Chapter 4101:8-21 Hydronic Piping

4101:8-21-01 [Effective until 7/1/2019] Hydronic piping.

[Comment: When a reference is made within this rule to a federal statutory provision, an industry consensus standard, or any other technical publication, the specific date and title of the publication as well as the name and address of the promulgating agency are listed in rule 4101:8-44-01 of the Administrative Code. The application of the referenced standards shall be limited and as prescribed in section 102.5 of rule 4101:8-1-01 of the Administrative Code.]

SECTION 2101

HYDRONIC PIPING SYSTEMS INSTALLATION

2101.1 General. Hydronic piping shall conform to Table 2101.1. Approved piping, valves, fittings and connections shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions. Pipe and fittings shall be rated for use at the operating temperature and pressure of the hydronic system. Used pipe, fittings, valves or other materials shall be free of foreign materials.

2101.2 System drain down. Hydronic piping systems shall be installed to permit draining of the system. Where the system drains to the plumbing drainage system, the installation shall conform to the requirements of the plumbing code.

Exception: The buried portions of systems embedded underground or under floors.

2101.3 Protection of potable water. The potable water system shall be protected from backflow in accordance with the provisions listed in the plumbing code.

2101.4 Pipe penetrations. Openings through concrete or masonry building elements shall be sleeved.

2101.5 Contact with building material. A hydronic piping system shall not be in direct contact with any building material that causes the piping material to degrade or corrode.

2101.6 Drilling and notching. Wood-framed structural members shall be drilled, notched or altered in accordance with the provisions of Sections 502.8, 602.6, 602.6.1 and 802.7. Holes in load bearing members of cold-formed steel light-frame construction shall be permitted only in accordance with Sections 505.2.5, 603.2.5 and 804.2.5. In accordance with the provisions of Sections 505.3.5, 603.3.4 and 804.3.4, cutting and notching of flanges and lips of load-bearing members of cold-formed steel light-frame construction shall not be permitted. Structural insulated panels (SIPs) shall be drilled and notched or altered in accordance with the provisions of Section 613.

2101.7 Prohibited tee applications. Fluid in the supply side of a hydronic system shall not enter a tee fitting through the branch opening.

2101.8 Expansion, contraction and settlement. Piping shall be installed so that piping, connections and equipment shall not be subjected to excessive strains or stresses. Provisions shall be made to compensate for expansion, contraction, shrinkage and structural settlement.

2101.9 Piping support. Hangers and supports shall be of material of sufficient strength to support the piping, and shall be fabricated from materials compatible with the piping material. Piping shall be supported at intervals not exceeding the spacing specified in Table 2101.9.

2101.10 Tests. Hydronic piping shall be tested hydrostatically at a pressure of not less than 100 pounds per square inch (690 kPa) for a duration of not less than 15 minutes.

SECTION 2102

BASEBOARD CONVECTORS

2102.1 General. Baseboard convectors shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions. Convectors shall be supported independently of the hydronic piping.

SECTION 2103

FLOOR HEATING SYSTEMS

2103.1 Piping materials. Piping for embedment in concrete or gypsum materials shall be standard-weight steel pipe, copper tubing, cross-linked polyethylene/aluminum/cross-linked polyethylene (PEX-AL-PEX) pressure pipe, chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC), polybutylene, cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) tubing or polypropylene (PP) with a minimum rating of 100 psi at 180°F (690 kPa at 82°C).

2103.2 Thermal barrier required. Radiant floor heating systems shall have a thermal barrier in accordance with Sections 2103.2.1 through 2103.2.4.

Exception: Insulation shall not be required in engineered systems where it can be demonstrated that the insulation will decrease the efficiency or have a negative effect on the installation.

2103.2.1 Slab on grade installation. Radiant piping used in slab-on-grade applications shall have insulating materials having a minimum R-value of 5 installed beneath the piping.

2103.2.2 Suspended floor installation. In suspended floor applications, insulation shall be installed in the joist bay cavity serving the heating space above and shall consist of materials having a minimum R-value of 11.

2103.2.3 Thermal break required. A thermal break consisting of asphalt expansion joint materials or similar insulating materials shall be provided at a point where a heated slab meets a foundation wall or other conductive slab.

2103.2.4 Thermal barrier material marking. Insulating materials used in thermal barriers shall be installed so that the manufacturer's R-value mark is readily observable upon inspection.

2103.3 Piping joints. Piping joints that are embedded shall be installed in accordance with the following requirements:

1. Steel pipe joints shall be welded.

2. Copper tubing shall be joined with brazing material having a melting point exceeding 1,000°F (538°C).

3. Polybutylene pipe and tubing joints shall be installed with socket-type heat-fused polybutylene fittings.

4. CPVC tubing shall be joined using solvent cement joints.

5. Polypropylene pipe and tubing joints shall be installed with socket-type heat-fused polypropylene fittings.

6. Cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) tubing shall be joined using cold expansion, insert or compression fittings.

TABLE 2101.1

HYDRONIC PIPING MATERIALS

MATERIAL USE CODEa STANDARDb JOINTS NOTES
Brass pipe 1 ASTM B 43 Brazed, welded, threaded, mechanical and flanged fittings   
Brass tubing 1 ASTM B 135 Brazed, soldered and mechanical fittings   
Chlorinated poly (vinyl chloride) (CPVC) pipe and tubing 1, 2, 3 ASTM D 2846 Solvent cement joints, compression joints and threaded adapters   
Copper pipe 1 ASTM B 42, B 302 Brazed, soldered and mechanical fittings threaded, welded and flanged   
Copper tubing (type K, L or M) 1, 2 ASTM B 75, B 88, B 251, B 306 Brazed, soldered and flared mechanical fittings Joints embedded in concrete
Cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) 1, 2, 3 ASTM F 876, F 877 (See PEX fittings) Install in accordance with manufacturer's instructions.
Cross-linked polyethylene/aluminum/ cross-linked polyethylene-(PEX-AL-PEX) pressure pipe 1, 2 ASTM F 1281 or CAN/ CSA B 137.10 Mechanical, crimp/insert Install in accordance with manufacturer's instructions.
PEX Fittings    ASTM F 1807 ASTM F 1960 ASTM F 2098 Copper-crimp/insert fittings, cold expansion fittings, stainless steel clamp, insert fittings Install in accordance with manufacturer's instructions
Plastic fittings PEX    ASTM F 1807      
Polybutylene (PB) pipe and tubing 1, 2, 3 ASTM D 3309 Heat-fusion, crimp/insert and compression Joints in concrete shall be heat-fused.
Polyethylene (PE) pipe, tubing and fittings (for ground source heat pump loop systems) 1, 2, 4 ASTM D 2513; ASTM D 3350; ASTM D 2513; ASTM D 3035; ASTM D 2447; ASTM D 2683; ASTM F 1055; ASTM D 2837; ASTM D 3350; ASTM D 1693 Heat-fusion   
Polyethylene/aluminum/polyethylene (PE-AL-PE) pressure pipe 1, 2, 3 ASTM F 1282 CSA B 137.9 Mechanical, crimp/insert   
Polyproplylene (PP) 1, 2, 3 ISO 15874 ASTM F 2389 Heat-fusion joints, mechanical fittings, threaded adapters, compression joints   
Raised temperature polyethylene (PE-RT) 1, 2, 3 ASTM F 2623 Copper crimp/insert fitting stainless steel clamp, insert fittings   
Soldering fluxes 1 ASTM B 813 Copper tube joints   
Steel pipe 1, 2 ASTM A 53, A 106 Brazed, welded, threaded, flanged and mechanical fittings Joints in concrete shall be welded. Galvanized pipe shall not be welded or brazed.
Steel tubing 1 ASTM A 254 Mechanical fittings, welded   

For SI: ºC = [(ºF)-32]/ 1.8.

a. Use code:

1. Above ground.

2. Embedded in radiant systems.

3. Temperatures below 180°F only.

4. Low temperature (below 130°F) applications only.

b. Standards as listed in Chapter 44.

2103.4 Testing. Piping or tubing to be embedded shall be tested by applying a hydrostatic pressure of not less than 100 psi (690 kPa). The pressure shall be maintained for 30 minutes, during which all joints shall be visually inspected for leaks.

SECTION 2104

LOW TEMPERATURE PIPING

2104.1 Piping materials. Low temperature piping for embedment in concrete or gypsum materials shall be as indicated in Table 2101.1.

2104.2 Piping joints. Piping joints (other than those in Section 2103.2 ) that are embedded shall comply with the following requirements:

1. Cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) tubing shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

2. Polyethylene tubing shall be installed with heat fusion joints.

3. Polypropylene (PP) tubing shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

2104.2.1 Polyethylene plastic pipe and tubing for ground source heat pump loop systems. Joints between polyethylene plastic pipe and tubing or fittings for ground source heat pump loop systems shall be heat fusion joints conforming to Section 2104.2.1.1, electrofusion joints conforming to Section 2104.2.1.2 or stab-type insertion joints conforming to Section 2104.2.1.3.

2104.2.1.1 Heat-fusion joints. Joints shall be of the socket-fusion, saddle-fusion or butt-fusion type, fabricated in accordance with the piping manufacturer's instructions. Joint surfaces shall be clean and free of moisture. Joint surfaces shall be heated to melt temperatures and joined. The joint shall be undisturbed until cool. Fittings shall be manufactured in accordance with ASTM D 2683.

2104.2.1.2 Electrofusion joints. Joint surfaces shall be clean and free of moisture, and scoured to expose virgin resin. Joint surfaces shall be heated to melt temperatures for the period of time specified by the manufacturer. The joint shall be undisturbed until cool. Fittings shall be manufactured in accordance with ASTM F 1055.

2104.2.1.3 Stab-type insert fittings. Joint surfaces shall be clean and free of moisture. Pipe ends shall be chamfered and inserted into the fitting to full depth. Fittings shall be manufactured in accordance with ASTM D 2513.

2104.3 Raised temperature polyethylene (PE-RT) plastic tubing. Joints between raised temperature polyethylene tubing and fittings shall conform to Sections 2104.3.1 and 2104.3.2. Mechanical joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

2104.3.1 Compression-type fittings. Where compression type fittings include inserts and ferrules or O-rings, the fittings shall be installed without omitting such inserts and ferrules or O-rings.

2104.3.2 PE-RT-to-metal connections. Solder joints in a metal pipe shall not occur within 18 inches (457 mm) of a transition from such metal pipe to PERT pipe.

TABLE 2101.9

HANGER SPACING INTERVALS

PIPING MATERIAL MAXIMUM HORIZONTAL SPACING (feet) MAXIMUM VERTICAL SPACING (feet)
ABS 4 10
CPVC <= 1 inch pipe or tubing 3 5
CPVC >= 11/4 inch 4 10
Copper or copper alloy pipe 12 10
Copper or copper alloy tubing 6 10
PB pipe or tubing 2.67 4
PE pipe or tubing 2.67 4
PEX tubing 2.67 4
PP < 1 inch pipe or tubing 2.67 4
PP > 11/4 inch 4 10
PVC 4 10
Steel pipe 12 15
Steel tubing 8 10

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

2104.4 Polyethylene/Aluminum/Polyethylene (PE-AL-PE) pressure pipe. Joints between polyethylene/aluminum/polyethylene pressure pipe and fittings shall conform to Sections 2104.4.1 and 2104.4.2. Mechanical joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

2104.4.1 Compression-type fittings. Where compression type fittings include inserts and ferrules or O-rings, the fittings shall be installed without omitting such inserts and ferrules or O-rings.

2104.4.2 PE-AL-PE to metal connections. Solder joints in a metal pipe shall not occur within 18 inches (457 mm) of a transition from such metal pipe to PE-AL-PE pipe.

SECTION 2105

GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM LOOP PIPING

2105.1 Testing. The assembled loop system shall be pressure tested with water at 100 psi (690 kPa) for 30 minutes with no observed leaks before connection (header) trenches are backfilled. Flow rates and pressure drops shall be compared to calculated values. If actual flow rate or pressure drop figures differ from calculated values by more than 10 percent, the problem shall be identified and corrected.

Effective: 01/01/2013
R.C. 119.032 review dates: 01/01/2018
Promulgated Under: 119.03
Statutory Authority: 3781.10(A), 4104.43(A)(1)
Rule Amplifies: 3781.01, 3781.06, 3781.10 , 3781.11, 3791.04, 4740.14

4101:8-21-01 [Effective 7/1/2019] Hydronic piping.

[Comment: When a reference is made within this rule to a federal statutory provision, an industry consensus standard, or any other technical publication, the specific date and title of the publication as well as the name and address of the promulgating agency are listed in rule 4101:8-44-01 of the Administrative Code. The application of the referenced standards shall be limited and as prescribed in section 102.5 of rule 4101:8-1-01 of the Administrative Code.]

SECTION 2101

HYDRONIC PIPING SYSTEMS INSTALLATION

2101.1 General.Hydronic piping shall conform to Table 2101.1. Approved piping, valves, fittings and connections shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Pipe and fittings shall be rated for use at the operating temperature and pressure of the hydronic system. Used pipe, fittings, valves or other materials shall be free of foreign materials.

TABLE 2101.1

HYDRONIC PIPING AND FITTING MATERIALS

MATERIAL

USE CODEa

STANDARDb

JOINTS

NOTES

Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic pipe

1, 5

ASTM D1527

ASTM F2806

ASTM F2969

Solvent cement joints

-

Chlorinated poly (vinyl chloride) (CPVC) pipe and tubing

1, 2, 3

ASTM D2846

Solvent cement joints, compression joints and threaded

-

Copper and copper-alloy pipe

1

ASTM B42, B43, B302

Brazed, soldered and mechanical fi threaded, welded and flanged

-

Copper and copper-alloy tubing (Type K, L or M)

1, 2

ASME B 16.51, ASTM B75, B88, B135, B251, B306

Brazed, soldered, press-connected and flared mechanical fittings

Joints embedded in concrete shall be brazed.

Cross-linked polyethylene (PEX)

1, 2, 3

ASTM F876

(See PEX fitting

Install in accordance manufacturer's instructions

Cross-linked polyethylene/ aluminum/ cross-linked polyethylene (PEX-AL-PEX) pressure pipe

1, 2

ASTM F1281 or CAN/ CSA B 137.10

Mechanical, crimp/insert

Install in accordance with manufacturer's instructions

PEX fittings

  

ASTM F877

ASTM F1807

ASTM F1960

ASTM F2098

ASTM F2159

ASTM F2735

Copper crimp/insert fittings, cold expansion fittings, stainless steel clamp, insert fittings

Install in accordance with manufacturer's instructions

Polybutylene (PB) pipe and tubing

1, 2, 3

ASTM D3309

Heat-fusion, crimp/insert and compression

Joints in concrete shall be heat-fused

Polyethylene/aluminum/polyethylene (PE-AL-PE) pressure pipe

1, 2, 3

ASTM F1282

CSA B 137.9

Mechanical, crimp/insert

-

Polypropylene (PP)

1, 2, 3

ISO 15874

ASTM F2389

Heat- fusion joints, mechanical fittings, threaded adapters, compression joints

-

Raised temperature polyethylene (PERT)

1, 2, 3

ASTM F2623,

ASTM F2769,

CSA B 137.18

Copper crimp/insert fitting, stainless steel clamp, insert fittings

-

Raised temperature Polyethylene (PERT) fittings

1, 2, 3

ASTM D3261

ASTM F1807

ASTM F2098

ASTM F2159

ASTM F2735

ASTM F2769

CSA B 137.18

Copper crimp/insert fitting, stainless steel clamp, insert fittings

-

Steel pipe

1, 2

ASTM A53

ASTM A106

Brazed, welded, threaded, flanged and mechanical fittings

Joints in concrete shall be welded. Galvanized pipe shall not be welded or brazed.

Steel tubing

1

ASTM A254

Mechanical fittings, welded

-

For SI: °C = [(°F)-32]/ 1.8.

a. Use code:

1. Above ground.

2. Embedded in radiant systems.

3. Temperatures below 180°F only.

4. Low temperature (below 130°F) applications only.

5. Temperatures below 160°F only.

b. Standards as listed in Chapter 44.

2101.2 System drain down.Hydronic piping systems shall be installed to permit draining of the system. Where the system drains to the plumbing drainage system, the installation shall conform to the requirements of the plumbing code as modified by Chapter 25.

Exception:The buried portions of systems embedded underground or under floors.

2101.3 Protection of potable water.The potable water system shall be protected from backflow in accordance with the plumbing code as modified by Chapter 25.

2101.4 Pipe penetrations.Openings through concrete or masonry building elements shall be sleeved.

2101.5 Contact with building material.A hydronic piping system shall not be in direct contact with any building material that causes the piping material to degrade or corrode.

2101.6 Drilling and notching.Wood-framed structural members shall be drilled, notched or altered in accordance with the provisions of Sections 502.8, 602.6, 602.6.1 and 802.7. Holes in load-bearing members of cold-formed steel light-frame construction shall be permitted only in accordance with Sections 505.2.6, 603.2.6 and 804.2.6. In accordance with the provisions of Sections 505.3.5, 603.3.4 and 804.3.3, cutting and notching of flanges and lips of load-bearing members of cold-formed steel light-frame construction shall not be permitted. Structural insulated panels (SIPs) shall be drilled and notched or altered in accordance with the provisions of Section 610.7.

2101.7 Prohibited tee applications.Fluid in the supply side of a hydronic system shall not enter a tee fitting through the branch opening.

2101.8 Expansion, contraction and settlement.Piping shall be installed so that piping, connections and equipment shall not be subjected to excessive strains or stresses. Provisions shall be made to compensate for expansion, contraction, shrinkage and structural settlement.

2101.9 Piping support.Hangers and supports shall be of material of sufficient strength to support the piping, and shall be fabricated from materials compatible with the piping material. Piping shall be supported at intervals not exceeding the spacing specified in Table 2101.9.

TABLE 2101.9

HANGER SPACING INTERVALS

PIPING MATERIAL

MAXIMUM HORIZONTAL SPACING (feet)

MAXIMUM VERTICAL SPACING (feet)

ABS

4

10a

CPVC < 1-inch pipe or tubing

3

5a

CPVC > 11/4 inches

4

10a

Copper or copper-alloy pipe

12

10

Copper or copper-alloy tubing

6

10

PB pipe or tubing

2.67

4

PE pipe or tubing

2.67

4

PE-RT < 1 inch

2.67

10a

PE-RT > 11/4 inches

4

10a

PEX tubing < 1 inch

2.67

4

PEX tubing > 11/4 inches

4

10a

PP < 1-inch pipe or tubing

2.67

4

PP > 11/4 inches

4

10a

PVC

4

10a

Steel pipe

12

15

Steel tubing

8

10

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

a. For sizes 2 inches and smaller, a guide shall be installed midway between required vertical supports. Such guides shall prevent pipe movement in a direction perpendicular to the axis of the pipe.

2101.10 Tests.Hydronic piping systems shall be tested hydrostatically at a pressure of one and one-half times the maximum system design pressure, but not less than 100 pounds per square inch (689 kPa). The duration of each test shall be not less than 15 minutes.

Exception:For PEX piping systems, testing with a compressed gas shall be an alternative to hydrostatic testing where compressed air or other gas pressure testing is specifically authorized by all of the manufacturers' instructions for the PEX pipe and fittings products installed at the time the system is being tested, and compressed air or other gas testing is not otherwise prohibited by applicable codes, laws, or regulations outside of this code.

SECTION 2102

BASEBOARD CONVECTORS

2102.1 General.Baseboard convectors shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Convectors shall be supported independently of the hydronic piping.

SECTION 2103

FLOOR HEATING SYSTEMS

2103.1 Piping materials.Piping for embedment in concrete or gypsum materials shall be standard-weight steel pipe, copper and copper-alloy pipe and tubing, cross-linked polyethylene/aluminum/cross-linked polyethylene (PEX-AL-PEX) pressure pipe, chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC), polybutylene, cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) tubing, polyethylene of raised temperature (PE-RT) or polypropylene (PP) with a rating of not less than 100 psi at 180°F (690 kPa at 82°C).

2103.2 Thermal barrier required.Radiant floor heating systems shall have a thermal barrier in accordance with Sections 2103.2.1 and 2103.2.2. Insulation Rvalues for slab-on-grade and suspended floor installations shall be in accordance with Chapter 11.

Exception:Insulation shall not be required in engineered systems where it can be demonstrated that the insulation will decrease the efficiency or have a negative effect on the installation.

2103.2.1 Thermal break required.A thermal break consisting of asphalt expansion joint materials or similar insulating materials shall be provided at a point where a heated slab meets a foundation wall or other conductive slab.

2103.2.2 Thermal barrier material marking.Insulating materials used in thermal barriers shall be installed so that the manufacturer's R-value mark is readily observable upon inspection.

2103.3 Piping joints.Copper and copper-alloy systems shall be soldered, brazed, or press connected. Soldering shall be in accordance with ASTM B828. Fluxes for soldering shall be in accordance with ASTM B813. Brazing fluxes shall be in accordance with AWS A 5.31. Press-connect joints shall be in accordance with ASME B 16.51. Piping joints that are embedded shall be installed in accordance with the following requirements:

1. Steel pipe joints shall be welded.

2. Copper tubing shall be joined by brazing complying with the plumbing code as modified by Chapter 25.

3. Polybutylene pipe and tubing joints shall be installed with socket-type heat-fused polybutylene fittings.

4. CPVC tubing shall be joined using solvent cement joints.

5. Polypropylene pipe and tubing joints shall be installed with socket-type heat-fused polypropylene fittings.

6. Cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) tubing shall be joined using cold expansion, insert or compression fittings.

7. Raised temperature polyethylene (PE-RT) tubing shall be joined using insert or compression fittings.

2103.4 Testing.Piping or tubing to be embedded shall be tested by applying a hydrostatic pressure of not less than 100 psi (690 kPa). The pressure shall be maintained for 30 minutes, during which the joints shall be visually inspected for leaks.

SECTION 2104

LOW TEMPERATURE PIPING

2104.1 Piping materials.Low temperature piping for embedment in concrete or gypsum materials shall be as indicated in Table 2101.1.

2104.2 Piping joints.Piping joints that are embedded, other than those in Section M 2103.3, shall comply with the following requirements:

1. Cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) tubing shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

2. Polyethylene tubing shall be installed with heat-fusion joints.

3. Polypropylene (PP) tubing shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

4. Raised temperature polyethylene (PE-RT) shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

2104.3 Raised temperature polyethylene (PE-RT) plastic tubing.Joints between raised temperature polyethylene tubing and fittings shall conform to Sections 2104.3.1 through 2104.3.3. Mechanical joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

2104.3.1 Compression-type fittings.Where compression-type fittings include inserts and ferrules or O-rings, the fittings shall be installed without omitting such inserts and ferrules or O-rings.

2104.3.2 PE-RT-to-metal connections.Solder joints in a metal pipe shall not occur within 18 inches (457 mm) of a transition from such metal pipe to PE-RT pipe.

2104.3.3 PE-RT insert fittings.PE-RT insert fittings shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

2104.4 Polyethylene/aluminum/polyethylene (PE-AL-PE) pressure pipe.Joints between polyethylene/aluminum/polyethylene pressure pipe and fittings shall conform to Sections 2104.4.1 and 2104.4.2. Mechanical joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

2104.4.1 Compression-type fittings.Where compression-type fittings include inserts and ferrules or O-rings, the fittings shall be installed without omitting such inserts and ferrules or O-rings.

2104.4.2 PE-AL-PE-to-metal connections.Solder joints in a metal pipe shall not occur within 18 inches (457 mm) of a transition from such metal pipe to PE-AL-PE pipe.

SECTION 2105

GROUND-SOURCE HEAT-PUMP SYSTEM LOOP PIPING

2105.1 Plastic ground-source heat-pump loop piping.Plastic piping and tubing material used in water-based ground-source heat-pump ground-loop systems shall conform to the standards specified in this section.

2105.2 Used materials.Reused pipe, fittings, valves, and other materials shall not be used in ground-source heat-pump loop systems.

2105.3 Material rating.Pipe and tubing shall be rated for the operating temperature and pressure of the ground-source heat-pump loop system. Fittings shall be suitable for the pressure applications and recommended by the manufacturer for installation with the pipe and tubing material installed. Where used underground, materials shall be suitable for burial.

2105.4 Piping and tubing materials standards.Ground-source heat-pump ground-loop pipe and tubing shall conform to the standards listed in Table 2105.4.

TABLE 2105.4

GROUND-SOURCE LOOP PIPE

MATERIAL

STANDARD

Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC)

ASTM D2846; ASTM F437; ASTM F438; ASTM F439; ASTM F441; ASTM F442; CSA B 137.6

Cross-linked polyethylene (PEX)

ASTM F876; CSA B 137.5

High-density polyethylene (HDPE)

ASTM D2737; ASTM D3035; ASTM F714; AWWA C901; CSA B 137.1; CSA C448; NSF 358-1

Polyethylene/aluminum/polyethylene pressure pipe (PE-AL-PE)

ASTM F1282; AWWA C 903; CSA B 137.9

Polypropylene (PP-R)

ASTM F2389; CSA B 137.11, NSF 358-2

Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)

ASTM D1785; ASTM D2241; CSA 137.3

Raised temperature polyethylene (PE-RT)

ASTM F2623; ASTM F2769, CSA B 137.18

2105.5 Fittings.Ground-source heat-pump pipe fittings shall be approved for installation with the piping materials to be installed, shall conform to the standards listed in Table 2105.5 and, where installed underground, shall be suitable for burial.

TABLE 2105.5

GROUND-SOURCE LOOP PIPE FITTINGS

PIPE MATERIAL

STANDARD

Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC)

ASTM D2846; ASTM F437; ASTM F438; ASTM F439; ASTM F1970; CSA B 137.6

Cross-linked polyethylene (PEX)

ASTM F877; ASTM F1807; ASTM F1960; ASTM F2080; ASTM F2159; ASTM F2434; CSA B 137.5

High-density polyethylene (HDPE)

ASTM D2683; ASTM D3261; ASTM F1055; CSA B 137.1; CSA C448; NSF 358-1

Polyethylene/aluminum/polyethylene (PE-AL-PE)

ASTM F1282; ASTM F2434; CSA B 137.9

Polypropylene (PP-R)

ASTM F2389; CSA B 137.11; NSF 358-2

Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)

ASTM D2464; ASTM D2466; ASTM D2467; ASTM F1970, CSA B 137.2; CSA B 137.3

Raised temperature polyethylene (PE-RT)

ASTM D2683; ASTM D3261; ASTM F1055; ASTM F1807; ASTM F2098; ASTM F2159; ASTM F2735; ASTM F2769; CSA B 137.1; CSA B 137.18

2105.6 Joints and connections.Joints and connections shall be of an approved type. Joints and connections shall be tight for the pressure of the ground-source loop system. Joints used underground shall be approved for such applications.

2105.6.1 Joints between different piping materials.Joints between different piping materials shall be made with approved transition fittings.

2105.7 Preparation of pipe ends.Pipe shall be cut square, reamed, and shall be free of burrs and obstructions. CPVC, PE and PVC pipe shall be chamfered. Pipe ends shall have full-bore openings and shall not be undercut.

2105.8 Joint preparation and installation.Where required by Sections 2105.9 through 2105.11, the preparation and installation of mechanical and thermoplastic-welded joints shall comply with Sections 2105.8.1 and 2105.8.2.

2105.8.1 Mechanical joints.Mechanical joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

2105.8.2 Thermoplastic-welded joints.Joint surfaces for thermoplastic-welded joints shall be cleaned by an approved procedure. Joints shall be welded in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

2105.9 CPVC plastic pipe.Joints between CPVC plastic pipe or fittings shall be solvent-cemented in accordance with Section 2906.9.1.2. Threaded joints between fittings and CPVC plastic pipe shall be in accordance with Section 2105.9.1.

2105.9.1 Threaded joints.Threads shall conform to ASME B1.20.1. The pipe shall be Schedule 80 or heavier plastic pipe and shall be threaded with dies specifically designed for plastic pipe. Thread lubricant, pipe-joint compound or tape shall be applied on the male threads only and shall be approved for application on the piping material.

2105.10 Cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) plastic tubing.Joints between cross-linked polyethylene plastic tubing and fittings shall comply with Sections 2105.10.1 and 2105.10.2. Mechanical joints shall comply with Section 2105.8.1.

2105.10.1 Compression-type fittings.Where compression-type fittings include inserts and ferrules or O-rings, the fittings shall be installed without omitting the inserts and ferrules or O-rings.

2105.10.2 Plastic-to-metal connections.Solder joints in a metal pipe shall not occur within 18 inches (457 mm) of a transition from such metal pipe to plastic pipe or tubing.

2105.11 Polyethylene plastic pipe and tubing.Joints between polyethylene plastic pipe and tubing or fittings for ground-source heat-pump loop systems shall be heat-fusion joints complying with Section 2105.11.1, electrofusion joints complying with Section 2105.11.2, or stab-type insertion joints complying with Section 2105.11.3.

2105.11.1 Heat-fusion joints. Joints shall be of the socket-fusion, saddle-fusion or butt-fusion type, and joined in accordance with ASTM D2657. Joint surfaces shall be clean and free from moisture. Joint surfaces shall be heated to melt temperatures and joined. The joint shall remain undisturbed until cool. Fittings shall be manufactured in accordance with ASTM D2683 or ASTM D3261.

2105.11.2 Electrofusion joints. Joints shall be of the electrofusion type. Joint surfaces shall be clean and free from moisture, and scoured to expose virgin resin. Joint surfaces shall be heated to melt temperatures for the period of time specified by the manufacturer. The joint shall remain undisturbed until cool. Fittings shall be manufactured in accordance with ASTM F1055.

2105.11.3 Stab-type insert fittings.Joint surfaces shall be clean and free from moisture. Pipe ends shall be chamfered and inserted into the fittings to full depth. Fittings shall be manufactured in accordance with ASTM F1924.

2105.12 Polypropylene (PP) plastic.Joints between PP plastic pipe and fittings shall comply with Sections 2105.12.1 and 2105.12.2.

2105.12.1 Heat-fusion joints.Heat-fusion joints for polypropylene (PP) pipe and tubing joints shall be installed with socket-type heat-fused polypropylene fittings, electrofusion polypropylene fittings or by butt fusion. Joint surfaces shall be clean and free from moisture. The joint shall remain undisturbed until cool. Joints shall be made in accordance with ASTM F2389.

2105.12.2 Mechanical and compression sleeve joints.Mechanical and compression sleeve joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

2105.13 Raised temperature polyethylene (PE-RT) plastic tubing.Joints between raised temperature polyethylene tubing and fittings shall comply with Sections 2105.13.1 through 2105.13.4. Mechanical joints shall comply with Section 2105.8.1.

2105.13.1 Compression-type fittings.Where compression-type fittings include inserts and ferrules or O-rings, the fittings shall be installed without omitting the inserts and ferrules or O-rings.

2105.13.2 PE-RT-to-metal connections.Solder joints in a metal pipe shall not occur within 18 inches (457 mm) of a transition from such metal pipe to PE-RT pipe or tubing.

2105.13.3 Heat-fusion joints.Heat-fusion joints shall be of the socket-fusion, saddle-fusion or butt-fusion type, and shall be joined in accordance with ASTM D2657. Joint surfaces shall be clean and free from moisture. Joint surfaces shall be heated to melt temperatures and joined. The joint shall remain undisturbed until cool. Fittings shall be manufactured in accordance with ASTM D2683 or ASTM D3261.

2105.13.4 Electrofusion joints.Joints shall be of the electrofusion type. Joint surfaces shall be clean and free from moisture and scoured to expose virgin resin. Joint surfaces shall be heated to melt temperatures for the period of time specified by the manufacturer and joined. The joint shall remain undisturbed until cool. Fittings shall be manufactured in accordance with ASTM F1055.

2105.14 PVC plastic pipe.Joints between PVC plastic pipe or fittings shall be solvent-cemented in accordance with Section 2906.9.1.4. Threaded joints between fittings and PVC plastic pipe shall be in accordance with Section 2105.9.1.

2105.15 Shutoff valves.Shutoff valves shall be installed in ground-source loop piping systems in the locations indicated in Sections 2105.15.1 through 2105.15.6.

2105.15.1 Heat exchangers.Shutoff valves shall be installed on the supply and return side of a heat exchanger.

Exception: Shutoff valves shall not be required where heat exchangers are integral with a boiler or are a component of a manufacturer's boiler and heat exchanger packaged unit and are capable of being isolated from the hydronic system by the supply and return valves required by Section 2001.3.

2105.15.2 Central systems.Shutoff valves shall be installed on the building supply and return of a central utility system.

2105.15.3 Pressure vessels.Shutoff valves shall be installed on the connection to any pressure vessel.

2105.15.4 Pressure-reducing valves.Shutoff valves shall be installed on both sides of a pressure-reducing valve.

2105.15.5 Equipment and appliances.Shutoff valves shall be installed on connections to mechanical equipment and appliances. This requirement does not apply to components of ground-source loop systems such as pumps, air separators, metering devices, and similar equipment.

2105.15.6 Expansion tanks.Shutoff valves shall be installed at connections to non diaphragm-type expansion tanks.

2105.16 Reduced pressure.A pressure relief valve shall be installed on the low-pressure side of a hydronic piping system that has been reduced in pressure. The relief valve shall be set at the maximum pressure of the system design. The valve shall be installed in accordance with Section 2002.

2105.17 Installation.Piping, valves, fittings, and connections shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

2105.18 Protection of potable water.Where ground-source heat-pump ground-loop systems have a connection to a potable water supply, the potable water system shall be protected from backflow in accordance with Section 2902.

2105.19 Pipe penetrations.Openings for pipe penetrations in walls, floors and ceilings shall be larger than the penetrating pipe. Openings through concrete or masonry building elements shall be sleeved. The annular space surrounding pipe penetrations shall be protected in accordance with Section 2606.1.

2105.20 Clearance from combustibles.A pipe in a ground-source heat pump piping system having an exterior surface temperature exceeding 250°F (121°C) shall have a clearance of not less than 1 inch (25 mm) from combustible materials.

2105.21 Contact with building material.A ground-source heat-pump ground-loop piping system shall not be in direct contact with building materials that cause the piping or fitting material to degrade or corrode, or that interfere with the operation of the system.

2105.22 Strains and stresses. Piping shall be installed so as to prevent detrimental strains and stresses in the pipe. Provisions shall be made to protect piping from damage resulting from expansion, contraction and structural settlement. Piping shall be installed so as to avoid structural stresses or strains within building components.

2105.22.1 Flood hazard.Piping located in a flood hazard area shall be capable of resisting hydrostatic and hydrodynamic loads and stresses, including the effects of buoyancy, during the occurrence of flooding to the design flood elevation.

2105.23 Pipe support.Pipe shall be supported in accordance with Section 2101.9.

2105.24 Velocities.Ground-source heat-pump ground-loop systems shall be designed so that the flow velocities do not exceed the maximum flow velocity recommended by the pipe and fittings manufacturer. Flow velocities shall be controlled to reduce the possibility of water hammer.

2105.25 Labeling and marking.Ground-source heat-pump ground-loop system piping shall be marked with tape, metal tags or other methods where it enters a building. The marking shall state the following words: "GROUND-SOURCE HEAT-PUMP LOOP SYSTEM." The marking shall indicate if antifreeze is used in the system and shall indicate the chemicals by name and concentration.

2105.26 Chemical compatibility.Antifreeze and other materials used in the system shall be chemically compatible with the pipe, tubing, fittings and mechanical systems.

2105.27 Makeup water.The transfer fluid shall be compatible with the makeup water supplied to the system.

2105.28 Testing.Before connection header trenches are backfilled, the assembled loop system shall be pressure tested with water at 100 psi (689 kPa) for 15 minutes without observed leaks. Flow and pressure loss testing shall be performed and the actual flow rates and pressure drops shall be compared to the calculated design values. If actual flow rate or pressure drop values differ from calculated design values by more than 10 percent, the cause shall be identified and corrective action taken.

2105.29 Embedded piping.Ground-source heat-pump ground-loop piping to be embedded in concrete shall be pressure tested prior to pouring concrete. During pouring, the pipe shall be maintained at the proposed operating pressure.

Replaces: 4101:8-21-01

Effective: 7/1/2019
Five Year Review (FYR) Dates: 07/01/2024
Promulgated Under: 119.03
Statutory Authority: 3781.10(A)(1)
Rule Amplifies: 3781.01, 4740.14, 3791.04, 3781.11, 3781.10 , 3781.06
Prior Effective Dates: 01/01/2013