Chapter 4101:8-4 Concrete

4101:8-4-01 Foundations.

[Comment: When a reference is made within this rule to a federal statutory provision, an industry consensus standard, or any other technical publication, the specific date and title of the publication as well as the name and address of the promulgating agency are listed in rule 4101:8-44-01 of the Administrative Code. The application of the referenced standards shall be limited and as prescribed in section 102.5 of rule 4101:8-1-01 of the Administrative Code.]

SECTION 401

GENERAL

401.1 Application. The provisions of this chapter shall control the design and construction of the foundation and foundation spaces for all buildings. In addition to the provisions of this chapter, the design and construction of foundations in areas prone to flooding as established by Table 301.2(1) shall meet the provisions of Section 322. Wood foundations shall be designed and installed in accordance with AF&PA PWF.

Exception: The provisions of this chapter shall be permitted to be used for wood foundations only in the following situations:

1. In buildings that have no more than two floors and a roof.

2. When interior basement and foundation walls are constructed at intervals not exceeding 50 feet (15 240 mm).

Wood foundations in Seismic Design Category D0, D1 or D2 shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.

401.2 Requirements. Foundation construction shall be capable of accommodating all loads according to Section 301 and of transmitting the resulting loads to the supporting soil. Fill soils that support footings and foundations shall be designed, installed and tested in accordance with accepted engineering practice. Gravel fill used as footings for wood and precast concrete foundations shall comply with Section 403.

401.3 Drainage. Surface drainage shall be diverted to a storm sewer conveyance or other approved point of collection that does not create a hazard. Lots shall be graded to drain surface water away from foundation walls. The grade shall fall a minimum of 6 inches (152 mm) within the first 10 feet (3048 mm).

Exception: Where lot lines, walls, slopes or other physical barriers prohibit 6 inches (152 mm) of fall within 10 feet (3048 mm), drains or swales shall be constructed to ensure drainage away from the structure. Impervious surfaces within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the building foundation shall be sloped a minimum of 2 percent away from the building.

401.4 Soil tests. Where quantifiable data created by accepted soil science methodologies indicate expansive, compressible, shifting or other questionable soil characteristics are likely to be present, the building official maydetermine whether to require a soil test to determine the soil's characteristics at a particular location. This test shall be done by an approved agency using an approved method.

401.4.1 Geotechnical evaluation. In lieu of a complete geotechnical evaluation, the load-bearing values in Table 401.4.1 shall be assumed.

TABLE 401.4.1

PRESUMPTIVE LOAD-BEARING VALUES OF FOUNDATION MATERIALSa

CLASS OF MATERIAL LOAD-BEARING PRESSURE (pounds per square foot)
Crystalline bedrock 12,000
Sedimentary and foliated rock 4,000
Sandy gravel and/or gravel (GW and GP) 3,000
Sand, silty sand, clayey sand, silty gravel and clayey gravel (SW, SP, SM, SC, GM and GC) 2,000
Clay, sandy clay, silty clay, clayey silt, silt and sandy silt (CL, ML, MH and CH) 1,500b

For SI: 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa.

a. When soil tests are required by Section R 401.4, the allowable bearing capacities of the soil shall be part of the recommendations.

b. Where the building official determines that in-place soils with an allowable bearing capacity of less than 1,500 psf are likely to be present at the site, the allowable bearing capacity shall be determined by a soils investigation.

401.4.2 Controlled low-strength material (CLSM). Where footings will bear on controlled low-strength material (CLSM), the CLSM shall comply with the provisions of an approved report. The report shall contain the following:

1. Specifications for the preparation of the site prior to placement of CLSM.

2. Specifications for the CLSM.

3. Laboratory or field test method(s) to be used to determine the compressive strength or bearing capacity of the CLSM.

4. Test methods for determining the acceptance of the CLSM in the field.

5. Number and frequency of field tests required to determine compliance with Item 4.

401.5 Compressible or shifting soil. Instead of a complete geotechnical evaluation, when top or subsoils are compressible or shifting, they shall be removed to a depth and width sufficient to assure stable moisture content in each active zone and shall not be used as fill or stabilized within each active zone by chemical, dewatering or presaturation.

SECTION 402

MATERIALS

402.1 Wood foundations. Wood foundation systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with the provisions of this code.

402.1.1 Fasteners. Fasteners used below grade to attach plywood to the exterior side of exterior basement or crawl-space wall studs, or fasteners used in knee wall construction, shall be of Type 304 or 316 stainless steel. Fasteners used above grade to attach plywood and all lumber-to-lumber fasteners except those used in knee wall construction shall be of Type 304 or 316 stainless steel, silicon bronze, copper, hot-dipped galvanized (zinc coated) steel nails, or hot-tumbled galvanized (zinc coated) steel nails. Electrogalvanized steel nails and galvanized (zinc coated) steel staples shall not be permitted.

402.1.2 Wood treatment. All lumber and plywood shall be pressure-preservative treated and dried after treatment in accordance with AWPA U1 (Commodity Specification A, Use Category 4B and Section 5.2 ), and shall bear the label of an accredited agency. Where lumber and/or plywood is cut or drilled after treatment, the treated surface shall be field treated with copper naphthenate, the concentration of which shall contain a minimum of 2 percent copper metal, by repeated brushing, dipping or soaking until the wood absorbs no more preservative.

402.2 Concrete. Concrete shall have a minimum specified compressive strength of f'c, as shown in Table 402.2. Concrete subject to moderate or severe weathering as indicated in Table 301.2(1) shall be air entrained as specified in Table 402.2. The maximum weight of fly ash, other pozzolans, silica fume, slag or blended cements that is included in concrete mixtures for garage floor slabs and for exterior porches, carport slabs and steps that will be exposed to deicing chemicals shall not exceed the percentages of the total weight of cementitious materials specified in Section 4.2.3 of ACI 318. Materials used to produce concrete and testing thereof shall comply with the applicable standards listed in Chapter 3 of ACI 318 or ACI 332.

TABLE 402.2

MINIMUM SPECIFIED COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE

TYPE OR LOCATION OF CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION MINIMUM SPECIFIED COMPRESSIVE STRENGTHa (f 'c)
Weathering Potentialb
Negligible Moderate Severe
Basement walls, foundations and other concrete not exposed to the weather 2,500 2,500 2,500c
Basement slabs and interior slabs on grade, except garage floor slabs 2,500 2,500 2,500c
Basement walls, foundation walls, exterior walls and other vertical concrete work exposed to the weather 2,500 3,000d 3,000d
Porches, carport slabs and steps exposed to the weather, and garage floor slabs 2,500 3,000d, e, f 3,500d, e, f

For SI: 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa.

a. Strength at 28 days psi.

b. See Table 301.2(1) for weathering potential.

c. Concrete in these locations that may be subject to freezing and thawing during construction shall be air-entrained concrete in accordance with Footnote d.

d. Concrete shall be air-entrained. Total air content (percent by volume of concrete) shall be not less than 5 percent or more than 7 percent.

e. See Section 402.2 for maximum cementitious materials content.

f. For garage floors with a steel troweled finish, reduction of the total air content (percent by volume of concrete) to not less than 3 percent is permitted if the specified compressive strength of the concrete is increased to not less than 4,000 psi.

402.3 Precast concrete. Precast concrete foundations shall be designed in accordance with Section 404.5 and shall be installed in accordance with the provisions of this code and the manufacturer's installation instructions.

402.3.1 Precast concrete foundation materials. Materials used to produce precast concrete foundations shall meet the following requirements.

1. All concrete used in the manufacture of precast concrete foundations shall have a minimum compressive strength of 5,000 psi (34 470 kPa) at 28 days. Concrete exposed to a freezing and thawing environment shall be air entrained with a minimum total air content of 5 percent.

2. Structural reinforcing steel shall meet the requirements of ASTM A 615, A 706 or A 996. The minimum yield strength of reinforcing steel shall be 40,000 psi (Grade 40) (276 MPa). Steel reinforcement for precast concrete foundation walls shall have a minimum concrete cover of 3/4 inch ( 19.1 mm).

3. Panel-to-panel connections shall be made with Grade II steel fasteners.

4. The use of nonstructural fibers shall conform to ASTM C 1116.

5. Grout used for bedding precast foundations placed upon concrete footings shall meet ASTM C 1107.

SECTION 403

FOOTINGS

403.1 General. All exterior walls shall be supported on continuous solid or fully grouted masonry or concrete footings, crushed stone footings, wood foundations, or other approved structural systems which shall be of sufficient design to accommodate all loads according to Section 301 and to transmit the resulting loads to the soil within the limitations as determined from the character of the soil. Footings shall be supported on undisturbed natural soils, controlled low-strength material (CLSM), or engineered fill. Concrete footingsshall be designed and constructed in accordance with the provisions of Section 403 or in accordance with ACI 332.

403.1.1 Minimum size. Minimum sizes for concrete and masonry footings shall be as set forth in Table 403.1 and Figure 403.1(1). The footing width, W, shall be based on the load-bearing value of the soil in accordance with Table 401.4.1. Spread footings shall be at least 6 inches (152 mm) in thickness, T. Footing projections, P, shall be at least 2 inches (51 mm) and shall not exceed the thickness of the footing. The size of footings supporting piers and columns shall be based on the tributary load and allowable soil pressure in accordance with Table 401.4.1. Footings for wood foundations shall be in accordance with the details set forth in Section 403.2, and Figures 403.1(2) and 403.1(3).

TABLE 403.1

MINIMUM WIDTH OF CONCRETE, PRECAST OR MASONRY FOOTINGS (inches)a

  LOAD-BEARING VALUE OF SOIL (psf)
1,500 2,000 3,000 4,000
Conventional light-frame construction
1-story 12 12 12 12
2-story 15 12 12 12
3-story 23 17 12 12
4-inch brick veneer over light frame or 8-inch hollow concrete masonry
1-story 12 12 12 12
2-story 21 16 12 12
3-story 32 24 16 12
8-inch solid or fully grouted masonry
1-story 16 12 12 12
2-story 29 21 14 12
3-story 42 32 21 16

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa.

a. Where minimum footing width is 12 inches, use of a single wythe of solid or fully grouted 12-inch nominal concrete masonry units is permitted.

403.1.2 Continuous footing in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2.Deleted.

403.1.3 Seismic reinforcing. Deleted.

403.1.3.1 Foundations with stemwalls. Foundations with stem walls shall have installed a minimum of one No. 4 bar within 12 inches (305 mm) of the top of the wall and one No. 4 bar located 3 inches (76 mm) to 4 inches (102 mm) from the bottom of the footing.

403.1.3.2 Slabs-on-ground with turned-down footings. Slabs on ground with turned down footings shall have a minimum of one No. 4 bar at the top and the bottom of the footing.

Exception: For slabs-on-ground cast monolithically with the footing, locating one No. 5 bar or two No. 4 bars in the middle third of the footing depth shall be permitted as an alternative to placement at the footing top and bottom.

Where the slab is not cast monolithically with the footing, No. 3 or larger vertical dowels with standard hooks on each end shall be provided in accordance with Figure 403.1.3.2. Standard hooks shall comply with Section 611.5.4.5.

403.1.4 Minimum depth. All exterior footings shall be placed at least 12 inches (305 mm) below the undisturbed ground surface. Where applicable, the depth of footings shall also conform to Sections 403.1.4.1 through 403.1.4.2.

403.1.4.1 Frost protection. Except where otherwise protected from frost, foundation walls, piers and other permanent supports of buildings and structures shall be protected from frost by one or more of the following methods:

1. Extended below the frost line specified in Table 301.2.(1);

2. Constructing in accordance with Section 403.3;

3. Constructing in accordance with ASCE 32; or

4. Erected on solid rock.

Exceptions:

1. Protection of freestanding accessory structures with an area of 600 square feet (56 m2) or less, of light-frame construction, with an eave height of 10 feet (3048 mm) or less shall not be required.

2. Protection of freestanding accessory structures with an area of 400 square feet (37 m2) or less, of other than light-frame construction, with an eave height of 10 feet (3048 mm) or less shall not be required.

3. Decks not supported by a dwelling need not be provided with footings that extend below the frost line.

Footings shall not bear on frozen soil unless the frozen condition is permanent.

403.1.4.2 Seismic conditions. Deleted.

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403.1.5 Slope. The top surface of footings shall be level. The bottom surface of footings shall not have a slope exceeding one unit vertical in 10 units horizontal (10-percent slope). Footings shall be stepped where it is necessary to change the elevation of the top surface of the footings or where the slope of the bottom surface of the footings will exceed one unit vertical in ten units horizontal (10-percent slope).

403.1.6 Foundation anchorage. Sill plates and walls supported directly on continuous foundations shall be anchored to the foundation in accordance with this section.

Wood sole plates at all exterior walls on monolithic slabs, wood sole plates of braced wall panels at building interiors on monolithic slabs and all wood sill plates shall be anchored to the foundation with anchor bolts spaced a maximum of 6 feet (1829 mm) on center. Bolts shall be at least 1/2 inch ( 12.7 mm) in diameter and shall extend a minimum of 7 inches (178 mm) into concrete or grouted cells of concrete masonry units. A nut and washer shall be tightened on each anchor bolt. There shall be a minimum of two bolts per plate section with one bolt located not more than 12 inches (305 mm) or less than seven bolt diameters from each end of the plate section. Interior bearing wall sole plates on monolithic slab foundation that are not part of a braced wall panel shall be positively anchored with approved fasteners. Sill plates and sole plates shall be protected against decay and termites where required by Sections 317 and 318. Cold-formed steel framing systems shall be fastened to wood sill plates or anchored directly to the foundation as required in Section 505.3.1 or 603.3.1.

Exceptions:

1. Foundation anchorage, spaced as required to provide equivalent anchorage to 1/2-inch-diameter ( 12.7 mm) anchor bolts.

2. Walls 24 inches (610 mm) total length or shorter connecting offset braced wall panels shall be anchored to the foundation with a minimum of one anchor bolt located in the center third of the plate section and shall be attached to adjacent braced wall panels at corners as shown in Figure 602.10.4.4(1).

3. Connection of walls 12 inches (305 mm) total length or shorter connecting offset braced wall panels to the foundation without anchor bolts shall be permitted. The wall shall be attached to adjacent braced wall panels at corners as shown in Figure 602.10.4.4(1).

403.1.6.1 Foundation anchorage in Seismic Design Categories C, D0, D1 and D2.Deleted.

403.1.7 Footings on or adjacent to slopes. The placement of buildings and structures on or adjacent to slopes steeper than one unit vertical in three units horizontal ( 33.3 -percent slope) shall conform to Sections 403.1.7.1 through 403.1.7.4.

403.1.7.1 Building clearances from ascending slopes. In general, buildings below slopes shall be set a sufficient distance from the slope to provide protection from slope drainage, erosion and shallow failures. Except as provided in Section 403.1.7.4 and Figure 403.1.7.1, the following criteria will be assumed to provide this protection. Where the existing slope is steeper than one unit vertical in one unit horizontal (100-percent slope), the toe of the slope shall be assumed to be at the intersection of a horizontal plane drawn from the top of the foundation and a plane drawn tangent to the slope at an angle of 45 degrees ( 0.79 rad) to the horizontal. Where a retaining wall is constructed at the toe of the slope, the height of the slope shall be measured from the top of the wall to the top of the slope.

403.1.7.2 Footing setback from descending slope surfaces. Footings on or adjacent to slope surfaces shall be founded in material with an embedment and setback from the slope surface sufficient to provide vertical and lateral support for the footing without detrimental settlement. Except as provided for in Section 403.1.7.4 and Figure 403.1.7.1, the following setback is deemed adequate to meet the criteria. Where the slope is steeper than one unit vertical in one unit horizontal (100-percent slope), the required setback shall be measured from an imaginary plane 45 degrees ( 0.79 rad) to the horizontal, projected upward from the toe of the slope.

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403.1.7.3 Foundation elevation. On graded sites, the top of any exterior foundation shall extend above the elevation of the street gutter at point of discharge or the inlet of an approved drainage device a minimum of 12 inches (305 mm) plus 2 percent. Alternate elevations are permitted subject to the approval of the building official, provided it can be demonstrated that required drainage to the point of discharge and away from the structure is provided at all locations on the site.

403.1.7.4 Alternate setback and clearances. Alternate setbacks and clearances are permitted, subject to the approval of the building official. The building official is permitted to require an investigation and recommendation of a qualified engineer to demonstrate that the intent of this section has been satisfied. Such an investigation shall include consideration of material, height of slope, slope gradient, load intensity and erosion characteristics of slope material.

403.1.8 Foundations on expansive soils. Foundation and floor slabs for buildings located on expansive soils shall be designed in accordance with Section 1808.6of the Ohio Building Code.

Exception: Slab-on-ground and other foundation systems which have performed adequately in soil conditions similar to those encountered at the building site are permitted subject to the approval of the building official.

403.1.8.1 Expansive soils classifications. Soils meeting all four of the following provisions shall be considered expansive, except that tests to show compliance with Items 1, 2 and 3 shall not be required if the test prescribed in Item 4 is conducted:

1. Plasticity Index (PI) of 15 or greater, determined in accordance with ASTM D 4318.

2. More than 10 percent of the soil particles pass a No. 200 sieve (75 µm), determined in accordance with ASTM D 422.

3. More than 10 percent of the soil particles are less than 5 micrometers in size, determined in accordance with ASTM D 422.

4. Expansion Index greater than 20, determined in accordance with ASTM D 4829.

403.2 Footings for wood foundations. Footings for wood foundations shall be in accordance with Figures 403.1(2) and 403.1(3). Gravel shall be washed and well graded. The maximum size stone shall not exceed 3/4 inch ( 19.1 mm). Gravel shall be free from organic, clayey or silty soils. Sand shall be coarse, not smaller than 1/16-inch ( 1.6 mm) grains and shall be free from organic, clayey or silty soils. Crushed stone shall have a maximum size of 1/2 inch ( 12.7 mm).

403.3 Frost protected shallow foundations. For buildings where the monthly mean temperature of the building is maintained at a minimum of 64°F (18°C), footings are not required to extend below the frost line when protected from frost by insulation in accordance with Figure 403.3(1) and Table 403.3(1). Foundations protected from frost in accordance with Figure 403.3(1) and Table 403.3(1) shall not be used for unheated spaces such as porches, utility rooms, garages and carports, and shall not be attached to basements or crawl spaces that are not maintained at a minimum monthly mean temperature of 64°F (18°C).

Materials used below grade for the purpose of insulating footings against frost shall be labeled as complying with ASTM C 578.

403.3.1 Foundations adjoining frost protected shallow foundations. Foundations that adjoin frost protected shallow foundations shall be protected from frost in accordance with Section 403.1.4.

403.3.1.1 Attachment to unheated slab-on-ground structure. Vertical wall insulation and horizontal insulation of frost protected shallow foundations that adjoin a slab-on-ground foundation that does not have a monthly mean temperature maintained at a minimum of 64°F (18°C) shall be in accordance with Figure 403.3(3) and Table 403.3(1). Vertical wall insulation shall extend between the frost protected shallow foundation and the adjoining slab foundation. Required horizontal insulation shall be continuous under the adjoining slab foundation and through any foundation walls adjoining the frost protected shallow foundation. Where insulation passes through a foundation wall, it shall either be of a type complying with this section and having bearing capacity equal to or greater than the structural loads imposed by the building, or the building shall be designed and constructed using beams, lintels, cantilevers or other

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For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

a. See Table 403.3(1) for required dimensions and R-values for vertical and horizontal insulation and minimum footing depth.

FIGURE 403.3(1)

INSULATION PLACEMENT FOR FROST PROTECTED FOOTINGS IN HEATED BUILDINGS

TABLE 403.3(1)

MINIMUM FOOTING DEPTH AND INSULATION REQUIREMENTS FOR FROSTPROTECTED FOOTINGS IN HEATED BUILDINGSa

AIR FREEZING INDEX (°Fdays) b MINIMUM FOOTING DEPTH, D (inches) VERTICAL INSULATION R-VALUEc, d HORIZONTAL INSULATION R-VALUEc, e HORIZONTAL INSULATION DIMENSIONS PER FIGURE 403.3(1) (inches)
Along walls At corners A B C
1,500 or less 12 4.5 Not required Not required Not required Not required Not required
2,000 14 5.6 Not required Not required Not required Not required Not required
2,500 16 6.7 1.7 4.9 12 24 40
3,000 16 7.8 6.5 8.6 12 24 40
3,500 16 9.0 8.0 11.2 24 30 60
4,000 16 10.1 10.5 13.1 24 36 60

a. Insulation requirements are for protection against frost damage in heated buildings. Greater values may be required to meet energy conservation standards.

b. See Figure 403.3(2) or Table 403.3(2) for Air Freezing Index values.

c. Insulation materials shall provide the stated minimum R-values under long-term exposure to moist, below-ground conditions in freezing climates. The following R-values shall be used to determine insulation thicknesses required for this application: Type II expanded polystyrene- 2.4R per inch; Type IV extruded polystyrene- 4.5R per inch; Type VI extruded polystyrene- 4.5R per inch; Type IX expanded polystyrene- 3.2R per inch; Type X extruded polystyrene- 4.5R per inch.

d. Vertical insulation shall be expanded polystyrene insulation or extruded polystyrene insulation.

e. Horizontal insulation shall be extruded polystyrene insulation.

TABLE 403.3(2)

AIR-FREEZING INDEX FOR U.S. LOCATIONS BY COUNTY

STATE   AIR-FREEZING INDEX      
1500 or less 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000
Ohio All counties not listed Ashland, Crawford, Defiance, Holmes, Huron, Knox, Licking, Morrow, Paulding, Putnam, Richland, Seneca, Williams - - - -

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403.3.1.2 Attachment to heated structure. Where a frost protected shallow foundation abuts a structure that has a monthly mean temperature maintained at a minimum of 64°F (18°C), horizontal insulation and vertical wall insulation shall not be required between the frost protected shallow foundation and the adjoining structure. Where the frost protected shallow foundation abuts the heated structure, the horizontal insulation and vertical wall insulation shall extend along the adjoining foundation in accordance with Figure 403.3(4) a distance of not less than Dimension A in Table 403.3(1).

Exception: Where the frost protected shallow foundation abuts the heated structure to form an inside corner, vertical insulation extending along the adjoining foundation is not required.

403.3.2 Protection of horizontal insulation below ground. Horizontal insulation placed less than 12 inches (305 mm) below the ground surface or that portion of horizontal insulation extending outward more than 24 inches (610 mm) from the foundation edge shall be protected against damage by use of a concrete slab or asphalt paving on the ground surface directly above the insulation or by cementitious board, plywood rated for below-ground use, or other approved materials placed below ground, directly above the top surface of the insulation.

403.3.3 Drainage. Final grade shall be sloped in accordance with Section R 401.3. In other than Group I Soils, as detailed in Table 405.1, gravel or crushed stone beneath horizontal insulation below ground shall drain by gravity or mechanical means into an approved drainage system or other location that complies with the Ohio Plumbing Code.

403.3.4 Termite damage. The use of foam plastic in areas of "very heavy" termite infestation probability shall be in accordance with Section R 318.4.

403.4 Footings for precast concrete foundations. Footings for precast concrete foundations shall comply with Section 403.4.

403.4.1 Crushed stone footings. Clean crushed stone shall be free from organic, clayey or silty soils. Crushed stone shall be angular in nature and meet ASTM C 33, with the maximum size stone not to exceed 1/2 inch ( 12.7 mm) and the minimum stone size not to be smaller than 1/16-inch ( 1.6 mm). Crushed stone footings for precast foundations shall be installed in accordance with Figure 403.4(1) and Table 403.4. Crushed stone footings shall be consolidated using a vibratory plate in a maximum of 8-inch lifts. Crushed stone footings shall be limited to Seismic Design Categories A, B and C.

403.4.2 Concrete footings. Concrete footings shall be installed in accordance with Section 403.1 and Figure 403.4(2).

403.5 Exterior deck footings. Exterior deck footings of poured-in-place concrete shall be a minimum of 8 inches (203 mm) thick and extend below the frost depth per Table 301.2(1). The diameter or width of the footing shall comply with Table 403.5.

TABLE 403.4

MINIMUM DEPTH OF CRUSHED STONE FOOTINGS (D), (inches)

  LOAD BEARING VALUE OF SOIL (psf)
1500 2000 3000 4000
MH, CH, CL, ML SC, GC, SM, GM, SP, SW GP, GW  
Wall width (inches) Wall width (inches) Wall width (inches) Wall width (inches)
6 8 10 12 6 8 10 12 6 8 10 12 6 8 10 12
Conventional light-frame construction
1-story 1100 plf 6 4 4 4 6 4 4 4 6 4 4 4 6 4 4 4
2-story 1800 plf 8 6 4 4 6 4 4 4 6 4 4 4 6 4 4 4
3-story 2000 plf 16 14 12 10 10 8 6 6 6 4 4 4 6 4 4 4
4-inch brick veneer over light-frame or 8-inch hollow concrete masonry
1-story 1500 plf 6 4 4 4 6 4 4 4 6 4 4 4 6 4 4 4
2-story 2700 plf 14 12 10 8 10 8 6 4 6 4 4 4 6 4 4 4
3-story 4000 plf 22 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 10 8 6 4 6 4 4 4
8-inch solidor fully grouted masonry
1-story 2000 plf 10 8 6 4 6 4 4 4 6 4 4 4 6 4 4 4
2-story 3600 plf 20 18 16 16 14 12 10 8 8 6 4 4 6 4 4 4
3-story 5300 plf 32 30 28 26 22 22 20 18 14 12 10 8 10 8 6 4

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.89 kPa.

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TABLE 403.5

MINIMUM FOOTING SIZE FOR DECK FOOTINGSWITHOUT ROOF LOADS

EXTERIOR DECK AND PORCH FOOTING SIZE IN INCHES a,b
Diameter Square Maximum Tributary Area Allowed Per Post (square feet)
8 8 x 8 14
10 9 x 9 22
12 11 x 11 31.6
14 13 x 13 42.8
16 15 x 15 56
18 16 x 16 70.8
20 18 x 18 87.2

a. Based upon 2000 lbs. per square foot soil bearing capacity.

b. Based upon 40 lbs. per square foot live load and a 10 lbs. per square foot dead load.

SECTION 404

FOUNDATION AND RETAINING WALLS

404.1 Concrete and masonry foundation walls. Concrete foundation walls shall be selected and constructed in accordance with the provisions of Section 404.1.2. Masonry foundation walls shall be selected and constructed in accordance with the provisions of Section 404.1.1.

404.1.1 Design of masonry foundation walls. Masonry foundation walls shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the provisions of this section or in accordance with the provisions of TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5 or NCMA TR68-A.

TABLE 404.1.1(1)

PLAIN MASONRY FOUNDATION WALLS

MAXIMUM WALL HEIGHT (feet) MAXIMUMUNBALANCEDBACKFILL HEIGHTc(feet) PLAIN MASONRYa MINIMUM NOMINAL WALL THICKNESS (inches)
Soil classesb
GW, GP, SW and SP GM, GC, SM, SM-SC and ML SC, MH, ML-CL and inorganic CL
5 4 6 solidd or 8 6 solidd or 8 6 solidd or 8
5 6 solidd or 8 8 10
6 4 6 solidd or 8 6 solidd or 8 6 solidd or 8
5 6 solidd or 8 8 10
6 8 10 12
7 4 6 solidd or 8 8 8
5 6 solidd or 8 10 10
6 10 12 10 solidd
7 12 10 solidd 12 solidd
8 4 6 solidd or 8 6 solidd or 8 8
5 6 solidd or 8 10 12
6 10 12 12 solidd
7 12 12 solidd Footnote e
8 10 solidd 12 solidd Footnote e
9 4 6 solidd or 8 6 solidd or 8 8
5 8 10 12
6 10 12 12 solidd
7 12 12 solidd Footnote e
8 12 solidd Footnote e Footnote e
9 Footnote e Footnote e Footnote e

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 Pa.

a. Mortar shall be Type M or S and masonry shall be laid in running bond. Ungrouted hollow masonry units are permitted except where otherwise indicated.

b. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System. Refer to Table 405.1.

c. Unbalanced backfill height is the difference in height between the exterior finish ground level and the lower of the top of the concrete footing that supports the foundation wall or the interior finish ground level. Where an interior concrete slab-on-grade is provided and is in contact with the interior surface of the foundation wall, measurement of the unbalanced backfill height from the exterior finish ground level to the top of the interior concrete slab is permitted.

d. Solid grouted hollow units or solid masonry units.

e. Wall construction shall be in accordance with either Table 404.1.1(2), Table 404.1.1(3), Table 404.1.1(4), or a design shall be provided.

TABLE 404.1.1(2)

8-INCH MASONRY FOUNDATION WALLS WITH REINFORCING WHERE d > 5 INCHESa, c

WALL HEIGHT HEIGHT OF UNBALANCEDBACKFILLe MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT AND SPACING (INCHES)b, c
Soil classes and lateral soil loadd (psf per foot below grade)
GW, GP, SW and SP soils 30 GM, GC, SM, SM-SC and MLsoils45 SC, ML-CL and inorganic CLsoils60
6 feet 8 inches 4 feet (or less) #4 at 48 #4 at 48 #4 at 48
5 feet #4 at 48 #4 at 48 #4 at 48
6 feet 8 inches #4 at 48 #5 at 48 #6 at 48
7 feet 4 inches 4 feet (or less) #4 at 48 #4 at 48 #4 at 48
5 feet #4 at 48 #4 at 48 #4 at 48
6 feet #4 at 48 #5 at 48 #5 at 48
7 feet 4 inches #5 at 48 #6 at 48 #6 at 40
8 feet 4 feet (or less) #4 at 48 #4 at 48 #4 at 48
5 feet #4 at 48 #5 at 48 #5 at 48
6 feet #5 at 48 #6 at 48 #6 at 40
7 feet #5 at 48 #6 at 48 #6 at 32
8 feet #5 at 48 #6 at 48 #6 at 32
8 feet 8 inches 4 feet (or less) #4 at 48 #4 at 48 #4 at 48
5 feet #4 at 48 #4 at 48 #5 at 48
6 feet #4 at 48 #5 at 48 #6 at 48
7 feet #5 at 48 #6 at 48 #6 at 40
8 feet 8 inches #6 at 48 #6 at 32 #6 at 24
9 feet 4 inches 4 feet (or less) #4 at 48 #4 at 48 #4 at 48
5 feet #4 at 48 #4 at 48 #5 at 48
6 feet #4 at 48 #5 at 48 #6 at 48
7 feet #5 at 48 #6 at 48 #6 at 40
8 feet #6 at 48 #6 at 40 #6 at 24
9 feet 4 inches #6 at 40 #6 at 24 #6 at 16
10 feet 4 feet (or less) #4 at 48 #4 at 48 #4 at 48
5 feet #4 at 48 #4 at 48 #5 at 48
6 feet #4 at 48 #5 at 48 #6 at 48
7 feet #5 at 48 #6 at 48 #6 at 32
8 feet #6 at 48 #6 at 32 #6 at 24
9 feet #6 at 40 #6 at 24 #6 at 16
10 feet #6 at 32 #6 at 16 #6 at 16

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot per foot = 0.157 kPa/mm.

a. Mortar shall be Type M or S and masonry shall be laid in running bond.

b. Alternative reinforcing bar sizes and spacings having an equivalent cross-sectional area of reinforcement per lineal foot of wall shall be permitted provided the spacing of the reinforcement does not exceed 72 inches.

c. Vertical reinforcement shall be Grade 60 minimum. The distance, d, from the face of the soil side of the wall to the center of vertical reinforcement shall be at least 5 inches.

d. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System and design lateral soil loads are for moist conditions without hydrostatic pressure. Refer to Table 405.1.

e. Unbalanced backfill height is the difference in height between the exterior finish ground level and the lower of the top of the concrete footing that supports the foundation wall or the interior finish ground level. Where an interior concrete slab-on-grade is provided and is in contact with the interior surface of the foundation wall, measurement of the unbalanced backfill height from the exterior finish ground level to the top of the interior concrete slab is permitted.

TABLE 404.1.1(3)

10-INCH FOUNDATION WALLS WITH REINFORCING WHERE d > 6.75 INCHESa, c

WALL HEIGHT HEIGHT OF UNBALANCEDBACKFILLe MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT AND SPACING (INCHES)b, c
Soil classes and later soil loadd (psf per foot below grade)
GW, GP, SW and SPsoils30 GM, GC, SM, SM-SC and MLsoils45 SC, ML-CL and inorganic CLsoils60
6 feet 8 inches 4 feet (or less) #4 at 56 #4 at 56 #4 at 56
5 feet #4 at 56 #4 at 56 #4 at 56
6 feet 8 inches #4 at 56 #5 at 56 #5 at 56
7 feet 4 inches 4 feet (or less) #4 at 56 #4 at 56 #4 at 56
5 feet #4 at 56 #4 at 56 #4 at 56
6 feet #4 at 56 #4 at 56 #5 at 56
7 feet 4 inches #4 at 56 #5 at 56 #6 at 56
8 feet 4 feet (or less) #4 at 56 #4 at 56 #4 at 56
5 feet #4 at 56 #4 at 56 #4 at 56
6 feet #4 at 56 #4 at 56 #5 at 56
7 feet #4 at 56 #5 at 56 #6 at 56
8 feet #5 at 56 #6 at 56 #6 at 48
8 feet 8 inches 4 feet (or less) #4 at 56 #4 at 56 #4 at 56
5 feet #4 at 56 #4 at 56 #4 at 56
6 feet #4 at 56 #4 at 56 #5 at 56
7 feet #4 at 56 #5 at 56 #6 at 56
8 feet 8 inches #5 at 56 #6 at 48 #6 at 32
9 feet 4 inches 4 feet (or less) #4 at 56 #4 at 56 #4 at 56
5 feet #4 at 56 #4 at 56 #4 at 56
6 feet #4 at 56 #5 at 56 #5 #5 at 56
7 feet #4 at 56 #5 at 56 #6 at 56
8 feet #5 at 56 #6 at 56 #6 at 40
9 feet 4 inches #6 at 56 #6 at 40 #6 at 24
10 feet 4 feet (or less) #4 at 56 #4 at 56 #4 at 56
5 feet #4 at 56 #4 at 56 #4 at 56
6 feet #4 at 56 #5 at 56 #5 at 56
7 feet #5 at 56 #6 at 56 #6 at 48
8 feet #5 at 56 #6 at 48 #6 at 40
9 feet #6 at 56 #6 at 40 #6 at 24
10 feet #6 at 48 #6 at 32 #6 at 24

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot per foot = 0.157 kPa/mm.

a. Mortar shall be Type M or S and masonry shall be laid in running bond.

b. Alternative reinforcing bar sizes and spacings having an equivalent cross-sectional area of reinforcement per lineal foot of wall shall be permitted provided the spacing of the reinforcement does not exceed 72 inches.

c. Vertical reinforcement shall be Grade 60 minimum. The distance, d, from the face of the soil side of the wall to the center of vertical reinforcement shall be at least 6.75 inches.

d. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System and design lateral soil loads are for moist conditions without hydrostatic pressure. Refer to Table 405.1.

e. Unbalanced backfill height is the difference in height between the exterior finish ground level and the lower of the top of the concrete footing that supports the foundation wall or the interior finish ground level. Where an interior concrete slab-on-grade is provided and is in contact with the interior surface of the foundation wall, measurement of the unbalanced backfill height from the exterior finish ground level to the top of the interior concrete slab is permitted.

TABLE 404.1.1(4)

12-INCH MASONRY FOUNDATION WALLS WITH REINFORCING WHERE d > 8.75 INCHESa, c

WALL HEIGHT HEIGHT OF UNBALANCEDBACKFILLe MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT AND SPACING (INCHES)b, c
Soil classes and lateral soil loadd (psf per foot below grade)
GW, GP, SW and SPsoils30 GM, GC, SM, SM-SC and MLsoils45 SC, ML-CL and inorganic CLsoils60
6 feet 8 inches 4 feet (or less) #4 at 72 #4 at 72 #4 at 72
5 feet #4 at 72 #4 at 72 #4 at 72
6 feet 8 inches #4 at 72 #4 at 72 #5 at 72
7 feet 4 inches 4 feet (or less) #4 at 72 #4 at 72 #4 at 72
5 feet #4 at 72 #4 at 72 #4 at 72
6 feet #4 at 72 #4 at 72 #5 at 72
7 feet 4 inches #4 at 72 #5 at 72 #6 at 72
8 feet 4 feet (or less) #4 at 72 #4 at 72 #4 at 72
5 feet #4 at 72 #4 at 72 #4 at 72
6 feet #4 at 72 #4 at 72 #5 at 72
7 feet #4 at 72 #5 at 72 #6 at 72
8 feet #5 at 72 #6 at 72 #6 at 64
8 feet 8 inches 4 feet (or less) #4 at 72 #4 at 72 #4 at 72
5 feet #4 at 72 #4 at 72 #4 at 72
6 feet #4 at 72 #4 at 72 #5 at 72
7 feet #4 at 72 #5 at 72 #6 at 72
8 feet 8 inches #5 at 72 #7 at 72 #6 at 48
9 feet 4 inches 4 feet (or less) #4 at 72 #4 at 72 #4 at 72
5 feet #4 at 72 #4 at 72 #4 at 72
6 feet #4 at 72 #5 at 72 #5 at 72
7 feet #4 at 72 #5 at 72 #6 at 72
8 feet #5 at 72 #6 at 72 #6 at 56
9 feet 4 inches #6 at 72 #6 at 48 #6 at 40
10 feet 4 feet (or less) #4 at 72 #4 at 72 #4 at 72
5 feet #4 at 72 #4 at 72 #4 at 72
6 feet #4 at 72 #5 at 72 #5 at 72
7 feet #4 at 72 #6 at 72 #6 at 72
8 feet #5 at 72 #6 at 72 #6 at 48
9 feet #6 at 72 #6 at 56 #6 at 40
10 feet #6 at 64 #6 at 40 #6 at 32

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot per foot = 0.157 kPa/mm.

a. Mortar shall be Type M or S and masonry shall be laid in running bond.

b. Alternative reinforcing bar sizes and spacings having an equivalent cross-sectional area of reinforcement per lineal foot of wall shall be permitted provided the spacing of the reinforcement does not exceed 72 inches.

c. Vertical reinforcement shall be Grade 60 minimum. The distance, d, from the face of the soil side of the wall to the center of vertical reinforcement shall be at least 8.75 inches.

d. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System and design lateral soil loads are for moist conditions without hydrostatic pressure. Refer to Table 405.1.

e. Unbalanced backfill height is the difference in height between the exterior finish ground level and the lower of the top of the concrete footing that supports the foundation wall or the interior finish ground levels. Where an interior concrete slab-on-grade is provided and in contact with the interior surface of the foundation wall, measurement of the unbalanced backfill height is permitted to be measured from the exterior finish ground level to the top of the interior concrete slab is permitted.

404.1.1.1 Masonry foundation walls. Concrete masonry and clay masonry foundation walls shall be constructed as set forth in Table 404.1.1(1), 404.1.1(2), 404.1.1(3) or 404.1.1(4) and shall also comply with applicable provisions of Sections 606, 607 and 608. In buildings assigned to Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2, concrete masonry and clay masonry foundation walls shall also comply with Section 404.1.4.1. Rubble stone masonry foundation walls shall be constructed in accordance with Sections 404.1.8 and 607.2.2. Rubble stone masonry walls shall not be used in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2.

404.1.2 Concrete foundation walls. Concrete foundation walls that support light-frame walls shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the provisions of this section, ACI 318, ACI 332 or PCA 100. Concrete foundation walls that support above-grade concrete walls that are within the applicability limits of Section 611.2 shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the provisions of this section, ACI 318, ACI 332 or PCA 100. Concrete foundation walls that support above-grade concrete walls that are not within the applicability limits of Section 611.2 shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the provisions of ACI 318, ACI 332 or PCA 100.

404.1.2.1 Concrete cross-section. Concrete walls constructed in accordance with this code shall comply with the shapes and minimum concrete cross-sectional dimensions required by Table 611.3. Other types of forming systems resulting in concrete walls not in compliance with this section and Table 611.3 shall be designed in accordance with ACI 318.

404.1.2.2 Reinforcement for foundation walls. Concrete foundation walls shall be laterally supported at the top and bottom. Horizontal reinforcement shall be provided in accordance with Table 404.1.2(1). Vertical reinforcement shall be provided in accordance with Table 404.1.2(2), 404.1.2(3), 404.1.2(4), 404.1.2(5), 404.1.2(6), 404.1.2(7) or 404.1.2(8). Vertical reinforcement for flat basement walls retaining 4 feet (1219 mm) or more of unbalanced backfill is permitted to be determined in accordance with Table 404.1.2(9). For basement walls supporting above-grade concrete walls, vertical reinforcement shall be the greater of that required by Tables 404.1.2(2) through 404.1.2(8) or by Section 611.6 for the above-grade wall. In buildings assigned to Seismic Design Category D0, D1 or D2, concrete foundation walls shall also comply with Section 404.1.4.2.

404.1.2.2.1 Concrete foundation stem walls supporting above-grade concrete walls. Foundation stem walls that support above-grade concrete walls shall be designed and constructed in accordance with this section.

1. Stem walls not laterally supported at top. Concrete stem walls that are not monolithic with slabs-on-ground or are not otherwise laterally supported by slabs-on-ground shall comply with this section. Where unbalanced backfill retained by the stem wall is less than or equal to 18 inches (457 mm), the stem wall and above-grade wall it supports shall be provided with vertical reinforcement in accordance with Section 611.6 and Table 611.6(1), 611.6(2) or 611.6(3) for above-grade walls. Where unbalanced backfill retained by the stem wall is greater than 18 inches (457 mm), the stem wall and above-grade wall it supports shall be provided with vertical reinforcement in accordance with Section 611.6 and Table 611.6(4).

2. Stem walls laterally supported at top. Concrete stem walls that are monolithic with slabs-on ground or are otherwise laterally supported by slabs-on-ground shall be vertically reinforced in accordance with Section 611.6 and Table 611.6(1), 611.6(2) or 611.6(3) for above-grade walls. Where the unbalanced backfill retained by the stem wall is greater than 18 inches (457 mm), the connection between the stem wall and the slab-on-ground, and the portion of the slab-on-ground providing lateral support for the wall shall be designed in accordance with PCA 100 or in accordance with accepted engineering practice. Where the unbalanced backfill retained by the stem wall is greater than 18 inches (457 mm), the minimum nominal thickness of the wall shall be 6 inches (152 mm).

404.1.2.2.2 Concrete foundation stem walls supporting light-frame above-grade walls. Concrete foundation stem walls that support light-frame above-grade walls shall be designed and constructed in accordance with this section.

1. Stem walls not laterally supported at top. Concrete stem walls that are not monolithic with slabs-on-ground or are not otherwise laterally supported by slabs-on-ground and retain 48 inches (1219 mm) or less of unbalanced fill, measured from the top of the wall, shall be constructed in accordance with Section 404.1.2. Foundation stem walls that retain more than 48 inches (1219 mm) of unbalanced fill, measured from the top of the wall, shall be designed in accordance with Sections 404.1.3 and 404.4.

2. Stem walls laterally supported at top. Concrete stem walls that are monolithic with slabs-on ground or are otherwise laterally supported by slabs-on-ground shall be constructed in accordance with Section 404.1.2. Where the unbalanced backfill retained by the stem wall is greater than 48 inches (1219 mm), the connection between the stem wall and the slab-on-ground, and the portion of the slab-on-ground providing lateral support for the wall shall be designed in accordance with PCA 100 or in accordance with accepted engineering practice.

TABLE 404.1.2(1)

MINIMUM HORIZONTAL REINFORCEMENT FOR CONCRETE BASEMENT WALLSa, b

MAXIMUMUNSUPPORTED HEIGHTOF BASEMENT WALL(feet) LOCATION OF HORIZONTAL REINFORCEMENT
<=8 One No. 4 bar within 12 inches of the top of the wall story and one No. 4 bar near mid-height of the wall story
>8 One No. 4 bar within 12 inches of the top of the wall story and one No. 4 bar near third points in the wall story

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa.

a. Horizontal reinforcement requirements are for reinforcing bars with a minimum yield strength of 40,000 psi and concrete with a minimum concrete compressive strength 2,500 psi.

b. See Section 404.1.2.2 for minimum reinforcement required for foundation walls supporting above-grade concrete walls.

TABLE 404.1.2(2)

MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT FOR 6-INCH NOMINAL FLAT CONCRETE BASEMENT WALLSb, c, d, e, g, h, i, j

MAXIMUMUNSUPPORTEDWALL HEIGHT(feet) MAXIMUMUNBALANCEDBACKFILL HEIGHTf(feet) MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT-BAR SIZE AND SPACING (inches)
Soil classesa and design lateral soil (psf per foot of depth)
GW, GP, SW, SP 30 GM, GC, SM, SM-SC and ML 45 SC, ML-CL and inorganic CL 60
8 4 NR NR NR
5 NR 6 @ 39 6 @ 48
6 5 @ 39 6 @ 48 6 @ 35
7 6 @ 48 6 @ 34 6 @ 25
8 6 @ 39 6 @ 25 6 @ 18
9 4 NR NR NR
5 NR 5 @ 37 6 @ 48
6 5 @ 36 6 @ 44 6 @ 32
7 6 @ 47 6 @ 30 6 @ 22
8 6 @ 34 6 @ 22 6 @ 16
9 6 @ 27 6 @ 17 DR
10 4 NR NR NR
5 NR 5 @ 35 6 @ 48
6 6 @ 48 6 @ 41 6 @ 30
7 6 @ 43 6 @ 28 6 @ 20
8 6 @ 31 6 @ 20 DR
9 6 @ 24 6 @ 15 DR
10 6 @ 19 DR DR

For SI:1 foot = 304.8 mm; 1 inch = 25.4 mm; 1 pound per square foot per foot = 0.1571 kPa2/m, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa.

a. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System. Refer to Table 405.1.

b.Table values are based on reinforcing bars with a minimum yield strength of 60,000 psi concrete with a minimum specified compressive strength of 2,500 psi and vertical reinforcement being located at the centerline of the wall. See Section 404.1.2.3. 7.2.

c. Vertical reinforcement with a yield strength of less than 60,000 psi and/or bars of a different size than specified in the table are permitted in accordance with Section 404.1.2.3. 7.6 and Table 404.1.2(9).

d. Deflection criterion is L/240, where L is the height of the basement wall in inches.

e. Interpolation is not permitted.

f. Where walls will retain 4 feet or more of unbalanced backfill, they shall be laterally supported at the top and bottom before backfilling.

g. NR indicates no vertical wall reinforcement is required, except for 6-inch nominal walls formed with stay-in-place forming systems in which case vertical reinforcement shall be No. 4 @ 48 inches on center.

h. See Section 404.1.2.2 for minimum reinforcement required for basement walls supporting above-grade concrete walls.

i. See Table 611.3 for tolerance from nominal thickness permitted for flat walls.

j. DR means design is required in accordance with the applicable building code, or where there is no code, in accordance with ACI 318.

404.1.2.3 Concrete, materials for concrete, and forms. Materials used in concrete, the concrete itself and forms shall conform to requirements of this section or ACI 318.

404.1.2.3.1 Compressive strength. The minimum specified compressive strength of concrete, f'c, shall comply with Section 402.2 and shall be not less than 2,500 psi ( 17.2 MPa) at 28 days in buildings assigned to Seismic Design Category A, B or C and 3000 psi ( 20.5 MPa) in buildings assigned to Seismic Design Category D0, D1 or D2.

404.1.2.3.2 Concrete mixing and delivery. Mixing and delivery of concrete shall comply with ASTM C 94 or ASTM C 685.

404.1.2.3.3 Maximum aggregate size. The nominal maximum size of coarse aggregate shall not exceed one-fifth the narrowest distance between sides of forms, or three-fourths the clear spacing between reinforcing bars or between a bar and the side of the form.

Exception: When approved, these limitations shall not apply where removable forms are used and workability and methods of consolidation permit concrete to be placed without honeycombs or voids.

TABLE 404.1.2(3)

MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT FOR 8-INCH (203 mm) NOMINAL FLAT CONCRETE BASEMENT WALLSb, c, d, e, f, h, i

MAXIMUMUNSUPPORTEDWALL HEIGHT(feet) MAXIMUMUNBALANCEDBACKFILL HEIGHTg(feet) MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT-BAR SIZE AND SPACING (inches)
Soil classesa and design lateral soil (psf per foot of depth)
GW, GP, SW, SP 30 GM, GC, SM, SM-SC and ML 45 SC, ML-CL and inorganic CL 60
8 4 NR NR NR
5 NR NR NR
6 NR NR 6 @ 37
7 NR 6 @ 36 6 @ 35
8 6 @ 41 6 @ 35 6 @ 26
9 4 NR NR NR
5 NR NR NR
6 NR NR 6 @ 35
7 NR 6 @ 35 6 @ 32
8 6 @ 36 6 @ 32 6 @ 23
9 6 @ 35 6 @ 25 6 @ 18
10 4 NR NR NR
5 NR NR NR
6 NR NR 6 @ 35
7 NR 6 @ 35 6 @ 29
8 6 @ 35 6 @ 29 6 @ 21
9 6 @ 34 6 @ 22 6 @ 16
10 6 @ 27 6 @ 17 6 @ 13

For SI:1 foot = 304.8 mm; 1 inch = 25.4 mm; 1 pound per square foot per foot = 0.1571 kPa2/m, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa.

a. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System. Refer to Table 405.1.

b. Table values are based on reinforcing bars with a minimum yield strength of 60,000 psi (420 MPa), concrete with a minimum specified compressive strength of 2,500 psi and vertical reinforcement being located at the centerline of the wall. See Section 404.1.2.3. 7.2.

c. Vertical reinforcement with a yield strength of less than 60,000 psi and/or bars of a different size than specified in the table are permitted in accordance with Section 404.1.2.3. 7.6 and Table 404.1.2(9).

d. NR indicates no vertical reinforcement is required.

e. Deflection criterion is L/240, where L is the height of the basement wall in inches.

f. Interpolation is not permitted.

g. Where walls will retain 4 feet or more of unbalanced backfill, they shall be laterally supported at the top and bottom before backfilling.

h. See Section 404.1.2.2 for minimum reinforcement required for basement walls supporting above-grade concrete walls.

i. See Table 611.3 for tolerance from nominal thickness permitted for flat walls.

404.1.2.3.4 Proportioning and slump of concrete. Proportions of materials for concrete shall be established to provide workability and consistency to permit concrete to be worked readily into forms and around reinforcement under conditions of placement to be employed, without segregation or excessive bleeding. Slump of concrete placed in removable forms shall not exceed 6 inches (152 mm).

Exception: When approved, the slump is permitted to exceed 6 inches (152 mm) for concrete mixtures that are resistant to segregation, and are in accordance with the form manufacturer's recommendations.

Slump of concrete placed in stay-in-place forms shall exceed 6 inches (152 mm). Slump of concrete shall be determined in accordance with ASTM C 143.

404.1.2.3.5 Consolidation of concrete. Concrete shall be consolidated by suitable means during placement and shall be worked around embedded items and reinforcement and into corners of forms. Where stay-in-place forms are used, concrete shall be consolidated by internal vibration.

Exception: When approved for concrete to be placed in stay-in-place forms, self-consolidating concrete mixtures with slumps equal to or greater than 8 inches (203 mm) that are specifically designed for placement without internal vibration need not be internally vibrated.

TABLE 404.1.2(4)

MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT FOR 10-INCH NOMINAL FLAT CONCRETE BASEMENT WALLSb, c, d, e, f, h, i

MAXIMUM UNSUPPORTED WALL HEIGHT (feet) BACKFILL HEIGHTg (feet) MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT-BAR SIZE AND SPACING (inches)
Soil classesa and design lateral soil (psf per foot of depth)
GW, GP, SW, SP 30 GM, GC, SM, SM-SC and ML 45 SC, ML-CL and inorganic CL 60
8 4 NR NR NR
5 NR NR NR
6 NR NR NR
7 NR NR NR
8 6 @ 48 6 @ 35 6 @ 28
9 4 NR NR NR
5 NR NR NR
6 NR NR NR
7 NR NR 6 @ 31
8 NR 6 @ 31 6 @ 28
9 6 @ 37 6 @ 28 6 @ 24
10 4 NR NR NR
5 NR NR NR
6 NR NR NR
7 NR NR 6 @ 28
8 NR 6 @ 28 6 @ 28
9 6 @ 33 6 @ 28 6 @ 21
10 6 @ 28 6 @ 23 6 @ 17

For SI:1 foot = 304.8 mm; 1 inch = 25.4 mm; 1 pound per square foot per foot = 0.1571 kPa2/m, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa.

a. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System. Refer to Table 405.1.

b. Table values are based on reinforcing bars with a minimum yield strength of 60,000 psi concrete with a minimum specified compressive strength of 2,500 psi and vertical reinforcement being located at the centerline of the wall. See Section 404.1.2.3. 7.2.

c. Vertical reinforcement with a yield strength of less than 60,000 psi and/or bars of a different size than specified in the table are permitted in accordance with Section 404.1.2.3. 7.6 and Table 404.1.2(9).

d. NR indicates no vertical reinforcement is required.

e. Deflection criterion is L/240, where L is the height of the basement wall in inches.

f. Interpolation is not permitted.

g. Where walls will retain 4 feet or more of unbalanced backfill, they shall be laterally supported at the top and bottom before backfilling.

h. See Section 404.1.2.2 for minimum reinforcement required for basement walls supporting above-grade concrete walls.

i. See Table 611.3 for tolerance from nominal thickness permitted for flat walls.

404.1.2.3.6 Form materials and form ties. Forms shall be made of wood, steel, aluminum, plastic, a composite of cement and foam insulation, a composite of cement and wood chips, or other approved material suitable for supporting and containing concrete. Forms shall provide sufficient strength to contain concrete during the concrete placement operation.

Form ties shall be steel, solid plastic, foam plastic, a composite of cement and wood chips, a composite of cement and foam plastic, or other suitable material capable of resisting the forces created by fluid pressure of fresh concrete.

404.1.2.3. 6.1 Stay-in-place forms. Stay-in-place concrete forms shall comply with this section.

1. Surface burning characteristics. The flame-spread index and smoke-developed index of forming material, other than foam plastic, left exposed on the interior shall comply with Section 302. The surface burning characteristics of foam plastic used in insulating concrete forms shall comply with Section 316.3.

2. Interior covering. Stay-in-place forms constructed of rigid foam plastic shall be protected on the interior of the building as required by Section 316. Where gypsum board is used to protect the foam plastic, it shall be installed with a mechanical fastening system. Use of adhesives in addition to mechanical fasteners is permitted.

3. Exterior wall covering. Stay-in-place forms constructed of rigid foam plastics shall be protected from sunlight and physical damage by the application of an approved exterior wall covering complying with this code. Exterior surfaces of other stay-in-place forming systems shall be protected in accordance with this code.

4. Termite hazards. In areas where hazard of termite damage is very heavy in accordance with Figure 301.2(6), foam plastic insulation shall be permitted below grade on foundation walls in accordance with one of the following conditions:

4.1. Where in addition to the requirements in Section 318.1, an approved method of protecting the foam plastic and structure from subterranean termite damage is provided.

4.2. The structural members of walls, floors, ceilings and roofs are entirely of noncombustible materials or pressure-preservative-treated wood.

4.3. On the interior side of basement walls.

TABLE 404.1.2(5)

MINIMUM VERTICAL WALL REINFORCEMENT FOR 6-INCH WAFFLE-GRID BASEMENT WALLSb, c, d, e, g, h, i

MAXIMUMUNSUPPORTEDWALL HEIGHT(feet) MAXIMUMUNBALANCEDBACKFILL HEIGHTf(feet) MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT-BAR SIZE AND SPACING (inches)
Soil classesa and design lateral soil (psf per foot of depth)
GW, GP, SW, SP 30 GM, GC, SM, SM-SC and ML 45 SC, ML-CL and inorganic CL 60
8 4 4 @ 48 4 @ 46 6 @ 39
5 4 @ 45 5 @ 46 6 @ 47
6 5 @ 45 6 @ 40 DR
7 6 @ 44 DR DR
8 6 @ 32 DR DR
9 4 4 @ 48 4 @ 46 4 @ 37
5 4 @ 42 5 @ 43 6 @ 44
6 5 @ 41 6 @ 37 DR
7 6 @ 39 DR DR
> 8 DRi DR DR
10 4 4 @ 48 4 @ 46 4 @ 35
5 4 @ 40 5 @ 40 6 @ 41
6 5 @ 38 6 @ 34 DR
7 6 @ 36 DR DR
> 8 DR DR DR

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm; 1 inch = 25.4 mm; 1 pound per square foot per foot = 0.1571 kPa2/m, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa.

a. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System. Refer to Table 405.1.

b. Table values are based on reinforcing bars with a minimum yield strength of 60,000 psi concrete with a minimum specified compressive strength of 2,500 psi and vertical reinforcement being located at the centerline of the wall. See Section 404.1.2.3. 7.2.

c. Maximum spacings shown are the values calculated for the specified bar size. Where the bar used is Grade 60 and the size specified in the table, the actual spacing in the wall shall not exceed a whole-number multiple of 12 inches (i.e., 12, 24, 36 and 48) that is less than or equal to the tabulated spacing. Vertical reinforcement with a yield strength of less than 60,000 psi and/or bars of a different size than specified in the table are permitted in accordance with Section 404.1.2.3. 7.6 and Table 404.1.2(9).

d. Deflection criterion is L/240, where L is the height of the basement wall in inches.

e. Interpolation is not permitted.

f. Where walls will retain 4 feet or more of unbalanced backfill, they shall be laterally supported at the top and bottom before backfilling.

g. See Section 404.1.2.2 for minimum reinforcement required for basement walls supporting above-grade concrete walls. h. See Table 611.3 for thicknesses and dimensions of waffle-grid walls.

i. DR means design is required in accordance with the applicable building code, or where there is no code, in accordance with ACI 318.

TABLE 404.1.2(6)

MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT FOR 8-INCH WAFFLE-GRID BASEMENT WALLSb, c, d, e, f, h, i, j

MAXIMUMUNSUPPORTEDWALL HEIGHT(feet) MAXIMUM UNBALANCEDBACKFILL HEIGHTg (feet) MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT-BAR SIZE AND SPACING (inches)
Soil classesa and design lateral soil (psf per foot of depth)
GW, GP, SW, SP 30 GM, GC, SM, SM-SC and ML 45 SC, ML-CL and inorganic CL 60
8 4 NR NR NR
5 NR 5 @ 48 5 @ 46
6 5 @ 48 5 @ 43 6 @ 45
7 5 @ 46 6 @ 43 6 @ 31
8 6 @ 48 6 @ 32 6 @ 23
9 4 NR NR NR
5 NR 5 @ 47 5 @ 46
6 5 @ 46 5 @ 39 6 @ 41
7 5 @ 42 6 @ 38 6 @ 28
8 6 @ 44 6 @ 28 6 @ 20
9 6 @ 34 6 @ 21 DR
10 4 NR NR NR
5 NR 5 @ 46 5 @ 44
6 5 @ 46 5 @ 37 6 @ 38
7 5 @ 38 6 @ 35 6 @ 25
8 6 @ 39 6 @ 25 DR
9 6 @ 30 DR DR
10 6 @ 24 DR DR

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm; 1 inch = 25.4 mm; 1 pound per square foot per foot = 0.1571 kPa2/m, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa.

a. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System. Refer to Table 405.1.

b. Table values are based on reinforcing bars with a minimum yield strength of 60,000 psi concrete with a minimum specified compressive strength of 2,500 psi and vertical reinforcement being located at the centerline of the wall. See Section 404.1.2.3. 7.2.

c. Maximum spacings shown are the values calculated for the specified bar size. Where the bar used is Grade 60 (420 MPa) and the size specified in the table, the actual spacing in the wall shall not exceed a whole-number multiple of 12 inches (i.e., 12, 24, 36 and 48) that is less than or equal to the tabulated spacing. Vertical reinforcement with a yield strength of less than 60,000 psi and/or bars of a different size than specified in the table are permitted in accordance with Section 404.1.2.3. 7.6 and Table 404.1.2(9).

d. NR indicates no vertical reinforcement is required.

e. Deflection criterion is L/240, where L is the height of the basement wall in inches.

f. Interpolation shall not be permitted.

g. Where walls will retain 4 feet or more of unbalanced backfill, they shall be laterally supported at the top and bottom before backfilling.

h. See Section 404.1.2.2 for minimum reinforcement required for basement walls supporting above-grade concrete walls. i. See Table 611.3 for thicknesses and dimensions of waffle-grid walls.

j. DR means design is required in accordance with the applicable building code, or where there is no code, in accordance with ACI 318.

TABLE 404.1.2(7)

MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT FOR 6-INCH (152 mm) SCREEN-GRID BASEMENT WALLSb, c, d, e, g, h, i

MAXIMUMUNSUPPORTEDWALL HEIGHT(feet) MAXIMUMUNBALANCEDBACKFILL HEIGHTf(feet) MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT-BAR SIZE AND SPACING (inches)
Soil classesa and design lateral soil (psf per foot of depth)
GW, GP, SW, SP 30 GM, GC, SM, SM-SC and ML 45 SC, ML-CL and inorganic CL 60
8 4 4 @ 48 4 @ 48 5 @ 43
5 4 @ 48 5 @ 48 5 @ 37
6 5 @ 48 6 @ 45 6 @ 32
7 6 @ 48 DR DR
8 6 @ 36 DR DR
9 4 4 @ 48 4 @ 48 4 @ 41
5 4 @ 48 5 @ 48 6 @ 48
6 5 @ 45 6 @ 41 DR
7 6 @ 43 DR DR
> 8 DR DR DR
10 4 4 @ 48 4 @ 48 4 @ 39
5 4 @ 44 5 @ 44 6 @ 46
6 5 @ 42 6 @ 38 DR
7 6 @ 40 DR DR
> 8 DR DR DR

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm; 1 inch = 25.4 mm; 1 pound per square foot per foot = 0.1571 kPa2/m, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa.

a. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System. Refer to Table 405.1.

b. Table values are based on reinforcing bars with a minimum yield strength of 60,000 psi (420 MPa), concrete with a minimum specified compressive strength of 2,500 psi and vertical reinforcement being located at the centerline of the wall. See Section 404.1.2.3. 7.2.

c. Maximum spacings shown are the values calculated for the specified bar size. Where the bar used is Grade 60 and the size specified in the table, the actual spacing in the wall shall not exceed a whole-number multiple of 12 inches (i.e., 12, 24, 36 and 48) that is less than or equal to the tabulated spacing. Vertical reinforcement with a yield strength of less than 60,000 psi and/or bars of a different size than specified in the table are permitted in accordance with Section 404.1.2.3. 7.6 and Table 404.1.2(9).

d. Deflection criterion is L/240, where L is the height of the basement wall in inches.

e. Interpolation is not permitted.

f. Where walls will retain 4 feet or more of unbalanced backfill, they shall be laterally supported at the top and bottom before backfilling.

g. See Sections 404.1.2.2 for minimum reinforcement required for basement walls supporting above-grade concrete walls.

h. See Table 611.3 for thicknesses and dimensions of screen-grid walls.

i. DR means design is required in accordance with the applicable building code, or where there is no code, in accordance with ACI 318.

404.1.2.3.7 Reinforcement.

404.1.2.3. 7.1 Steel reinforcement. Steel reinforcement shall comply with the requirements of ASTM A 615, A 706, or A 996. ASTM A 996 bars produced from rail steel shall be Type R. In buildings assigned to Seismic Design Category A, B or C, the minimum yield strength of reinforcing steel shall be 40,000 psi (Grade 40) (276 MPa). In buildings assigned to Seismic Design Category D0, D1 or D2, reinforcing steel shall comply with the requirements of ASTM A 706 for low-alloy steel with a minimum yield strength of 60,000 psi (Grade 60) (414 MPa).

404.1.2.3. 7.2 Location of reinforcement in wall. The center of vertical reinforcement in basement walls determined from Tables 404.1.2(2) through 404.1.2(7) shall be located at the center-line of the wall. Vertical reinforcement in basement walls determined from Tables 404.1.2(2) or 404.1.2(8) shall be located to provide a maximum cover of 1.25 inches (32 mm) measured from the inside face of the wall. Regardless of the table used to determine vertical wall reinforcement, the center of the steel shall not vary from the specified location by more than the greater of 10 percent of the wall thickness and 3/8-inch (10 mm). Horizontal and vertical reinforcement shall be located in foundation walls to provide the minimum cover required by Section 404.1.2.3. 7.4.

404.1.2.3. 7.3 Wall openings. Vertical wall reinforcement required by Section 404.1.2.2 that is interrupted by wall openings shall have additional vertical reinforcement of the same size placed within 12 inches (305 mm) of each side of the opening.

TABLE 404.1.2(8)

MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT FOR 6-, 8-, 10-INCH AND 12-INCH NOMINAL FLAT BASEMENT WALLSb, c, d, e, f, h, i, k, n

MAXIMUM WALL HEIGHT (feet) MAXIMUM UNBALANCED BACKFILL HEIGHTg (feet) MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT-BAR SIZE AND SPACING (inches)
Soil classesa and design lateral soil (psf per foot of depth)
GW, GP, SW, SP 30 GM, GC, SM, SM-SC and ML 45 SC, ML-CL and inorganic CL 60
Minimum nominal wall thickness (inches)
6 8 10 12 6 8 10 12 6 8 10 12
5 4 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
5 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
6 4 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
5 NR NR NR NR NR NRl NR NR 4 @ 35 NRl NR NR
6 NR NR NR NR 5 @ 48 NR NR NR 5 @ 36 NR NR NR
7 4 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
5 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 5 @ 47 NR NR NR
6 NR NR NR NR 5 @ 42 NR NR NR 6 @ 43 5 @ 48 NRl NR
7 5 @ 46 NR NR NR 6 @ 42 5 @ 46 NRl NR 6 @ 34 6 @ 48 NR NR
8 4 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
5 NR NR NR NR 4 @ 38 NRl NR NR 5 @ 43 NR NR NR
6 4 @ 37 NRl NR NR 5 @ 37 NR NR NR 6 @ 37 5 @ 43 NRl NR
7 5 @ 40 NR NR NR 6 @ 37 5 @ 41 NRl NR 6 @ 34 6 @ 43 NR NR
8 6 @ 43 5 @ 47 NRl NR 6 @ 34 6 @ 43 NR NR 6 @ 27 6 @ 32 6 @ 44 NR
9 4 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
5 NR NR NR NR 4 @ 35 NRl NR NR 5 @ 40 NR NR NR
6 4 @ 34 NRl NR NR 6 @ 48 NR NR NR 6 @ 36 6 @ 39 NRl NR
7 5 @ 36 NR NR NR 6 @ 34 5 @ 37 NR NR 6 @ 33 6 @ 38 5 @ 37 NRl
8 6 @ 38 5 @ 41 NRl NR 6 @ 33 6 @ 38 5 @ 37 NRl 6 @ 24 6 @ 29 6 @ 39 4 @ 48m
9 6 @ 34 6 @ 46 NR NR 6 @ 26 6 @ 30 6 @ 41 NR 6 @ 19 6 @ 23 6 @ 30 6 @ 39
10 4 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
5 NR NR NR NR 4 @ 33 NRl NR NR 5 @ 38 NR NR NR
6 5 @ 48 NRl NR NR 6 @ 45 NR NR NR 6 @ 34 5 @ 37 NR NR
7 6 @ 47 NR NR NR 6 @ 34 6 @ 48 NR NR 6 @ 30 6 @ 35 6 @ 48 NRl
8 6 @ 34 5 @ 38 NR NR 6 @ 30 6 @ 34 6 @ 47 NRll 6 @ 22 6 @ 26 6 @ 35 6 @ 45m
9 6 @ 34 6 @ 41 4 @ 48 NRl 6 @ 23 6 @ 27 6 @ 35 4 @ 48m DR 6 @ 22 6 @ 27 6 @ 34
10 6 @ 28 6 @ 33 6 @ 45 NR DRj 6 @ 23 6 @ 29 6 @ 38 DR 6 @ 22 6 @ 22 6 @ 28

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm; 1 inch = 25.4 mm; 1 pound per square foot per foot = 0.1571 kPa2/m, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa.

a. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System. Refer to Table 405.1.

b. Table values are based on reinforcing bars with a minimum yield strength of 60,000 psi.

c. Vertical reinforcement with a yield strength of less than 60,000 psi and/or bars of a different size than specified in the table are permitted in accordance with Section 404.1.2.3. 7.6 and Table 404.1.2(9).

d. NR indicates no vertical wall reinforcement is required, except for 6-inch nominal walls formed with stay-in-place forming systems in which case vertical reinforcement shall be #4 @ 48 inches on center.

e. Allowable deflection criterion is L/240, where L is the unsupported height of the basement wall in inches.

f. Interpolation is not permitted.

g. Where walls will retain 4 feet or more of unbalanced backfill, they shall be laterally supported at the top and bottom before backfilling.

h. Vertical reinforcement shall be located to provide a cover of 1.25 inches measured from the inside face of the wall. The center of the steel shall not vary from the specified location by more than the greater of 10 percent of the wall thickness or 3/8-inch.

i. Concrete cover for reinforcement measured from the inside face of the wall shall not be less than 3/4-inch. Concrete cover for reinforcement measured from the outside face of the wall shall not be less than 11/2 inches for No. 5 bars and smaller, and not less than 2 inches for larger bars.

j. DR means design is required in accordance with the applicable building code, or where there is no code in accordance with ACI 318.

k. Concrete shall have a specified compressive strength, f 'c, of not less than 2,500 psi at 28 days, unless a higher strength is required by footnote l or m.

l. The minimum thickness is permitted to be reduced 2 inches, provided the minimum specified compressive strength of concrete, f 'c, is 4,000 psi.

m. A plain concrete wall with a minimum nominal thickness of 12 inches is permitted, provided minimum specified compressive strength of concrete, f 'c, is 3,500 psi.

n. See Table 611.3 for tolerance from nominal thickness permitted for flat walls.

TABLE 404.1.2(9)

MINIMUM SPACING FOR ALTERNATE BAR SIZE AND/OR ALTERNATE GRADE OF STEELa, b, c

BAR SPACINGFROMAPPLICABLETABLE INSECTION404.1.2.2 (inches) BAR SIZE FROM APPLICABLE TABLE IN SECTION 404.1.2.2
#4 #5 #6
Alternate bar size and/or alternate grade of steel desired
Grade 60 Grade 40 Grade 60 Grade 40 Grade 60 Grade 40
#5 #6 #4 #5 #6 #4 #6 #4 #5 #6 #4 #5 #4 #5 #6
Maximum spacing for alternate bar size and/or alternate grade of steel (inches)
8 12 18 5 8 12 5 11 3 5 8 4 6 2 4 5
9 14 20 6 9 13 6 13 4 6 9 4 6 3 4 6
10 16 22 7 10 15 6 14 4 7 9 5 7 3 5 7
11 17 24 7 11 16 7 16 5 7 10 5 8 3 5 7
12 19 26 8 12 18 8 17 5 8 11 5 8 4 6 8
13 20 29 9 13 19 8 18 6 9 12 6 9 4 6 9
14 22 31 9 14 21 9 20 6 9 13 6 10 4 7 9
15 23 33 10 16 22 10 21 6 10 14 7 11 5 7 10
16 25 35 11 17 23 10 23 7 11 15 7 11 5 8 11
17 26 37 11 18 25 11 24 7 11 16 8 12 5 8 11
18 28 40 12 19 26 12 26 8 12 17 8 13 5 8 12
19 29 42 13 20 28 12 27 8 13 18 9 13 6 9 13
20 31 44 13 21 29 13 28 9 13 19 9 14 6 9 13
21 33 46 14 22 31 14 30 9 14 20 10 15 6 10 14
22 34 48 15 23 32 14 31 9 15 21 10 16 7 10 15
23 36 48 15 24 34 15 33 10 15 22 10 16 7 11 15
24 37 48 16 25 35 15 34 10 16 23 11 17 7 11 16
25 39 48 17 26 37 16 35 11 17 24 11 18 8 12 17
26 40 48 17 27 38 17 37 11 17 25 12 18 8 12 17
27 42 48 18 28 40 17 38 12 18 26 12 19 8 13 18
28 43 48 19 29 41 18 40 12 19 26 13 20 8 13 19
29 45 48 19 30 43 19 41 12 19 27 13 20 9 14 19
30 47 48 20 31 44 19 43 13 20 28 14 21 9 14 20
31 48 48 21 32 45 20 44 13 21 29 14 22 9 15 21
32 48 48 21 33 47 21 45 14 21 30 15 23 10 15 21
33 48 48 22 34 48 21 47 14 22 31 15 23 10 16 22
34 48 48 23 35 48 22 48 15 23 32 15 24 10 16 23
35 48 48 23 36 48 23 48 15 23 33 16 25 11 16 23
36 48 48 24 37 48 23 48 15 24 34 16 25 11 17 24
37 48 48 25 38 48 24 48 16 25 35 17 26 11 17 25
38 48 48 25 39 48 25 48 16 25 36 17 27 12 18 25
39 48 48 26 40 48 25 48 17 26 37 18 27 12 18 26
40 48 48 27 41 48 26 48 17 27 38 18 28 12 19 27
41 48 48 27 42 48 26 48 18 27 39 19 29 12 19 27
42 48 48 28 43 48 27 48 18 28 40 19 30 13 20 28
43 48 48 29 44 48 28 48 18 29 41 20 30 13 20 29
44 48 48 29 45 48 28 48 19 29 42 20 31 13 21 29
45 48 48 30 47 48 29 48 19 30 43 20 32 14 21 30
46 48 48 31 48 48 30 48 20 31 44 21 32 14 22 31
47 48 48 31 48 48 30 48 20 31 44 21 33 14 22 31
48 48 48 32 48 48 31 48 21 32 45 22 34 15 23 32

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa.

a. This table is for use with tables in Section 404.1.2.2 that specify the minimum bar size and maximum spacing of vertical wall reinforcement for foundation walls and above-grade walls. Reinforcement specified in tables in Sections 404.1.2.2 is based on Grade 60 steel reinforcement.

b. Bar spacing shall not exceed 48 inches on center and shall not be less than one-half the nominal wall thickness.

c. For Grade 50 steel bars (ASTM A 996, Type R), use spacing for Grade 40 bars or interpolate between Grades 40 and 60.

404.1.2.3. 7.4 Support and cover. Reinforcement shall be secured in the proper location in the forms with tie wire or other bar support system to prevent displacement during the concrete placement operation. Steel reinforcement in concrete cast against the earth shall have a minimum cover of 3 inches (75 mm). Minimum cover for reinforcement in concrete cast in removable forms that will be exposed to the earth or weather shall be 11/2 inches (38 mm) for No. 5 bars and smaller, and 2 inches (50 mm) for No. 6 bars and larger. For concrete cast in removable forms that will not be exposed to the earth or weather, and for concrete cast in stay-in-place forms, minimum cover shall be 3/4 inch (19 mm). The minus tolerance for cover shall not exceed the smaller of one-third the required cover or 3/8 inch (10 mm).

404.1.2.3. 7.5 Lap splices. Vertical and horizontal wall reinforcement shall be the longest lengths practical. Where splices are necessary in reinforcement, the length of lap splice shall be in accordance with Table 611.5.4.(1) and Figure 611.5.4(1). The maximum gap between noncontact parallel bars at a lap splice shall not exceed the smaller of one-fifth the required lap length and 6 inches (152 mm). See Figure 611.5.4(1).

404.1.2.3. 7.6 Alternate grade of reinforcement and spacing. Where tables in Section 404.1.2.2 specify vertical wall reinforcement based on minimum bar size and maximum spacing, which are based on Grade 60 (414 MPa) steel reinforcement, different size bars and/or bars made from a different grade of steel are permitted provided an equivalent area of steel per linear foot of wall is provided. Use of Table 404.1.2(9) is permitted to determine the maximum bar spacing for different bar sizes than specified in the tables and/or bars made from a different grade of steel. Bars shall not be spaced less than one-half the wall thickness, or more than 48 inches (1219 mm) on center.

404.1.2.3. 7.7 Standard hooks. Where reinforcement is required by this code to terminate with a standard hook, the hook shall comply with Section 611.5.4.5 and Figure 611.5.4(3).

404.1.2.3. 7.8 Construction joint reinforcement. Construction joints in foundation walls shall be made and located to not impair the strength of the wall. Construction joints in plain concrete walls, including walls required to have not less than No. 4 bars at 48 inches (1219 mm) on center by Sections 404.1.2.2 and 404.1.4.2, shall be located at points of lateral support, and a minimum of one No. 4 bar shall extend across the construction joint at a spacing not to exceed 24 inches (610 mm) on center. Construction joint reinforcement shall have a minimum of 12 inches (305 mm) embedment on both sides of the joint. Construction joints in reinforced concrete walls shall be located in the middle third of the span between lateral supports, or located and constructed as required for joints in plain concrete walls.

Exception: Use of vertical wall reinforcement required by this code is permitted in lieu of construction joint reinforcement provided the spacing does not exceed 24 inches (610 mm), or the combination of wall reinforcement and No.4 bars described above does not exceed 24 inches (610 mm).

404.1.2.3.8 Exterior wall coverings. Requirements for installation of masonry veneer, stucco and other wall coverings on the exterior of concrete walls and other construction details not covered in this section shall comply with the requirements of this code.

404.1.2.4 Requirements for Seismic Design Category C. Deleted.

404.1.3 Design required. Concrete or masonry foundation walls shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice when either of the following conditions exists:

1. Walls are subject to hydrostatic pressure from groundwater.

2. Walls supporting more than 48 inches (1219 mm) of unbalanced backfill that do not have permanent lateral support at the top or bottom.

404.1.4 Seismic Design Category D0, D1 or D2.Deleted.

404.1.5 Foundation wall thickness based on walls supported. The thickness of masonry or concrete foundation walls shall not be less than that required by Section 404.1.5.1 or 404.1.5.2, respectively.

404.1.5.1 Masonry wall thickness. Masonry foundation walls shall not be less than the thickness of the wall supported, except that masonry foundation walls of at least 8-inch (203 mm) nominal thickness shall be permitted under brick veneered frame walls and under 10-inch-wide (254 mm) cavity walls where the total height of the wall supported, including gables, is not more than 20 feet (6096 mm), provided the requirements of Section 404.1.1 are met.

404.1.5.2 Concrete wall thickness. The thickness of concrete foundation walls shall be equal to or greater than the thickness of the wall in the story above. Concrete foundation walls with corbels, brackets or other projections built into the wall for support of masonry veneer or other purposes are not within the scope of the tables in this section.

Where a concrete foundation wall is reduced in thickness to provide a shelf for the support of masonry veneer, the reduced thickness shall be equal to or greater than the thickness of the wall in the story above. Vertical reinforcement for the foundation wall shall be based on Table 404.1.2(8) and located in the wall as required by Section 404.1.2.3. 7.2 where that table is used. Vertical reinforcement shall be based on the thickness of the thinner portion of the wall.

Exception: Where the height of the reduced thickness portion measured to the underside of the floor assembly or sill plate above is less than or equal to 24 inches (610 mm) and the reduction in thickness does not exceed 4 inches (102 mm), the vertical reinforcement is permitted to be based on the thicker portion of the wall.

404.1.5.3 Pier and curtain wall foundations. Use of pier and curtain wall foundations shall be permitted to support light-frame construction not more than two stories in height, provided the following requirements are met:

1. All load-bearing walls shall be placed on continuous concrete footings placed integrally with the exterior wall footings.

2. The minimum actual thickness of a load-bearing masonry wall shall be not less than 4 inches (102 mm) nominal or 3 3/8 inches (92 mm) actual thickness, and shall be bonded integrally with piers spaced in accordance with Section 606.9.

3. Piers shall be constructed in accordance with Section 606.6 and Section 606.6.1, and shall be bonded into the load-bearing masonry wall in accordance with Section 608.1.1 or Section 608.1.1.2.

4. The maximum height of a 4-inch (102 mm) load-bearing masonry foundation wall supporting wood-frame walls and floors shall not be more than 4 feet (1219 mm).

5. Anchorage shall be in accordance with Section 403.1.6, Figure 404.1.5(1), or as specified by engineered design accepted by the building official.

6. The unbalanced fill for 4-inch (102 mm) foundation walls shall not exceed 24 inches (610 mm) for solid masonry or 12 inches (305 mm) for hollow masonry.

7. Deleted.

404.1.6 Height above finished grade. Concrete and masonry foundation walls shall extend above the finished grade adjacent to the foundation at all points a minimum of 4 inches (102 mm) where masonry veneer is used and a minimum of 6 inches (152 mm) elsewhere.

404.1.7 Backfill placement. Backfill shall not be placed against the wall until the wall has sufficient strength and has been anchored to the floor above, or has been sufficiently braced to prevent damage by the backfill.

Exception: Bracing is not required for walls supporting less than 4 feet (1219 mm) of unbalanced backfill.

404.1.8 Rubble stone masonry. Rubble stone masonry foundation walls shall have a minimum thickness of 16 inches (406 mm), shall not support an unbalanced backfill exceeding 8 feet (2438 mm) in height, shall not support a soil pressure greater than 30 pounds per square foot per foot ( 4.71 kPa/m), and shall not be constructed in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1, D2 or townhouses in Seismic Design Category C, as established in Figure 301.2(2).

404.2 Wood foundation walls. Wood foundation walls shall be constructed in accordance with the provisions of Sections 404.2.1 through 404.2.6 and with the details shown in Figures 403.1(2) and 403.1(3).

404.2.1 Identification. All load-bearing lumber shall be identified by the grade mark of a lumber grading or inspection agency which has been approved by an accreditation body that complies with DOC PS 20. In lieu of a grade mark, a certificate of inspection issued by a lumber grading or inspection agency meeting the requirements of this section shall be accepted. Wood structural panels shall conform to DOC PS 1 or DOC PS 2 and shall be identified by a grade mark or certificate of inspection issued by an approved agency.

404.2.2 Stud size. The studs used in foundation walls shall be 2-inch by 6-inch (51 mm by 152 mm) members. When spaced 16 inches (406 mm) on center, a wood species with an Fb value of not less than 1,250 pounds per square inch (8619 kPa) as listed in AF&PA/NDS shall be used. When spaced 12 inches (305 mm) on center, an Fb of not less than 875 psi (6033 kPa) shall be required.

404.2.3 Height of backfill. For wood foundations that are not designed and installed in accordance with AF&PA PWF, the height of backfill against a foundation wall shall not exceed 4 feet (1219 mm). When the height of fill is more than 12 inches (305 mm) above the interior grade of a crawl space or floor of a basement, the thickness of the plywood sheathing shall meet the requirements of Table 404.2.3.

404.2.4 Backfilling. Wood foundation walls shall not be backfilled until the basement floor and first floor have been constructed or the walls have been braced. For crawl space construction, backfill or bracing shall be installed on the interior of the walls prior to placing backfill on the exterior.

404.2.5 Drainage and dampproofing. Wood foundation basements shall be drained and dampproofed in accordance with Sections 405 and 406, respectively.

404.2.6 Fastening. Wood structural panel foundation wall sheathing shall be attached to framing in accordance with Table 602.3(1) and Section 402.1.1.

404.3 Wood sill plates. Wood sill plates shall be a minimum of 2-inch by 4-inch (51 mm by 102 mm) nominal lumber. Sill plate anchorage shall be in accordance with Sections 403.1.6 and 602.11.

404.4 Retaining walls. Retaining walls that are not laterally supported at the top and that retain in excess of 24 inches (610 mm) of unbalanced fill shall be designed to ensure stability against overturning, sliding, excessive foundation pressure and water uplift. Retaining walls shall be designed for a safety factor of 1.5 against lateral sliding and overturning.

404.5 Precast concrete foundation walls.

404.5.1 Design. Precast concrete foundation walls shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice. The design and manufacture of precast concrete foundation wall panels shall comply with the materials requirements of Section 402.3 or ACI 318. The panel design drawings shall be in accordance with Section 106.5.

image: oh/admin/2014/4101$8-4-01_ph_ff_n_ru_20120529_1331-9.jpg

TABLE 404.2.3

PLYWOOD GRADE AND THICKNESS FOR WOOD FOUNDATION CONSTRUCTION

(30 pcf equivalent-fluid weight soil pressure)

HEIGHT OF FILL (inches) STUD SPACING (inches) FACE GRAIN ACROSS STUDS FACE GRAIN PARALLEL TO STUDS
Gradea Minimum thickness (inches) Span rating Gradea Minimum thickness (inches)b, c Span rating
24 12 B 15/32 32/16 A 15/32 32/16
B 15/32 c 32/16
16 B 15/32 32/16 A 15/32 c 32/16
B 19/32 c (4, 5 ply) 40/20
36 12 B 15/32 32/16 A 15/32 32/16
B 15/32 c (4, 5 ply) 32/16
B B 19/32 (4, 5 ply 40/20
16 B 15/32c 32/16 A 19/32 40/20
B 23/32 48/24
48 12 B 15/32 32/16 A 15/32 c 32/16
B 19/32 c (4, 5 ply) 40/20
16 B 19/32 40/20 A 19/32 c 40/20
A 23/32 48/24

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per cubic foot = 0.1572 kN/m3.

a. Plywood shall be of the following minimum grades in accordance with DOC PS 1 or DOC PS 2:

1. DOC PS 1 Plywood grades marked:

1.1. Structural I C-D (Exposure 1)

1.2. C-D (Exposure 1)

2. DOC PS 2 Plywood grades marked:

2.1. Structural I Sheathing (Exposure 1)

2.2. Sheathing (Exposure 1)

3. Where a major portion of the wall is exposed above ground and a better appearance is desired, the following plywood grades marked exterior are suitable:

3.1. Structural I A-C, Structural I B-C or Structural I C-C (Plugged) in accordance with DOC PS 1

3.2. A-C Group 1, B-C Group 1, C-C (Plugged) Group 1 or MDO Group 1 in accordance with DOC PS 1

3.3. Single Floor in accordance with DOC PS 1 or DOC PS 2

b. Minimum thickness 15/32 inch, except crawl space sheathing may be 3/8 inch for face grain across studs 16 inches on center and maximum 2-foot depth of unequal fill.

c. For this fill height, thickness and grade combination, panels that are continuous over less than three spans (across less than three stud spacings) require blocking 16 inches above the bottom plate. Offset adjacent blocks and fasten through studs with two 16d corrosion-resistant nails at each end.

404.5.2 Precast concrete foundation design drawings. Precast concrete foundation wall design drawings shall be submitted to the building official and approved prior to installation. Drawings shall include, at a minimum, the information specified below:

1. Design loading as applicable;

2. Footing design and material;

3. Concentrated loads and their points of application;

4. Soil bearing capacity;

5. Maximum allowable total uniform load;

6. Seismic design category; and

7. Basic wind speed.

404.5.3 Identification. Precast concrete foundation wall panels shall be identified by a certificate of inspection label issued by an approved inspection agency.

SECTION 405

FOUNDATION DRAINAGE

405.1 Concrete or masonry foundations. Drains shall be provided around all concrete or masonry foundations that retain earth and enclose habitable or usable spaces located below grade. Drainage tiles, gravel or crushed stone drains, perforated pipe or other approved systems or materials shall be installed at or below the area to be protected and shall discharge by gravity or mechanical means into an approved drainage system or other location that complies with the Ohio Plumbing Code. Gravel or crushed stone drains shall extend at least 1 foot (305 mm) beyond the outside edge of the footing and 6 inches (152 mm) above the top of the footing and be covered with an approved filter membrane material. The top of open joints of drain tiles shall be protected with strips of building paper, and the drainage tiles or perforated pipe shall be placed on a minimum of 2 inches (51 mm) of washed gravel or crushed rock at least one sieve size larger than the tile joint opening or perforation and covered with not less than 6 inches (152 mm) of the same material.

Exception: A drainage system is not required when the foundation is installed on well-drained ground or sand-gravel mixture soils according to the Unified Soil Classification System, Group I Soils, as detailed in Table R 405.1.

405.1.1 Precast concrete foundation. Precast concrete walls that retain earth and enclose habitable or use-able space located below-grade that rest on crushed stone footings shall have a perforated drainage pipe installed below the base of the wall on either the interior or exterior side of the wall, at least one foot (305 mm) beyond the edge of the wall. If the exterior drainage pipe is used, an approved filter membrane material shall cover the pipe. The drainage system shall discharge by gravity or mechanical means into an approved drainage system or other location that complies with the Ohio Plumbing Code.

405.2 Wood foundations. Wood foundations enclosing habitable or usable spaces located below grade shall be adequately drained in accordance with Sections 405.2.1 through 405.2.3.

405.2.1 Base. A porous layer of gravel, crushed stone or coarse sand shall be placed to a minimum thickness of 4 inches (102 mm) under the basement floor. Provision shall be made for automatic draining of this layer and the gravel or crushed stone wall footings.

405.2.2 Vapor retarder. A 6-mil-thick ( 0.15 mm) polyethylene vapor retarder shall be applied over the porous layer with the basement floor constructed over the polyethylene.

TABLE 405.1

PROPERTIES OF SOILS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO THE UNIFIED SOIL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM

SOIL GROUP UNIFIED SOIL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM SYMBOL SOIL DESCRIPTION DRAINAGE CHARACTERISTICSa FROST HEAVE POTENTIAL VOLUME CHANGE POTENTIAL EXPANSIONb
Group I GW Well-graded gravels, gravel sand mixtures, little or no fines Good Low Low
GP Poorly graded gravels or gravel sand mixtures, little or no fines Good Low Low
SW Well-graded sands, gravelly sands, little or no fines Good Low Low
SP Poorly graded sands or gravelly sands, little or no fines Good Low Low
GM Silty gravels, gravel-sand-silt mixtures Good Medium Low
SM Silty sand, sand-silt mixtures Good Medium Low
Group II GC Clayey gravels, gravel-sand-clay mixtures Medium Medium Low
SC Clayey sands, sand-clay mixture Medium Medium Low
ML Inorganic silts and very fine sands, rock flour, silty or clayey fine sands or clayey silts with slight plasticity Medium High Low
CL Inorganic clays of low to medium plasticity, gravelly clays, sandy clays, silty clays, lean clays Medium Medium Medium to Low
Group III CH Inorganic clays of high plasticity, fat clays Poor Medium High
MH Inorganic silts, micaceous or diatomaceous fine sandy or silty soils, elastic silts Poor High High
Group IV OL Organic silts and organic silty clays of low plasticity Poor Medium Medium
OH Organic clays of medium to high plasticity, organic silts Unsatisfactory Medium High
Pt Peat and other highly organic soils Unsatisfactory Medium High

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

a. The percolation rate for good drainage is over 4 inches per hour, medium drainage is 2 inches to 4 inches per hour, and poor is less than 2 inches per hour.

b. Soils with a low potential expansion typically have a plasticity index (PI) of 0 to 15, soils with a medium potential expansion have a PI of 10 to 35 and soils with a high potential expansion have a PI greater than 20.

405.2.3 Drainage system. In other than Group I soils, a sump shall be provided to drain the porous layer and footings. The sump shall be at least 24 inches (610 mm) in diameter or 20 inches square ( 0.0129 m2), shall extend at least 24 inches (610 mm) below the bottom of the basement floor and shall be capable of positive gravity or mechanical drainage to remove any accumulated water. The drainage system shall discharge by gravity or mechanical means into an approved drainage system or other location that complies with the Ohio Plumbing Code.

SECTION 406

FOUNDATION WATERPROOFING AND DAMPPROOFING

406.1 Concrete and masonry foundation dampproofing. Except where required by Section 406.2 to be waterproofed, foundation walls that retain earth and enclose interior spaces and floors below grade shall be dampproofed from the top of the footing to the finished grade. Masonry walls shall have not less than 3/8 inch ( 9.5 mm) portland cement parging applied to the exterior of the wall. The parging shall be dampproofed in accordance with one of the following:

1. Bituminous coating.

2. Three pounds per square yard ( 1.63 kg/m2) of acrylic modified cement.

3. One-eighth inch ( 3.2 mm) coat of surface-bonding cement complying with ASTM C 887.

4. Any material permitted for waterproofing in Section 406.2.

5. Other approved methods or materials.

Exception: Parging of unit masonry walls is not required where a material is approved for direct application to the masonry.

Concrete walls shall be dampproofed by applying any one of the above listed dampproofing materials or any one of the waterproofing materials listed in Section 406.2 to the exterior of the wall.

Exception: Existing foundations shall not be required to be dampproofed where a supplemental interior foundation drainage system is installed and connected to a sump pump.

406.2 Concrete and masonry foundation waterproofing. In areas where a high water table or other severe soil-water conditions are known to exist, exterior foundation walls that retain earth and enclose interior spaces and floors below grade shall be waterproofed from the top of the footing to the finished grade. Walls shall be waterproofed in accordance with one of the following:

1. Two-ply hot-mopped felts.

2. Fifty five pound (25 kg) roll roofing.

3. Six-mil ( 0.15 mm) polyvinyl chloride.

4. Six-mil ( 0.15 mm) polyethylene.

5. Forty-mil (1 mm) polymer-modified asphalt.

6. Sixty-mil ( 1.5 mm) flexible polymer cement.

7. One-eighth inch (3 mm) cement-based, fiber-reinforced, waterproof coating.

8. Sixty-mil ( 0.22 mm) solvent-free liquid-applied synthetic rubber.

Exceptions:

1. Organic-solvent-based products such as hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, ketones and esters shall not be used for ICF walls with expanded polystyrene form material. Use of plastic roofing cements, acrylic coatings, latex coatings, mortars and pargings to seal ICF walls is permitted. Cold-setting asphalt or hot asphalt shall conform to type C of ASTM D 449. Hot asphalt shall be applied at a temperature of less than 200°F (93°C).

2. Where existing exterior or interior dampproofing exists, no waterproofing shall be required.

3. Where an existing home has a supplemental interior foundation drainage system connected to a sump pump, no waterproofing shall be required.

All joints in membrane waterproofing shall be lapped and sealed with an adhesive compatible with the membrane.

406.3 Dampproofing for wood foundations. Wood foundations enclosing habitable or usable spaces located below grade shall be dampproofed in accordance with Sections 406.3.1 through 406.3.4.

406.3.1 Panel joint sealed. Plywood panel joints in the foundation walls shall be sealed full length with a caulking compound capable of producing a moisture-proof seal under the conditions of temperature and moisture content at which it will be applied and used.

406.3.2 Below-grade moisture barrier. A 6-mil-thick ( 0.15 mm) polyethylene film shall be applied over the below-grade portion of exterior foundation walls prior to backfilling. Joints in the polyethylene film shall be lapped 6 inches (152 mm) and sealed with adhesive. The top edge of the polyethylene film shall be bonded to the sheathing to form a seal. Film areas at grade level shall be protected from mechanical damage and exposure by a pressure preservatively treated lumber or plywood strip attached to the wall several inches above finish grade level and extending approximately 9 inches (229 mm) below grade. The joint between the strip and the wall shall be caulked full length prior to fastening the strip to the wall. Other coverings appropriate to the architectural treatment may also be used. The polyethylene film shall extend down to the bottom of the wood footing plate but shall not overlap or extend into the gravel or crushed stone footing.

406.3.3 Porous fill. The space between the excavation and the foundation wall shall be backfilled with the same material used for footings, up to a height of 1 foot (305 mm) above the footing for well-drained sites, or one-half the total back-fill height for poorly drained sites. The porous fill shall be covered with strips of 30-pound ( 13.6 kg) asphalt paper or 6-mil ( 0.15 mm) polyethylene to permit water seepage while avoiding infiltration of fine soils.

406.3.4 Backfill. The remainder of the excavated area shall be backfilled with the same type of soil as was removed during the excavation.

406.4 Precast concrete foundation system dampproofing. Except where required by Section 406.2 to be waterproofed, precast concrete foundation walls enclosing habitable or useable spaces located below grade shall be dampproofed in accordance with Section 406.1.

406.4.1 Panel joints sealed. Precast concrete foundation panel joints shall be sealed full height with a sealant meeting ASTM C 920, Type S or M, Grade NS, Class 25, Use NT, M or A. Joint sealant shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions.

SECTION 407

COLUMNS

407.1 Wood column protection. Wood columns shall be protected against decay as set forth in Section 317.

407.2 Steel column protection. All surfaces (inside and outside) of steel columns shall be given a shop coat of rust-inhibitive paint, except for corrosion-resistant steel and steel treated with coatings to provide corrosion resistance.

407.3 Structural requirements. The columns shall be restrained to prevent lateral displacement at the bottom end. Wood columns shall not be less in nominal size than 4 inches by 4 inches (102 mm by 102 mm). Steel columns shall not be less than 3-inch-diameter (76 mm) Schedule 40 pipe manufactured in accordance with ASTM A 53 Grade B or approved equivalent.

Exception: In Seismic Design Categories A, B and C, columns no more than 48 inches (1219 mm) in height on a pier or footing are exempt from the bottom end lateral displacement requirement within under-floor areas enclosed by a continuous foundation.

SECTION 408

UNDER-FLOOR SPACE

408.1 Ventilation. The under-floor space between the bottom of the floor joists and the earth under any building (except space occupied by a basement) shall have ventilation openings through foundation walls or exterior walls. The minimum net area of ventilation openings shall not be less than 1 square foot ( 0.0929 m2) for each 150 square feet (14 m2) of under-floor space area, unless the ground surface is covered by a Class 1 vapor retarder material. When a Class 1 vapor retarder material is used, the minimum net area of ventilation openings shall not be less than 1 square foot ( 0.0929 m2) for each 1,500 square feet (140 m2) of under-floor space area. One such ventilating opening shall be within 3 feet (914 mm) of each corner of the building.

408.2 Openings for under-floor ventilation. The minimum net area of ventilation openings shall not be less than 1 square foot ( 0.0929 m2) for each 150 square feet (14 m2) of under-floor area. One ventilation opening shall be within 3 feet (915 mm) of each corner of the building. Ventilation openings shall be covered for their height and width with any of the following materials provided that the least dimension of the covering shall not exceed 1/4 inch ( 6.4 mm):

1. Perforated sheet metal plates not less than 0.070 inch ( 1.8 mm) thick.

2. Expanded sheet metal plates not less than 0.047 inch ( 1.2 mm) thick.

3. Cast-iron grill or grating.

4. Extruded load-bearing brick vents.

5. Hardware cloth of 0.035 inch ( 0.89 mm) wire or heavier.

6. Corrosion-resistant wire mesh, with the least dimension being 1/8 inch ( 3.2 mm) thick.

Exception: The total area of ventilation openings shall be permitted to be reduced to 1/1,500 of the under-floor area where the ground surface is covered with an approved Class I vapor retarder material and the required openings are placed to provide cross ventilation of the space. The installation of operable louvers shall not be prohibited.

408.3 Unvented crawl space. Ventilation openings in under-floor spaces specified in Sections 408.1 and 408.2 shall not be required where:

1. Exposed earth is covered with a continuous Class I vapor retarder. Joints of the vapor retarder shall overlap by 6 inches (152 mm) and shall be sealed or taped. The edges of the vapor retarder shall extend at least 6 inches (152 mm) up the stem wall and shall be attached and sealed to the stem wall; and 2. One of the following is provided for the under-floor space:

2.1. Continuously operated mechanical exhaust ventilation at a rate equal to 1 cubic foot per minute ( 0.47 L/s) for each 50 square feet ( 4.7 m2)of crawlspace floor area, including an air pathway to the common area (such as a duct or transfer grille), and perimeter walls insulated in accordance with Section 110 2.2.9;

2.2. Conditioned air supply sized to deliver at a rate equal to 1 cubic foot per minute ( 0.47 L/s) for each 50 square feet ( 4.7 m2) of under-floor area, including a return air pathway to the common area (such as a duct or transfer grille), and perimeter walls insulated in accordance with Section 1102.2.9;

2.3. Plenum in existing structures complying with Section 1601.5, if under-floor space is used as a plenum.

408.4 Access. Access shall be provided to all under-floor spaces. Access openings through the floor shall be a minimum of 18 inches by 24 inches (457 mm by 610 mm). Openings through a perimeter wall shall be not less than 16 inches by 24 inches (407 mm by 610 mm). When any portion of the through-wall access is below grade, an areaway not less than 16 inches by 24 inches (407 mm by 610 mm) shall be provided. The bottom of the areaway shall be below the threshold of the access opening. Through wall access openings shall not be located under a door to the residence. See Section 1305.1.4 for access requirements where mechanical equipment is located under floors.

408.5 Removal of debris. The under-floor grade shall be cleaned of all vegetation and organic material. All wood forms used for placing concrete shall be removed before a building is occupied or used for any purpose. All construction materials shall be removed before a building is occupied or used for any purpose.

408.6 Finished grade. The finished grade of under-floor surface may be located at the bottom of the footings; however, where there is evidence that the groundwater table can rise to within 6 inches (152 mm) of the finished floor at the building perimeter or where there is evidence that the surface water does not readily drain from the building site, the grade in the under-floor space shall be as high as the outside finished grade, unless an approved drainage system is provided.

408.7 Flood resistance. For buildings located in areas prone to flooding as established in Table 301.2(1)unless otherwise approved the local flood plain administrator:

1. Walls enclosing the under-floor space shall be provided with flood openings in accordance with Section 322.2.2.

2. The finished ground level of the under-floor space shall be equal to or higher than the outside finished ground level on at least one side.

Exception: Under-floor spaces that meet the requirements of FEMA/FIA TB 11-1.

SECTION 409

FOUNDATION INSULATION

409.1 Protection of exposed foundation insulation. Foundation walls and the edges of slab-on-grade floors with exterior applied insulation shall have a rigid, opaque and weather-resistant protective covering to prevent the degradation of thermal performance. The protective covering shall cover the exposed insulation and extend to a minimum of 6 inches (153 mm) below grade.

Replaces: 4101:8-4- 02.2

Effective: 01/01/2013
R.C. 119.032 review dates: 01/01/2018
Promulgated Under: 119.03
Statutory Authority: 3781.10(A)
Rule Amplifies: 3781.01 , 3781.06 , 3781.10 , 3781.11 , 3791.04 , 4740.14
Prior Effective Dates: 5/27/06

4101:8-4-02.2 [Rescinded]Concrete.

Effective: 01/01/2013
R.C. 119.032 review dates: 03/22/2012
Promulgated Under: 119.03
Statutory Authority: 3781.10(A)
Rule Amplifies: 3781.10 , 3781.11 , 3791.04
Prior Effective Dates: 5/27/06