. Any portion of the room measuring less than 5 feet (1524 mm) from the finished floor to the ceiling shall not be included in any computation of the minimum area thereof.
3. Mezzanines constructed in accordance with Section 505.1.
1208.2.1 Furred ceiling. Any room with a furred ceiling shall be required to have the minimum ceiling height in two-thirds of the area thereof, but in no case shall the height of the furred ceiling be less than 7 feet (2134 mm).
1208.3 Room area. Every dwelling unit shall have at least one room that shall have not less than 120 square feet ( 13.9 m2)of net floor area. Other habitable rooms shall have a net floor area of not less than 70 square feet ( 6.5 m2).
Exception: Every kitchen in a dwelling shall have not less than 50 square feet ( 4.64 m2) of gross floor area.
1208.4 Efficiency dwelling units. An efficiency living unit shall conform to the requirements of the code except as modified herein:
1. The unit shall have a living room of not less than 220 square feet ( 20.4 m2) of floor area. An additional 100 square feet ( 9.3 m2) of floor area shall be provided for each occupant of such unit in excess of two.
2. The unit shall be provided with a separate closet.
3. The unit shall be provided with a kitchen sink, cooking appliance and refrigeration facilities, each having a clear working space of not less than 30 inches (762 mm) in front. Light and ventilation conforming to this code shall be provided.
4. The unit shall be provided with a separate bathroom containing a water closet, lavatory and bathtub or shower.
ACCESS TO UNOCCUPIED SPACES
1209.1 Crawl spaces. Crawl spaces shall be provided with a minimum of one access opening not less than 18 inches by 24 inches (457 mm by 610 mm).
1209.2 Attic spaces. An opening not less than 20 inches by 30 inches (559 mm by 762 mm) shall be provided to any attic area having a clear height of over 30 inches (762 mm). A 30-inch (762 mm) minimum clear headroom in the attic space shall be provided at or above the access opening.
1209.3 Mechanical appliances. Access to mechanical appliances installed in under-floor areas, in attic spaces and on roofs or elevated structures shall be in accordance with the mechanical code.
1210.1 Floors and wall base finish materials. In other than dwelling units, toilet, bathing and shower room floor finish materials shall have a smooth, hard, nonabsorbent surface. The intersections of such floors with walls shall have a smooth, hard, nonabsorbent vertical base that extends upward onto the walls at least 4 inches (102 mm).
1210.2 Walls and partitions. Walls and partitions within 2 feet (610 mm) of urinals and water closets shall have a smooth, hard, nonabsorbent surface, to a height of 4 feet (1219 mm) above the floor, and except for structural elements, the materials used in such walls shall be of a type that is not adversely affected by moisture.
1. Dwelling units and sleeping units.
2. Toilet rooms that are not accessible to the public and which have not more than one water closet.
Accessories such as grab bars, towel bars, paper dispensers and soap dishes, provided on or within walls, shall be installed and sealed to protect structural elements from moisture. For walls and partitions also see Section 2903.
1210.3 Showers. Shower compartments and walls above bathtubs with installed shower heads shall be finished with a smooth, nonabsorbent surface to a height not less than 70 inches (1778 mm) above the drain inlet.
1210.4 Waterproof joints. Built-in tubs with showers shall have waterproof joints between the tub and adjacent wall.
1210.5 Toilet rooms. Toilet rooms shall not open directly into a room used for the preparation of food for service to the public.
R.C. 119.032 review dates: 11/01/2016
Promulgated Under: 119.03
Statutory Authority: 3781.10(A)
Rule Amplifies: 3781.10, 3781.11, 3791.04
Prior Effective Dates: 1/1/02, 3/1/05, 7/1/07
Rescinded eff 3-1-05
Rescinded eff 3-1-05
Rescinded eff 7-1-07
Rescinded eff 3-1-05
Rescinded eff 7-1-07