Chapter 4101:1-21 Masonry

4101:1-21-01 Masonry.

[Comment: When a reference is made within this rule to a federal statutory provision, an industry consensus standard, or any other technical publication, the specific date and title of the publication as well as the name and address of the promulgating agency are listed in rule 4101:1-35-01 of the Administrative Code. The application of the referenced standards shall be limited and as prescribed in section 102.5 of rule 4101:1-1-01 of the Administrative Code.]

SECTION 2101

GENERAL

2101.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern the materials, design, construction and quality of masonry.

2101.2 Design methods. Masonry shall comply with the provisions of one of the following design methods in this chapter as well as the requirements of Sections 2101 through 2104. Masonry designed by the allowable stress design provisions of Section 2101.2.1, the strength design provisions of Section 2101.2.2 or the prestressed masonry provisions of Section 2101.2.3 shall comply with Section 2105.

2101.2.1 Allowable stress design. Masonry designed by the allowable stress design method shall comply with the provisions of Sections 2106 and 2107.

2101.2.2 Strength design. Masonry designed by the strength design method shall comply with the provisions of Sections 2106 and 2108, except that autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) masonry shall comply with the provisions of Section 2106, Section 1613.6.4 and Chapter 1 and Appendix A of TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5.

2101.2.3 Prestressed masonry. Prestressed masonry shall be designed in accordance with Chapters 1 and 4 of TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5 and Section 2106. Special inspection during construction shall be provided as set forth in Section 1704.5.

2101.2.4 Empirical design. Masonry designed by the empirical design method shall comply with the provisions of Sections 2106 and 2109 or Chapter 5 of TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5.

2101.2.5 Glass unit masonry. Glass unit masonry shall comply with the provisions of Section 2110 or Chapter 7 of TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5.

2101.2.6 Masonry veneer. Masonry veneer shall comply with the provisions of Chapter 14 or Chapter 6 of TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5.

2101.3 Construction documents. The construction documents shall show all of the items required by this code including the following:

1.Specified size, grade, type and location of reinforcement, anchors and wall ties.

2.Reinforcing bars to be welded and welding procedure.

3.Size and location of structural elements.

4.Provisions for dimensional changes resulting from elastic deformation, creep, shrinkage, temperature and moisture.

5.Loads used in the design of masonry.

6.Specified compressive strength of masonry at stated ages or stages of construction for which masonry is designed, except where specifically exempted by this code.

7.Details of anchorage of masonry to structural members, frames and other construction, including the type, size and location of connectors.

8.Size and location of conduits, pipes and sleeves.

9.The minimum level of testing and inspection as defined in Chapter 17, or an itemized testing and inspection program that meets or exceeds the requirements of Chapter 17.

2101.3.1 Fireplace drawings. The construction documents shall describe in sufficient detail the location, size and construction of masonry fireplaces. The thickness and characteristics of materials and the clearances from walls, partitions and ceilings shall be indicated.

SECTION 2102

DEFINITIONS AND NOTATIONS

2102.1 General. The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.

AAC MASONRY. Masonry made of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) units, manufactured without internal reinforcement and bonded together using thin- or thick-bed mortar.

ADOBE CONSTRUCTION. Construction in which the exterior load-bearing and nonload-bearing walls and partitions are of unfired clay masonry units, and floors, roofs and interior framing are wholly or partly of wood or other approved materials.

Adobe, stabilized. Unfired clay masonry units to which admixtures, such as emulsified asphalt, are added during the manufacturing process to limit the units' water absorption so as to increase their durability.

Adobe, unstabilized. Unfired clay masonry units that do not meet the definition of "Adobe, stabilized."

ANCHOR.Metal rod, wire or strap that secures masonry to its structural support.

ARCHITECTURAL TERRA COTTA. Plain or ornamental hard-burned modified clay units, larger in size than brick, with glazed or unglazed ceramic finish.

AREA.

Bedded.The area of the surface of a masonry unit that is in contact with mortar in the plane of the joint.

Gross cross-sectional. The area delineated by the out-to-out specified dimensions of masonry in the plane under consideration.

Net cross-sectional. The area of masonry units, grout and mortar crossed by the plane under consideration based on out-to-out specified dimensions.

AUTOCLAVED AERATED CONCRETE (AAC). Low-density cementitious product of calcium silicate hydrates, whose material specifications are defined in ASTM C 1386.

BED JOINT. The horizontal layer of mortar on which a masonry unit is laid.

BOND BEAM. A horizontal grouted element within masonry in which reinforcement is embedded.

BRICK.

Calcium silicate (sand lime brick). A masonry unit made of sand and lime.

Clay or shale. A masonry unit made of clay or shale, usually formed into a rectangular prism while in the plastic state and burned or fired in a kiln.

Concrete.A masonry unit having the approximate shape of a rectangular prism and composed of inert aggregate particles embedded in a hardened cementitious matrix.

CAST STONE. A building stone manufactured from portland cement concrete precast and used as a trim, veneer or facing on or in buildings or structures.

CELL. A void space having a gross cross-sectional area greater than 11 /2 squareinches (967 mm2 ).

CHIMNEY. A primarily vertical enclosure containing one or more passageways for conveying flue gases to the outside atmosphere.

CONNECTOR.A mechanical device for securing two or more pieces, parts or members together, including anchors, wall ties and fasteners.

COVER.Distance between surface of reinforcing bar and edge of member.

DIMENSIONS.

Actual.The measured dimension of a masonry unit or element.

Nominal.The specified dimension plus an allowance for the joints with which the units are to be laid. Thickness is given first, followed by height and then length.

Specified. The dimensions specified for the manufacture or construction of masonry, masonry units, joints or any other component of a structure.

FIREPLACE.A hearth and fire chamber or similar prepared place in which a fire may be made and which is built in conjunction with a chimney.

FIREPLACE THROAT. The opening between the top of the firebox and the smoke chamber.

FOUNDATION PIER. An isolated vertical foundation member whose horizontal dimension measured at right angles to its thickness does not exceed three times its thickness and whose height is equal to or less than four times its thickness.

GROUTED MASONRY.

Grouted hollow-unit masonry. That form of grouted masonry construction in which certain designated cells of hollow units are continuously filled with grout.

Grouted multiwythe masonry. That form of grouted masonry construction in which the space between the wythes is solidly or periodically filled with grout.

HEAD JOINT. Vertical mortar joint placed between masonry units within the wythe at the time the masonry units are laid.

HEIGHT, WALLS. The vertical distance from the foundation wall or other immediate support of such wall to the top of the wall.

MASONRY.A built-up construction or combination of building units or materials of clay, shale, concrete, glass, gypsum, stone or other approved units bonded together with or without mortar or grout or other accepted methods of joining.

Ashlar masonry. Masonry composed of various-sized rectangular units having sawed, dressed or squared bed surfaces, properly bonded and laid in mortar.

Coursed ashlar. Ashlar masonry laid in courses of stone of equal height for each course, although different courses shall be permitted to be of varying height.

Glass unit masonry. Masonry composed of glass units bonded by mortar.

Plain masonry. Masonry in which the tensile resistance of the masonry is taken into consideration and the effects of stresses in reinforcement are neglected.

Random ashlar. Ashlar masonry laid in courses of stone set without continuous joints and laid up without drawn patterns. When composed of material cut into modular heights, discontinuous but aligned horizontal joints are discernible.

Reinforced masonry. Masonry construction in which reinforcement acting in conjunction with the masonry is used to resist forces.

Solid masonry. Masonry consisting of solid masonry units laid contiguously with the joints between the units filled with mortar.

Unreinforced (plain) masonry. Masonry in which the tensile resistance of masonry is taken into consideration and the resistance of the reinforcing steel, if present, is neglected.

MASONRY UNIT. Brick, tile, stone, glass block or concrete block conforming to the requirements specified in Section 2103.

Clay.A building unit larger in size than a brick, composed of burned clay, shale, fired clay or mixtures thereof.

Concrete.A building unit or block larger in size than 12 inches by 4 inches by 4 inches (305 mm by 102 mm by 102 mm) made of cement and suitable aggregates.

Hollow.A masonry unit whose net cross-sectional area in any plane parallel to the load-bearing surface is less than 75 percent of its gross cross-sectional area measured in the same plane.

Solid. A masonry unit whose net cross-sectional area in every plane parallel to the load-bearing surface is 75 percent or more of its gross cross-sectional area measured in the same plane.

MORTAR.A plastic mixture of approved cementitious materials, fine aggregates and water used to bond masonry or other structural units.

MORTAR, SURFACE-BONDING. A mixture to bond concrete masonry units that contains hydraulic cement, glass fiber reinforcement with or without inorganic fillers or organic modifiers and water.

PRESTRESSED MASONRY. Masonry in which internal stresses have been introduced to counteract potential tensile stresses in masonry resulting from applied loads.

PRISM.An assemblage of masonry units and mortar with or without grout used as a test specimen for determining properties of the masonry.

RUBBLE MASONRY. Masonry composed of roughly shaped stones.

Coursed rubble. Masonry composed of roughly shaped stones fitting approximately on level beds and well bonded.

Random rubble. Masonry composed of roughly shaped stones laid without regularity of coursing but well bonded and fitted together to form well-divided joints.

Rough or ordinary rubble. Masonry composed of unsquared field stones laid without regularity of coursing but well bonded.

RUNNING BOND. The placement of masonry units such that head joints in successive courses are horizontally offset at least one-quarter the unit length.

SHEAR WALL.

Detailed plain masonry shear wall. A masonry shear wall designed to resist lateral forces neglecting stresses in reinforcement, and designed in accordance with Section 2106.1.

Intermediate prestressed masonry shear wall. A prestressed masonry shear wall designed to resist lateral forces considering stresses in reinforcement, and designed in accordance with Section 2106.1.

Intermediate reinforced masonry shear wall. A masonry shear wall designed to resist lateral forces considering stresses in reinforcement, and designed in accordance with Section 2106.1.

Ordinary plain masonry shear wall. A masonry shear wall designed to resist lateral forces neglecting stresses in reinforcement, and designed in accordance with Section 2106.1.

Ordinary plain prestressed masonry shear wall. A prestressed masonry shear wall designed to resist lateral forces considering stresses in reinforcement, and designed in accordance with Section 2106.1.

Ordinary reinforced masonry shear wall. A masonry shear wall designed to resist lateral forces considering stresses in reinforcement, and designed in accordance with Section 2106.1.

Special prestressed masonry shear wall. A prestressed masonry shear wall designed to resist lateral forces considering stresses in reinforcement and designed in accordance with Section 2106.1 except that only grouted, laterally restrained tendons are used.

Special reinforced masonry shear wall. A masonry shear wall designed to resist lateral forces considering stresses in reinforcement, and designed in accordance with Section 2106.1.

SHELL. The outer portion of a hollow masonry unit as placed in masonry.

SPECIFIED. Required by construction documents.

SPECIFIED COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF MASONRY,f'm. Minimum compressive strength, expressed as force per unit of net cross-sectional area, required of the masonry used in construction by the construction documents, and upon which the project design is based. Whenever the quantityf'mis under the radical sign, the square root of numerical value only is intended and the result has units of pounds per square inch (psi) (MPa).

STACK BOND. The placement of masonry units in a bond pattern is such that head joints in successive courses are vertically aligned. For the purpose of this code, requirements for stack bond shall apply to masonry laid in other than running bond.

STONE MASONRY. Masonry composed of field, quarried or cast stone units bonded by mortar.

Ashlar stone masonry. Stone masonry composed of rectangular units having sawed, dressed or squared bed surfaces and bonded by mortar.

Rubble stone masonry. Stone masonry composed of irregular-shaped units bonded by mortar.

STRENGTH.

Design strength. Nominal strength multiplied by a strength reduction factor.

Nominal strength. Strength of a member or cross section calculated in accordance with these provisions before application of any strength-reduction factors.

Required strength. Strength of a member or cross section required to resist factored loads.

THIN-BED MORTAR. Mortar for use in construction of AAC unit masonry with joints 0.06 inch ( 1.5 mm) or less.

TIE, LATERAL. Loop of reinforcing bar or wire enclosing longitudinal reinforcement.

TIE, WALL. A connector that connects wythes of masonry walls together.

TILE.A ceramic surface unit, usually relatively thin in relation to facial area, made from clay or a mixture of clay or other ceramic materials, called the body of the tile, having either a "glazed" or "unglazed" face and fired above red heat in the course of manufacture to a temperature sufficiently high enough to produce specific physical properties and characteristics.

TILE, STRUCTURAL CLAY. A hollow masonry unit composed of burned clay, shale, fire clay or mixture thereof, and having parallel cells.

WALL. A vertical element with a horizontal length-to-thickness ratio greater than three, used to enclose space.

Cavity wall. A wall built of masonry units or of concrete, or a combination of these materials, arranged to provide an airspace within the wall, and in which the inner and outer parts of the wall are tied together with metal ties.

Composite wall. A wall built of a combination of two or more masonry units bonded together, one forming the backup and the other forming the facing elements.

Dry-stacked, surface-bonded wall. A wall built of concrete masonry units where the units are stacked dry, without mortar on the bed or head joints, and where both sides of the wall are coated with a surface-bonding mortar.

Masonry-bonded hollow wall. A wall built of masonry units so arranged as to provide an airspace within the wall, and in which the facing and backing of the wall are bonded together with masonry units.

Parapet wall. The part of any wall entirely above the roof line.

WEB.An interior solid portion of a hollow masonry unit as placed in masonry.

WYTHE. Each continuous, vertical section of a wall, one masonry unit in thickness.

NOTATIONS.

db= Diameter of reinforcement, inches (mm).

Fs= Allowable tensile or compressive stress in reinforcement, psi (MPa).

fr= Modulus of rupture, psi (MPa). fMC= Specified compressive strength of AAC masonry, the minimum compressive strength for a class of AAC masonry as specified in ASTM C 1386, psi (MPa).

f'm= Specified compressive strength of masonry at age of 28 days, psi (MPa).

f'mi= Specified compressive strength of masonry at the time of prestress transfer, psi (MPa).

K= The lesser of the masonry cover, clear spacing between adjacent reinforcement, or five times db, inches (mm).

Ls= Distance between supports, inches (mm).

ld= Required development length or lap length of reinforcement, inches (mm).

P = The applied load at failure, pounds (N).

St= Thickness of the test specimen measured parallel to the direction of load, inches (mm).

Sw= Width of the test specimen measured parallel to the loading cylinder, inches (mm).

SECTION 2103

MASONRY CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS

2103.1 Concrete masonry units. Concrete masonry units shall conform to the following standards: ASTM C 55 for concrete brick; ASTM C 73 for calcium silicate face brick; ASTM C 90 for load-bearing concrete masonry units or ASTM C 744 for prefaced concrete and calcium silicate masonry units.

2103.2 Clay or shale masonry units. Clay or shale masonry units shall conform to the following standards: ASTM C 34 for structural clay load-bearing wall tile; ASTM C 56 for structural clay nonload-bearing wall tile; ASTM C 62 for building brick (solid masonry units made from clay or shale); ASTM C 1088 for solid units of thin veneer brick; ASTM C 126 for ceramic-glazed structural clay facing tile, facing brick and solid masonry units; ASTM C 212 for structural clay facing tile; ASTM C 216 for facing brick (solid masonry units made from clay or shale); ASTM C 652 for hollow brick (hollow masonry units made from clay or shale) or ASTM C 1405 for glazed brick (single-fired solid brick units).

Exception: Structural clay tile for nonstructural use in fireproofing of structural members and in wall furring shall not be required to meet the compressive strength specifications. The fire-resistance rating shall be determined in accordance with ASTM E 119 or UL 263 and shall comply with the requirements of Table 602.

2103.3 AAC masonry. AAC masonry units shall conform to ASTM C 1386 for the strength class specified.

2103.4 Stone masonry units. Stone masonry units shall conform to the following standards: ASTM C 503 for marble building stone (exterior); ASTM C 568 for limestone building stone; ASTM C 615 for granite building stone; ASTM C 616 for sandstone building stone; or ASTM C 629 for slate building stone.

2103.5 Ceramic tile. Ceramic tile shall be as defined in, and shall conform to the requirements of, ANSI A 137.1.

2103.6 Glass unit masonry. Hollow glass units shall be partially evacuated andhave a minimum average glass face thickness of 3/16 inch ( 4.8 mm). Solid glass-block units shall be provided when required. The surfaces of units intended to be in contact with mortar shall be treated with a polyvinyl butyral coating or latex-based paint. Reclaimed units shall not be used.

2103.7 Second-hand units. Second-hand masonry units shall not be reused unless they conform to the requirements of new units. The units shall be of whole, sound materials and free from cracks and other defects that will interfere with proper laying or use. Old mortar shall be cleaned from the unit before reuse.

2103.8 Mortar. Mortar for use in masonry construction shall conform to ASTM C 270 and Articles 2.1 and 2.6 A of TMS 602/ACI 530.1 /ASCE 6, except for mortars listed in Sections 2103.9, 2103.10 and 2103.11. Type S or N mortar conforming to ASTM C 270 shall be used for glass unit masonry.

2103.9 Surface-bonding mortar. Surface-bonding mortar shall comply with ASTM C 887. Surface bonding of concrete masonry units shall comply with ASTM C 946.

2103.10 Mortars for ceramic wall and floor tile. Portland cement mortars for installing ceramic wall and floor tile shall comply with ANSI A 108.1 A and ANSI A 108.1 B and be of the compositions indicated in Table 2103.10.

TABLE 2103.10

CERAMIC TILE MORTAR COMPOSITIONS

LOCATION MORTAR COMPOSITION
Walls Scratchcoat 1 cement; 1/5 hydrated lime; 4 dry or 5 damp sand
Setting bed and leveling coat 1 cement; ½ hydrated lime; 5 damp sand to 1 cement 1 hydrated lime, 7 damp sand
Floors Setting bed 1 cement; 1/10 hydrated lime; 5 dry or 6 damp sand; or 1 cement; 5 dry or 6 damp sand
Ceilings Scratchcoat and sand bed 1 cement; ½ hydrated lime; 2 ½ dry sand or 3 damp sand

2103.10.1 Dry-set portland cement mortars. Premixed prepared portland cement mortars, which require only the addition of water and are used in the installation of ceramic tile, shall comply with ANSI A 118.1. The shear bond strength for tile set in such mortar shall be as required in accordance with ANSI A 118.1. Tile set in dry-set portland cement mortar shall be installed in accordance with ANSI A 108.5.

2103.10.2 Latex-modified portland cement mortar.

Latex-modified portland cement thin-set mortars in which latex is added to dry-set mortar as a replacement for all or part of the gauging water that are used for the installation of ceramic tile shall comply with ANSI A 118.4. Tile set in latex-modified portland cement shall be installed in accordance with ANSI A 108.5.

2103.10.3 Epoxy mortar. Ceramic tile set and grouted with chemical-resistant epoxy shall comply with ANSI A 118.3. Tile set and grouted with epoxy shall be installed in accordance with ANSI A 108.6.

2103.10.4 Furan mortar and grout. Chemical-resistant furan mortar and grout that are used to install ceramic tile shall comply with ANSI A 118.5. Tile set and grouted with furan shall be installed in accordance with ANSI A 108.8.

2103.10.5 Modified epoxy-emulsion mortar and grout.Modified epoxy-emulsion mortar and grout that are used to install ceramic tile shall comply with ANSI A 118.8. Tile set and grouted with modified epoxy-emulsion mortar and grout shall be installed in accordance with ANSI A 108.9.

2103.10.6 Organic adhesives. Water-resistant organic adhesives used for the installation of ceramic tile shall comply with ANSI A 136.1. The shear bond strength after water immersion shall not be less than 40 psi (275 kPa) for Type I adhesive and not less than 20 psi (138 kPa) for Type II adhesive when tested in accordance with ANSI A 136.1. Tile set in organic adhesives shall be installed in accordance with ANSI A 108.4.

2103.10.7 Portland cement grouts. Portland cement grouts used for the installation of ceramic tile shall comply with ANSI A 118.6. Portland cement grouts for tile work shall be installed in accordance with ANSI A 108.10.

2103.11 Mortar for AAC masonry. Thin-bed mortar for AAC masonry shall comply with Article 2.1 C.1 of TMS 602/ACI 530.1 /ASCE 6. Mortar used for the leveling courses of AAC masonry shall comply with Article 2.1 C.2 of TMS 602/ACI 530.1 /ASCE 6.

2103.12 Grout. Grout shall comply with Article 2.2 of TMS 602/ACI 530.1 /ASCE 6.

2103.13 Metal reinforcement and accessories. Metal reinforcement and accessories shall conform to Article 2.4 of TMS 602/ACI 530.1 /ASCE 6. Where unidentified reinforcement is approved for use, not less than three tension and three bending tests shall be made on representative specimens of the reinforcement from each shipment and grade of reinforcing steel proposed for use in the work.

SECTION 2104

CONSTRUCTION

2104.1 Masonry construction. Masonry construction shall comply with the requirements of Sections 2104.1.1 through 2104.4 and with TMS 602/ACI 530.1 /ASCE 6.

2104.1.1 Tolerances. Masonry, except masonry veneer, shall be constructed within the tolerances specified in TMS 602/ACI 530.1 /ASCE 6.

2104.1.2 Placing mortar and units. Placement of mortar, grout, and clay, concrete, glass, and AAC masonry units shall comply with TMS 602/ACI 530.1 /ASCE 6.

2104.1.3 Installation of wall ties. Wall ties shall be installed in accordance with TMS 602/ACI 530.1 /ASCE 6.

2104.1.4 Chases and recesses. Chases and recesses shall be constructed as masonry units are laid. Masonry directly above chases or recesses wider than 12 inches (305 mm) shall be supported on lintels.

2104.1.5 Lintels. The design for lintels shall be in accordance with the masonry design provisions of either Section 2107 or 2108.

2104.1.6 Support on wood. Masonry shall not be supported on wood girders or other forms of wood construction except as permitted in Section 2304.12.

2104.2 Corbeled masonry. Corbeled masonry shall comply with the requirements of Section 1.12 of TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5.

2104.2.1 Molded cornices. Unless structural support and anchorage are provided to resist the overturning moment, the center of gravity of projecting masonry or molded cornices shall lie within the middle one-third of the supporting wall. Terra cotta and metal cornices shall be provided with a structural frame of approved noncombustible material anchored in an approved manner.

2104.3 Cold weather construction. The cold weather construction provisions of TMS 602/ACI 530.1 /ASCE 6, Article 1.8 C, shall be implemented when the ambient temperature falls below 40°F (4°C).

2104.4 Hot weather construction. The hot weather construction provisions of TMS 602/ACI 530.1 /ASCE 6, Article 1.8 D, shall be implemented when the ambient air temperature exceeds 100°F ( 37.8 °C), or 90°F ( 32.2 °C) with a wind velocity greater than 8 mph ( 12.9 km/hr).

SECTION 2105

QUALITY ASSURANCE

2105.1 General. A quality assurance program shall be used to ensure that the constructed masonry is in compliance with the construction documents.

The quality assurance program shall comply with the inspection and testing requirements of Chapter 17.

2105.2 Acceptance relative to strength requirements.

2105.2.1 Compliance withf 'mandf'AAC. Compressive strength of masonry shall be considered satisfactory if the compressive strength of each masonry wythe and grouted collar joint equals or exceeds the value off'mfor clay and concrete masonry andf'AACfor AAC masonry. For partially grouted clay and concrete masonry, the compressive strength of both the grouted and ungrouted masonry shall equal or exceed the applicablef'm. At the time of prestress, the compressive strength of the masonry shall equal or exceedf'mi, which shall be less than or equal tof'm.

2105.2.2 Determination of compressive strength. The compressive strength for each wythe shall be determined by the unit strength method or by the prism test method as specified herein.

2105.2. 2.1 Unit strength method.

2105.2. 2.1.1 Clay masonry. The compressive strength of masonry shall be determined based on the strength of the units and the type of mortar specified using Table 2105.2. 2.1.1, provided:

1.Units are sampled and tested to verify compliance with ASTM C 62, ASTM C 216 or ASTM C 652.

2.Thickness of bed joints does not exceed5/8 inch ( 15.9 mm).

3.For grouted masonry, the grout meets one of the following requirements:

3.1. Grout conforms to Article 2.2 of TMS 602/ACI 530.1 /ASCE 6.

3.2. Minimum grout compressive strength equals or exceeds

f'mbut not less than 2,000 psi ( 13.79 MPa). The compressive strength of grout shall be determined in accordance with ASTM C 1019.

TABLE 2105.2. 2.1.1 COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CLAY MASONRY

NET AREACOMPRESSIVESTRENGTH OFCLAY MASONRYUNITS (psi) NET AREA COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF MASONRY (psi)
Type M or S mortar TypeN mortar
1,700 3,350 2,100 4,150 1,000 1,500
4,950 6,200 2,000
6,600 8,250 2,500
8,250 10,300 3,000
9,900 - 3,500
11,500 - 4,000

For SI: 1 pound per square inch = 0.00689 MPa.

2105.2. 2.1.2 Concrete masonry. The compressive strength of masonry shall be determined based on the strength of the unit and type of mortar specified using Table 2105.2. 2.1.2, provided:

1.Units are sampled and tested to verify compliance with ASTM C 55 or ASTM C 90.

2.Thickness of bed joints does not exceed5/8 inch ( 15.9 mm).

3.For grouted masonry, the grout meets one of the following requirements:

3.1. Grout conforms to Article 2.2 of TMS 602/ACI 530.1 /ASCE 6.

3.2. Minimum grout compressive strength equals or exceeds f 'm

but not less than 2,000 psi ( 13.79 MPa). The compressive strength of grout shall be determined in accordance with ASTM C 1019.

TABLE 2105.2. 2.1.2 COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE MASONRY

NET AREACOMPRESSIVESTRENGTH OFCONCRETEMASONRY UNITS (psi) NET AREA COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OFMASONRY(psi)a
Type M or S mortar Type N mortar
1,250 1,300 1,000
1,900 2,150 1,500
2,800 3,050 2,000
3,750 4,050 2,500
4,800 5,250 3,000

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 0.00689 MPa.

a. For units less than 4 inches in height, 85 percent of the values listed.

2105.2. 2.1.3 AAC masonry. The compressive strength of AAC masonry shall be based on the strength of the AAC masonry unit only and the following shall be met:

1.Units conform to ASTM C 1386.

2.Thickness of bed joints does not exceed 1/8 inch ( 3.2 mm).

3.For grouted masonry, the grout meets one of the following requirements:

3.1. Grout conforms to Article 2.2 of TMS 602/ACI 530.1 /ASCE 6.

3.2. Minimum grout compressive strength equals or exceedsf 'AAC

but not less than 2,000 psi ( 13.79 MPa). The compressive strength of grout shall be determined in accordance with ASTM C 1019.

2105.2. 2.2 Prism test method.

2105.2. 2.2.1 General. The compressive strength of clay and concrete masonry shall be determined by the prism test method:

1.Where specified in the construction documents.

2.Where masonry does not meet the requirements for application of the unit strength method in Section 2105.2. 2.1.

2105.2. 2.2.2 Number of prisms per test. A prism test shall consist of three prisms constructed and tested in accordance with ASTM C 1314.

2105.3 Testing prisms from constructed masonry. When specified by the registered design professional, acceptance of masonry that does not meet the requirements of Section 2105.2. 2.1 or 2105.2. 2.2 shall be permitted to be based on tests of prisms cut from the masonry construction in accordance with Sections 2105.3.1, 2105.3.2 and 2105.3.3.

2105.3.1 Prism sampling and removal. A set of three masonry prisms that are at least 28 days old shall be saw cut from the masonry for each 5,000 square feet (465 m2) of the wall area that is in question but not less than one set of three masonry prisms for the project. The length, width and height dimensions of the prisms shall comply with the requirements of ASTM C 1314. Transporting, preparation and testing of prisms shall be in accordance with ASTM C 1314.

2105.3.2 Compressive strength calculations. The compressive strength of prisms shall be the value calculated in accordance ASTM C 1314, except that the net cross-sectional area of the prism shall be based on the net mortar bedded area.

2105.3.3 Compliance. Compliance with the requirement for the specified compressive strength of masonry,f 'm, shall be considered satisfied provided the modified compressive strength equals or exceeds the specifiedf 'm. Additional testing of specimens cut from locations in question shall be permitted.

SECTION 2106

SEISMIC DESIGN

2106.1 Seismic design requirements for masonry. Masonry structures and components shall comply with the requirements in Section 1.17 of TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5 depending on the structure's seismic design category as determined in Section 1613.

SECTION 2107

ALLOWABLE STRESS DESIGN

2107.1 General. The design of masonry structures using allowable stress design shall comply with Section 2106 and the requirements of Chapters 1 and 2 of TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5 except as modified by Sections 2107.2 through 2107.5.

2107.2 TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5, Section 2.1.2, load combinations. Delete Section 2.1. 2.1.

2107.3 TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5, Section 2.1. 9.7. 1.1, lap splices. Modify Section 2.1. 9.7. 1.1 as follows:

2.1. 7.1.1 The minimum length of lap splices for reinforcing bars in tension or compression, ld, shall be

ld= 0.002dbfs(Equation 21-1)

For SI: ld= 0.29dbfs

but not less than 12 inches (305 mm). In no case shall the length of the lapped splice be less than 40 bar diameters.

where:

db= Diameter of reinforcement, inches (mm).

fs= Computed stress in reinforcement due to design loads, psi (MPa).

In regions of moment where the design tensile stresses in the reinforcement are greater than 80 percent of the allowable steel tension stress, Fs, the lap length of splices shall be increased not less than 50 percent of the minimum required length. Other equivalent means of stress transfer to accomplish the same 50 percent increase shall be permitted. Where epoxy coated bars are used, lap length shall be increased by 50 percent.

2107.4 TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5, Section 2.1. 9.7, splices of reinforcement.

Modify Section 2.1. 9.7 as follows:

2.1. 9.7 Splices of reinforcement. Lap splices, welded splices or mechanical splices are permitted in accordance with the provisions of this section. All welding shall conform to AWS D 1.4. Welded splices shall be of ASTM A706 steel reinforcement. Reinforcement larger than No. 9 (M #29) shall be spliced using mechanical connections in accordance with Section 2.1. 9.7.3.

2107.5 TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5, Section 2.3.6, maximum bar size. Add the following to Chapter 2:

2.3.6 Maximum bar size. The bar diameter shall not exceed one-eighth of the nominal wall thickness and shall not exceed one-quarter of the least dimension of the cell, course or collar joint in which it is placed.

SECTION 2108

STRENGTH DESIGN OF MASONRY

2108.1 General. The design of masonry structures using strength design shall comply with Section 2106 and the requirements of Chapters 1 and 3 of TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5, except as modified by Sections 2108.2 through 2108.3.

Exception: AAC masonry shall comply with the requirements of Chapter 1 and Appendix A of TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5.

2108.2 TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5, Section 3.3. 3.3 development. Modify the second paragraph of Section 3.3. 3.3 as follows:

The required development length of reinforcement shall be determined by Equation (3-16), but shall not be less than 12 inches (305 mm) and need not be greater than 72 db.

2108.3 TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5, Section 3.3. 3.4, splices.

Modify items (b) and (c) of Section 3.3. 3.4 as follows:

3.3. 3.4(b). A welded splice shall have the bars butted and welded to develop at least 125 percent of the yield strength, "fy , of the bar in tension or compression, as required. Welded splices shall be of ASTM A 706 steel reinforcement. Welded splices shall not be permitted in plastic hinge zones of intermediate or special reinforced walls or special moment frames of masonry.

3.3. 3.4(c). Mechanical splices shall be classified as Type 1 or 2 according to Section 21.2. 6.1 of ACI 318. Type 1 mechanical splices shall not be used within a plastic hinge zone or within a beam-column joint of intermediate or special reinforced masonry shear walls or special moment frames. Type 2 mechanical splices are permitted in any location within a member.

SECTION 2109

EMPIRICAL DESIGN OF MASONRY

2109.1 General. Empirically designed masonry shall conform to the requirements of Chapter 5 of TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5, except where otherwise noted in this section.

2109.1.1 Limitations. The use of empirical design of masonry shall be limited as noted in Section 5.1.2 of TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5. The use of dry-stacked, surface-bonded masonry shall be prohibited in Occupancy Category IV structures. In buildings that exceed one or more of the limitations of Section 5.1.2 of TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5, masonry shall be designed in accordance with the engineered design provisions of Section 2101.2.1, 2101.2.2 or 2101.2.3 or the foundation wall provisions of Section 1807.1.5.

2109.2 Surface-bonded walls. Dry-stacked, surface-bonded concrete masonry walls shall comply with the requirements of Chapter 5 of TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5, except where otherwise noted in this section.

2109.2.1 Strength. Dry-stacked, surface-bonded concrete masonry walls shall be of adequate strength and proportions to support all superimposed loads without exceeding the allowable stresses listed in Table 2109.2.1. Allowable stresses not specified in Table 2109.2.1 shall comply with the requirements of TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5.

TABLE 2109.2.1

ALLOWABLE STRESS GROSS CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA FOR DRY-STACKED, SURFACE-BONDED CONCRETE MASONRY WALLS

DESCRIPTION MAXIMUM ALLOWABLESTRESS(psi)
Compression standard block 45
Flexural tension   
Horizontal span 30
Vertical span 18
Shear 10

For SI: 1 pound per square inch = 0.006895 MPa.

2109.2.2 Construction. Construction of dry-stacked, surface-bonded masonry walls, including stacking and leveling of units, mixing and application of mortar and curing and protection shall comply with ASTM C 946.

2109.3 Adobe construction. Adobe construction shall comply with this section and shall be subject to the requirements of this code for Type V construction, Chapter 5 of TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5, and this section.

2109.3.1 Unstabilized adobe.

2109.3. 1.1 Compressive strength. Adobe units shall have an average compressive strength of 300 psi (2068 kPa) when tested in accordance with ASTM C 67. Five samples shall be tested and no individual unit is permitted to have a compressive strength of less than 250 psi (1724 kPa).

2109.3. 1.2 Modulus of rupture. Adobe units shall have an average modulus of rupture of 50 psi (345 kPa) when tested in accordance with the following procedure. Five samples shall be tested and no individual unit shall have a modulus of rupture of less than 35 psi (241 kPa).

2109.3. 1.2.1 Support conditions. A cured unit shall be simply supported by 2-inch-diameter (51 mm) cylindrical supports located 2 inches (51 mm) in from each end and extending the full width of the unit.

2109.3. 1.2.2 Loading conditions. A 2-inch-diameter (51 mm) cylinder shall be placed at midspan parallel to the supports.

2109.3. 1.2.3 Testing procedure. A vertical load shall be applied to the cylinder at the rate of 500 pounds per minute (37 N/s) until failure occurs.

2109.3. 1.2.4 Modulus of rupture determination. The modulus of rupture shall be determined by the equation:

fr=3 PLs /2Sw(St2) (Equation 21-2)

where, for the purposes of this section only:

Sw= Width of the test specimen measured parallel to the loading cylinder, inches (mm).

fr= Modulus of rupture, psi (MPa).

Ls= Distance between supports, inches (mm).

St= Thickness of the test specimen measured parallel to the direction of load, inches (mm).

P = The applied load at failure, pounds (N).

2109.3. 1.3 Moisture content requirements. Adobe units shall have a moisture content not exceeding 4 percent by weight.

2109.3. 1.4 Shrinkage cracks. Adobe units shall not contain more than three shrinkage cracks and any single shrinkage crack shall not exceed 3inches (76 mm) in length or 1/8 inch ( 3.2 mm) in width.

2109.3.2 Stabilized adobe.

2109.3. 2.1 Material requirements. Stabilized adobe shall comply with the material requirements of unstabilized adobe in addition to Sections 2109.3. 2.1.1 and 2109.3. 2.1.2.

2109.3. 2.1.1 Soil requirements. Soil used for stabilized adobe units shall be chemically compatible with the stabilizing material.

2109.3. 2.1.2 Absorption requirements. A 4-inch (102 mm) cube, cut from a stabilized adobe unit dried to a constant weight in a ventilated oven at 212°F to 239°F (100°C to 115°C), shall not absorb more than 2½ percent moisture by weight when placed upon a constantly water-saturated, porous surface for seven days. A minimum of five specimens shall be tested and each specimen shall be cut from a separate unit.

2109.3.3 Allowable stress. The allowable compressive stress based on gross cross-sectional area of adobe shall not exceed 30 psi (207 kPa).

2109.3. 3.1 Bolts. Bolt values shall not exceed those set forth in Table 2109.3. 3.1.

2109.3.4 Construction.

2109.3. 4.1 General. Adobe construction shall be limited as stated in Sections 2109.3. 4.1.1 through 2109.3. 4.1.4.

2109.3. 4.1.1 Height restrictions. Adobe construction shall be limited to buildings not exceeding one story, except that two-story construction is allowed when designed by a registered design professional.

TABLE 2109.3. 3.1 ALLOWABLE SHEAR ON BOLTS IN ADOBE MASONRY

DIAMETEROF BOLTS(inches) MINIMUM EMBEDMENT (inches) SHEAR (pounds)
½ - -
5/8 12 200
3/4 15 300
7/8 18 400
1 21 500
11/8 24 600

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound = 4.448 N.

2109.3. 4.1.2 Mortar restrictions. Mortar for stabilized adobe units shall comply with Chapter 21 or adobe soil. Adobe soil used as mortar shall comply with material requirements for stabilized adobe. Mortar for unstabilized adobe shall be portland cement mortar.

2109.3. 4.1.3 Mortar joints. Adobe units shall be laid with full head and bed joints and in full running bond.

2109.3. 4.1.4 Parapet walls. Parapet walls constructed of adobe units shall be waterproofed.

2109.3. 4.2 Wall thickness. The minimum thickness of exterior walls in one-story buildings shall be 10 inches (254 mm). The walls shall be laterally supported at intervals not exceeding 24 feet (7315 mm). The minimum thickness of interior load-bearing walls shall be 8 inches (203 mm). In no case shall the unsupported height of any wall constructed of adobe units exceed 10 times the thickness of such wall.

2109.3. 4.3 Foundations. Foundations for adobe construction shall be in accordance with Sections 2109.3. 4.3.1 and 2109.3. 4.3.2.

2109.3. 4.3.1 Foundation support. Walls and partitions constructed of adobe units shall be supported by foundations or footings that extend not less than 6 inches (152 mm) above adjacent ground surfaces and are constructed of solid masonry (excluding adobe) or concrete. Footings and foundations shall comply with Chapter 18.

2109.3. 4.3.2 Lower course requirements. Stabilized adobe units shall be used in adobe walls for the first 4 inches (102 mm) above the finished first-floor elevation.

2109.3. 4.4 Isolated piers or columns. Adobe units shall not be used for isolated piers or columns in a load-bearing capacity. Walls less than 24 inches (610 mm) in length shall be considered isolated piers or columns.

2109.3. 4.5 Tie beams. Exterior walls and interior load-bearing walls constructed of adobe units shall have a continuous tie beam at the level of the floor or roof bearing and meeting the following requirements.

2109.3. 4.5.1 Concrete tie beams. Concrete tie beams shall be a minimum depth of 6 inches (152 mm) and a minimum width of 10 inches (254 mm). Concrete tie beams shall be continuously reinforced with a minimum of two No. 4 reinforcing bars. The specifed compressive strength of concrete shall be at least 2,500 psi ( 17.2 MPa).

2109.3. 4.5.2 Wood tie beams. Wood tie beams shall be solid or built up of lumber having a minimum nominal thickness of 1 inch (25 mm), and shall have a minimum depth of 6 inches (152 mm) and a minimum width of 10 inches (254 mm). Joints in wood tie beams shall be spliced a minimum of 6 inches (152 mm). No splices shall be allowed within 12 inches (305 mm) of an opening. Wood used in tie beams shall be approved naturally decay-resistant or preservative-treated wood.

2109.3. 4.6 Exterior finish. Exterior walls constructed of unstabilized adobe units shall have their exterior surface covered with a minimum of two coats of portland cement plaster having a minimum thickness of 3/4 inch ( 19.1 mm) and conforming to ASTM C 926. Lathing shall comply with ASTM C 1063. Fasteners shall be spaced at 16 inches (406 mm) o.c. maximum. Exposed wood surfaces shall be treated with an approved wood preservative or other protective coating prior to lath application.

2109.3. 4.7 Lintels. Lintels shall be considered structural members and shall be designed in accordance with the applicable provisions of Chapter 16.

SECTION 2110

GLASS UNIT MASONRY

2110.1 General. Glass unit masonry construction shall comply with Chapter 7 of TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5 and this section.

2110.1.1 Limitations. Solid or hollow approved glass block shall not be used in fire walls, party walls, fire barriers, fire partitions or smoke barriers, or for load-bearing construction. Such blocks shall be erected with mortar and reinforcement in metal channel-type frames, structural frames, masonry or concrete recesses, embedded panel anchors as provided for both exterior and interior walls or other approved joint materials. Wood strip framing shall not be used in walls required to have a fire-resistance rating by other provisions of this code.

Exceptions:

Glass-block assemblies having a fire protection rating of not less than 3/4 hour shall be permitted as opening protectives in accordance with Section 715 in fire barriers, fire partitions and smoke barriers that have a required fire-resistance rating of 1 hour or less and do not enclose exit stairways, exit ramps or exit passageways.

1.Glass-block assemblies as permitted in Section 404.6, Exception 2.

SECTION 2111

MASONRY FIREPLACES

2111.1 Definition. A masonry fireplace is a fireplace constructed of concrete or masonry. Masonry fireplaces shall be constructed in accordance with this section.

2111.2 Footings and foundations. Footings for masonry fireplaces and their chimneys shall be constructed of concrete or solid masonry at least 12 inches (305 mm) thick and shall extend at least 6 inches (153 mm) beyond the face of the fireplace or foundation wall on all sides. Footings shall be founded on natural undisturbed earth or engineered fill below frost depth. In areas not subjected to freezing, footings shall be at least 12 inches (305 mm) below finished grade.

2111.2.1 Ash dump cleanout. Cleanout openings, located within foundation walls below fireboxes, when provided, shall be equipped with ferrous metal or masonry doors and frames constructed to remain tightly closed, except when in use. Cleanouts shall be accessible and located so that ash removal will not create a hazard to combustible materials.

2111.3 Seismic reinforcing. Masonry or concrete fireplaces shall be constructed, anchored, supported and reinforced as required in this chapter. In Seismic Design Category C or D, masonry and concrete fireplaces shall be reinforced and anchored as detailed in Sections 2111.3.1, 2111.3.2, 2111.4 and 2111.4.1 for chimneys serving fireplaces. In Seismic Design Category A or B, reinforcement and seismic anchorage is not required. In Seismic Design Category E or F, masonry and concrete chimneys shall be reinforced in accordance with the requirements of Sections 2101 through 2108.

2111.3.1 Vertical reinforcing. For fireplaces with chimneys up to 40 inches (1016 mm) wide, four No. 4 continuous vertical bars, anchored in the foundation, shall be placed in the concrete between wythes of solid masonry or within the cells of hollow unit masonry and grouted in accordance with Section 2103.12. For fireplaces with chimneys greater than 40 inches (1016 mm) wide, two additional No. 4 vertical bars shall be provided for each additional 40 inches (1016 mm) in width or fraction thereof.

2111.3.2 Horizontal reinforcing. Vertical reinforcement shall be placedenclosed within 1/4-inch ( 6.4 mm) ties or other reinforcing of equivalent net cross-sectional area, spaced not to exceed 18 inches (457 mm) on center in concrete; or placed in the bed joints of unit masonry at a minimum of every 18 inches (457 mm) of vertical height. Two such ties shall be provided at each bend in the vertical bars.

2111.4 Seismic anchorage. Masonry and concrete chimneys in Seismic Design Category C or D shall be anchored at each floor, ceiling or roof line more than 6 feet (1829 mm) above grade, except where constructed completely within the exterior walls. Anchorage shall conform to the following requirements.

2111.4.1 Anchorage. Two 3/16-inch by 1-inch ( 4.8 mm by 25.4 mm) straps shall be embedded a minimum of 12 inches (305 mm) into the chimney. Straps shall be hooked around the outer bars and extend 6 inches (152 mm) beyond the bend. Each strap shall be fastened to a minimum of four floor joists with two ½-inch ( 12.7 mm) bolts.

2111.5 Firebox walls. Masonry fireboxes shall be constructed of solid masonry units, hollow masonry units grouted solid, stone or concrete. When a lining of firebrick at least 2 inches (51 mm) in thickness or other approved lining is provided, the minimum thickness of back and sidewalls shall each be 8 inches (203 mm) of solid masonry, including the lining. The width of joints between firebricks shall not be greater than 1/4 inch ( 6.4 mm). When no lining is provided, the total minimum thickness of back and sidewalls shall be 10 inches (254 mm) of solid masonry. Firebrick shall conform to ASTM C 27 or ASTM C 1261 and shall be laid with medium-duty refractory mortar conforming to ASTM C 199.

2111.5.1 Steel fireplace units. Steel fireplace units are permitted to be installed with solid masonry to form a masonry fireplace provided they are installed according to either the requirements of their listing or the requirements of this section. Steel fireplace units incorporating a steel firebox lining shall be constructed with steel not less than 1/4 inch ( 6.4 mm) in thickness, and an air-circulating chamber which is ducted to the interior of the building. The firebox lining shall be encased with solid masonry to provide a total thickness at the back and sides of not less than 8 inches (203 mm), of which not less than 4 inches (102 mm) shall be of solid masonry or concrete. Circulating air ducts employed with steel fireplace units shall be constructed of metal or masonry.

2111.6 Firebox dimensions. The firebox of a concrete or masonry fireplace shall have a minimum depth of 20 inches (508 mm). The throat shall not be less than 8 inches (203 mm) above the fireplace opening. The throat opening shall not be less than 4 inches (102 mm) in depth. The cross-sectional area of the passageway above the firebox, including the throat, damper and smoke chamber, shall not be less than the cross-sectional area of the flue.

Exception: Rumford fireplaces shall be permitted provided that the depth of the fireplace is at least 12 inches (305 mm) and at least one-third of the width of the fireplace opening, and the throat is at least 12 inches (305 mm) above the lintel,and at least 1/20 the cross-sectional area of the fireplace opening.

2111.7 Lintel and throat. Masonry over a fireplace opening shall be supported by a lintel of noncombustible material. The minimum required bearing length on each end of the fireplace opening shall be 4 inches (102 mm). The fireplace throat or damper shall be located a minimum of 8 inches (203 mm) above the top of the fireplace opening.

2111.7.1 Damper. Masonry fireplaces shall be equipped with a ferrous metal damper located at least 8 inches (203 mm) above the top of the fireplace opening. Dampers shall be installed in the fireplace or at the top of the flue venting the fireplace, and shall be operable from the room containing the fireplace. Damper controls shall be permitted to be located in the fireplace.

2111.8 Smoke chamber walls. Smoke chamber walls shall be constructed of solid masonry units, hollow masonry units grouted solid, stone or concrete. The total minimum thickness of front, back and sidewalls shall be 8 inches (203 mm) of solid masonry. The inside surface shall be parged smooth with refractory mortar conforming to ASTM C 199. When a lining of firebrick at least 2 inches (51 mm) thick, or a lining of vitrified clay at least 5/8 inch ( 15.9 mm) thick, is provided, the total minimum thickness of front, back and sidewalls shall be 6 inches (152 mm) of solid masonry, including the lining. Firebrick shall conform to ASTM C 1261 and shall be laid with refractory mortar conforming to ASTM C 199. Vitrified clay linings shall conform to ASTM C 315.

2111.8.1 Smoke chamber dimensions. The inside height of the smoke chamber from the fireplace throat to the beginning of the flue shall not be greater than the inside width of the fireplace opening. The inside surface of the smoke chamber shall not be inclined more than 45 degrees ( 0.76 rad) from vertical when prefabricated smoke chamber linings are used or when the smoke chamber walls are rolled or sloped rather than corbeled. When the inside surface of the smoke chamber is formed by corbeled masonry, the walls shall not be corbeled more than 30 degrees ( 0.52 rad) from vertical.

2111.9 Hearth and hearth extension. Masonry fireplace hearths and hearth extensions shall be constructed of concrete or masonry, supported by noncombustible materials, and reinforced to carry their own weight and all imposed loads. No combustible material shall remain against the underside of hearths or hearth extensions after construction.

2111.9.1 Hearth thickness. The minimum thickness of fireplace hearths shall be 4 inches (102 mm).

2111.9.2 Hearth extension thickness. The minimum thickness of hearth extensions shall be 2 inches (51 mm).

Exception: When the bottom of the firebox opening is raised at least 8 inches (203 mm) above the top of the hearth extension, a hearth extension of not less than 3/8-inch-thick ( 9.5 mm) brick, concrete, stone, tile or other approved noncombustible material is permitted.

2111.10 Hearth extension dimensions. Hearth extensions shall extend at least 16 inches (406 mm) in front of, and at least 8 inches (203 mm) beyond, each side ofthe fireplace opening. Where the fireplace opening is 6 square feet ( 0.557 m 2)or larger, the hearth extension shall extend at least 20 inches (508 mm) in front of, and at least 12 inches (305 mm) beyond, each side of the fireplace opening.

2111.11 Fireplace clearance. Any portion of a masonry fireplace located in the interior of a building or within the exterior wall of a building shall have a clearance to combustibles of not less than 2 inches (51 mm) from the front faces and sides of masonry fireplaces and not less than 4 inches (102 mm) from the back faces of masonry fireplaces. The airspace shall not be filled, except to provide fireblocking in accordance with Section 2111.12 .

Exceptions:

1.Masonry fireplaces listed and labeled for use in contact with combustibles in accordance with UL 127 and installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions are permitted to have combustible material in contact with their exterior surfaces.

2.When masonry fireplaces are constructed as part of masonry or concrete walls, combustible materials shall not be in contact with the masonry or concrete walls less than 12 inches (306 mm) from the inside surface of the nearest firebox lining.

3.Exposed combustible trim and the edges of sheathing materials, such as wood siding, flooring and drywall, are permitted to abut the masonry fireplace sidewalls and hearth extension, in accordance with Figure 2111.11 , provided such combustible trim or sheathing is a minimum of 12 inches (306 mm) from the inside surface of the nearest firebox lining.

4.Exposed combustible mantels or trim is permitted to be placed directly on the masonry fireplace front surrounding the fireplace opening, provided such combustible materials shall not be placed within 6 inches (153 mm) of a fireplace opening. Combustible material directly above and within 12 inches (305 mm) of the fireplace opening shall not project more than 1/8 inch ( 3.2 mm) for each 1-inch (25 mm) distance from such opening. Combustible materials located along the sides of the fireplace opening that project more than 1½ inches (38 mm) from the face of the fireplace shall have an additional clearance equal to the projection.

image: oh/admin/2014/4101$1-21-01_ph_ff_n_ru_20110418_1139-1.jpg

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm

FIGURE 2111.11

ILLUSTRATION OF EXCEPTION TO FIREPLACE CLEARANCE PROVISION

2111.12 Fireplace fireblocking. All spaces between fireplaces and floors and ceilings through which fireplaces pass shall be fireblocked with noncombustible material securely fastened in place. The fireblocking of spaces between wood joists, beams or headers shall be to a depth of 1 inch (25 mm) and shall only be placed on strips of metal or metal lath laid across the spaces between combustible material and the chimney.

2111.13 Exterior air. Factory-built or masonry fireplaces covered in this section shall be equipped with an exterior air supply to ensure proper fuel combustion unless the room is mechanically ventilated and controlled so that the indoor pressure is neutral or positive.

2111.13.1 Factory-built fireplaces. Exterior combustion air ducts for factory-built fireplaces shall be listed components of the fireplace, and installed according to the fireplace manufacturer's instructions.

2111.13.2 Masonry fireplaces. Listed combustion air ducts for masonry fireplaces shall be installed according to the terms of their listing and manufacturer's instructions.

2111.13.3 Exterior air intake. The exterior air intake shall be capable of providing all combustion air from the exterior of the dwelling. The exterior air intake shall not be located within a garage, attic, basement or crawl space of the dwelling nor shall the air intake be located at an elevation higher than the firebox. The exterior air intake shall be covered with a corrosion-resistant screen of 1/4-inch ( 6.4 mm) mesh.

2111.13.4 Clearance. Unlisted combustion air ducts shall be installed with a minimum 1-inch (25 mm) clearance to combustibles for all parts of the duct within 5 feet (1524 mm) of the duct outlet.

2111.13.5 Passageway. The combustion air passageway shall be a minimum of 6 square inches (3870 mm 2) and not more than 55 square inches ( 0.035 m 2), except that combustion air systems for listed fireplaces or for fireplaces tested for emissions shall be constructed according to the fireplace manufacturer's instructions.

2111.13.6 Outlet. The exterior air outlet is permitted to be located in the back or sides of the firebox chamber or within 24 inches (610 mm) of the firebox opening on or near the floor. The outlet shall be closable and designed to prevent burning material from dropping into concealed combustible spaces.

SECTION 2112

MASONRY HEATERS

2112.1 Definition. A masonry heater is a heating appliance constructed of concrete or solid masonry, hereinafter referred to as "masonry," which is designed to absorb and store heat from a solid fuel fire built in the firebox by routing the exhaust gases through internal heat exchange channels in which the flow path downstream of the firebox may include flow in a horizontal or downward direction before entering the chimney and which delivers heat by radiation from the masonry surface of the heater.

2112.2 Installation. Masonry heaters shall be installed in accordance with this section and comply with one of the following:

1.Masonry heaters shall comply with the requirements of ASTM E 1602; or

2.Masonry heaters shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 1482 and installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions.

2112.3 Footings and foundation. The firebox floor of a masonry heater shall be a minimum thickness of 4 inches (102 mm) of noncombustible material and be supported on a noncombustible footing and foundation in accordance with Section 2113.2.

2112.4 Seismic reinforcing. In Seismic Design Category D, E and F, masonry heaters shall be anchored to the masonry foundation in accordance with Section 2113.3. Seismic reinforcing shall not be required within the body of a masonry heater with a height that is equal to or less than 3.5 times its body width and where the masonry chimney serving the heater is not supported by the body of the heater. Where the masonry chimney shares a common wall with the facing of the masonry heater, the chimney portion of the structure shall be reinforced in accordance with Section 2113.

2112.5 Masonry heater clearance. Combustible materials shall not be placed within 36 inches (765 mm) of the outside surface of a masonry heater in accordance with NFPA 211, Section 8-7 (clearances for solid fuel-burning appliances), and the required space between the heater and combustible material shall be fully vented to permit the free flow of air around all heater surfaces.

Exceptions:

1.When the masonry heater wall thickness is at least 8 inches (203 mm) thick of solid masonry and the wall thickness of the heat exchange channels is at least 5 inches (127 mm) thick of solid masonry, combustible materials shall not be placed within 4 inches (102 mm) of the outside surface of a masonry heater. A clearance of at least 8 inches (203 mm) shall be provided between the gas-tight capping slab of the heater and a combustible ceiling.

2.Masonry heaters listed and labeled in accordance with UL 1482 and installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

SECTION 2113

MASONRY CHIMNEYS

2113.1 Definition. A masonry chimney is a chimney constructed of concrete or masonry, hereinafter referred to as "masonry." Masonry chimneys shall be constructed, anchored, supported and reinforced as required in this chapter.

2113.2 Footings and foundations. Footings for masonry chimneys shall be constructed of concrete or solid masonry at least 12 inches (305 mm) thick and shall extend at least 6 inches (152 mm) beyond the face of the foundation or support wall on all sides. Footings shall be founded on natural undisturbed earth or engineered fill below frost depth. In areas not subjected to freezing, footings shall be at least 12 inches (305 mm) below finished grade.

2113.3 Seismic reinforcing. Masonry or concrete chimneys shall be constructed, anchored, supported and reinforced as required in this chapter. In Seismic Design Category C or D, masonry and concrete chimneys shall be reinforced and anchored as detailed in Sections 2113.3.1, 2113.3.2 and 2113.4. In Seismic Design Category A or B, reinforcement and seismic anchorage is not required. In Seismic Design Category E or F, masonry and concrete chimneys shall be reinforced in accordance with the requirements of Sections 2101 through 2108.

2113.3.1 Vertical reinforcing. For chimneys up to 40 inches (1016 mm) wide, four No. 4 continuous vertical bars anchored in the foundation shall be placed in the concrete between wythes of solid masonry or within the cells of hollow unit masonry and grouted in accordance with Section 2103.12. Grout shall be prevented from bonding with the flue liner so that the flue liner is free to move with thermal expansion. For chimneys greater than 40 inches (1016 mm) wide, two additional No. 4 vertical bars shall be provided for each additional 40 inches (1016 mm) in width or fraction thereof.

2113.3.2 Horizontal reinforcing. Vertical reinforcement shall be placed enclosed within 1/4 -inch ( 6.4 mm) ties, or other reinforcing of equivalent net cross-sectional area, spaced not to exceed 18 inches (457 mm) o.c. in concrete, or placed in the bed joints of unit masonry, at a minimum of every 18 inches (457 mm) of vertical height. Two such ties shall be provided at each bend in the vertical bars.

2113.4 Seismic anchorage. Masonry and concrete chimneys and foundations in Seismic Design Category C or D shall be anchored at each floor, ceiling or roof line more than 6 feet (1829 mm) above grade, except where constructed completely within the exterior walls. Anchorage shall conform to the following requirements.

3

2113.4.1 Anchorage. Two 3/16 -inch by 1-inch ( 4.8 mm by 25 mm) straps shall be embedded a minimum of 12 inches (305 mm) into the chimney. Straps shall be hooked around the outer bars and extend 6 inches (152 mm) beyond the bend. Each strap shall be fastened to a minimum of four floor joists with two ½ -inch ( 12.7 mm) bolts.

2113.5 Corbeling. Masonry chimneys shall not be corbeled more than half of the chimney's wall thickness from a wall or foundation, nor shall a chimney be corbeled from a wall or foundation that is less than 12 inches (305 mm) in thickness unless it projects equally on each side of the wall, except that on the second story of a two-story dwelling, corbeling of chimneys on the exterior of the enclosing walls is permitted to equal the wall thickness. The projection of a single course shall not exceed one-half the unit height or one-third of the unit bed depth, whichever is less.

2113.6 Changes in dimension. The chimney wall or chimney flue lining shall not change in size or shape within 6 inches (152 mm) above or below where the chimney passes through floor components, ceiling components or roof components.

2113.7 Offsets. Where a masonry chimney is constructed with a fireclay flue liner surrounded by one wythe of masonry, the maximum offset shall be such that the centerline of the flue above the offset does not extend beyond the center of the chimney wall below the offset. Where the chimney offset is supported by masonry below the offset in an approved manner, the maximum offset limitations shall not apply. Each individual corbeled masonry course of the offset shall not exceed the projection limitations specified in Section 2113.5.

2113.8 Additional load. Chimneys shall not support loads other than their own weight unless they are designed and constructed to support the additional load. Masonry chimneys are permitted to be constructed as part of the masonry walls or concrete walls of the building.

2113.9 Termination. Chimneys shall extend at least 2 feet (610 mm) higher than any portion of the building within 10 feet (3048 mm), but shall not be less than 3 feet (914 mm) above the highest point where the chimney passes through the roof.

2113.9.1 Spark arrestors. Where a spark arrestor is installed on a masonry chimney, the spark arrestor shall meet all of the following requirements:

1.The net free area of the arrestor shall not be less than four times the net free area of the outlet of the chimney flue it serves.

2.The arrestor screen shall have heat and corrosion resistance equivalent to 19-gage galvanized steel or 24-gage stainless steel.

3.Openings shall not permit the passage of spheres having a diameter greater than ½ inch (13 mm) nor block the passage of spheres having a diameter less than 3/8 inch (11 mm)

4.The spark arrestor shall be accessible for cleaning and the screen or chimney cap shall be removable to allow for cleaning of the chimney flue.

2113.10 Wall thickness. Masonry chimney walls shall be constructed of concrete, solid masonry units or hollow masonry units grouted solid with not less than 4 inches (102 mm) nominal thickness.

2113.10.1 Masonry veneer chimneys. Where masonry is used as veneer for a framed chimney, through flashing and weep holes shall be provided as required by Chapter 14.

2113.11 Flue lining (material). Masonry chimneys shall be lined. The lining material shall be appropriate for the type of appliance connected, according to the terms of the appliance listing and the manufacturer's instructions.

2113.11.1 Residential-type appliances (general). Flue lining systems shall comply with one of the following:

1.Clay flue lining complying with the requirements of ASTM C 315.

2.Listed chimney lining systems complying with UL 1777.

3.Factory-built chimneys or chimney units listed for installation within masonry chimneys.

4.Other approved materials that will resist corrosion, erosion, softening or cracking from flue gases and condensate at temperatures up to 1,800°F (982°C).

2113.11 . 1.1 Flue linings for specific appliances. Flue linings other than those covered in Section 2113.11.1 intended for use with specific appliances shall comply with Sections 2113.11 . 1.2 through 2113.11 . 1.4 and Sections 2113.11.2 and 2113.11.3.

2113.11 . 1.2 Gas appliances. Flue lining systems for gas appliances shall be in accordance with the International Fuel Gas Code.

2113.11 . 1.3 Pellet fuel-burning appliances. Flue lining and vent systems for use in masonry chimneys with pellet fuel-burning appliances shall be limited to flue lining systems complying with Section 2113.11.1 and pellet vents listed for installation within masonry chimneys (see Section 2113.11 . 1.5 for marking).

2113.11 . 1.4 Oil-fired appliances approved for use with L-vent. Flue lining and vent systems for use in masonry chimneys with oil-fired appliances approved for use with Type L vent shall be limited to flue lining systems complying with Section 2113.11.1 and listed chimney liners complying with UL 641 (see Section 2113.11 . 1.5 for marking).

2113.11 . 1.5 Notice of usage. When a flue is relined with a material not complying with Section 2113.11.1, the chimney shall be plainly and permanently identified by a label attached to a wall, ceiling or other conspicuous location adjacent to where the connector enters the chimney. The label shall include the following message or equivalent language: "This chimney is for use only with (type or category of appliance) that burns (type of fuel). Do not connect other types of appliances."

2113.11.2 Concrete and masonry chimneys for medium-heat appliances.

2113.11 . 2.1 General. Concrete and masonry chimneys for medium-heat appliances shall comply with Sections 2113.1 through 2113.5.

2113.11 . 2.2 Construction. Chimneys for medium-heat appliances shall be constructed of solid masonry units or of concrete with walls a minimum of 8 inches (203 mm) thick, or with stone masonry a minimum of 12 inches (305 mm) thick.

2113.11 . 2.3 Lining. Concrete and masonry chimneys shall be lined with an approved medium-duty refractory brick a minimum of 4 ½ inches (114 mm) thick laid on the 4 ½ -inch bed (114 mm) in an approved medium-duty refractory mortar. The lining shall start 2 feet (610 mm) or more below the lowest chimney connector entrance. Chimneys terminating 25 feet (7620 mm) or less above a chimney connector entrance shall be lined to the top.

2113.11 . 2.4 Multiple passageway. Concrete and masonry chimneys containing more than one passageway shall have the liners separated by a minimum 4-inch-thick (102 mm) concrete or solid masonry wall.

2113.11 . 2.5 Termination height. Concrete and masonry chimneys for medium-heat appliances shall extend a minimum of 10 feet (3048 mm) higher than any portion of any building within 25 feet (7620 mm).

2113.11 . 2.6 Clearance. A minimum clearance of 4 inches (102 mm) shall be provided between the exterior surfaces of a concrete or masonry chimney for medium-heat appliances and combustible material.

2113.11.3 Concrete and masonry chimneys for high-heat appliances.

2113.11 . 3.1 General. Concrete and masonry chimneys for high-heat appliances shall comply with Sections 2113.1 through 2113.5.

2113.11 . 3.2 Construction. Chimneys for high-heat appliances shall be constructed with double walls of solid masonry units or of concrete, each wall to be a minimum of 8 inches (203 mm) thick with a minimum airspace of 2 inches (51 mm) between the walls.

2113.11 . 3.3 Lining. The inside of the interior wall shall be lined with an approved high-duty refractory brick, a minimum of 4 ½ inches (114 mm) thick laid on the 4 ½ -inch bed (114 mm) in an approved high-duty refractory mortar. The lining shall start at the base of the chimney and extend continuously to the top.

2113.11 . 3.4 Termination height. Concrete and masonry chimneys for high-heat appliances shall extend a minimum of 20 feet (6096 mm) higher than any portion of any building within 50 feet (15 240 mm).

2113.11 . 3.5 Clearance. Concrete and masonry chimneys for high-heat appliances shall have approved clearance from buildings and structures to prevent overheating combustible materials, permit inspection and maintenance operations on the chimney and prevent danger of burns to persons.

2113.12 Clay flue lining (installation). Clay flue liners shall be installed in accordance with ASTM C 1283 and extend from a point not less than 8 inches (203 mm) below the lowest inlet or, in the case of fireplaces, from the top of the smoke chamber to a point above the enclosing walls. The lining shall be carried up vertically, with a maximum slope no greater than 30 degrees ( 0.52 rad) from the vertical.

Clay flue liners shall be laid in medium-duty refractory mortar conforming to ASTM C 199 with tight mortar joints left smooth on the inside and installed to maintain an air space or insulation not to exceed the thickness of the flue liner separating the flue liners from the interior face of the chimney masonry walls. Flue lining shall be supported on all sides. Only enough mortar shall be placed to make the joint and hold the liners in position.

2113.13 Additional requirements.

2113.13.1 Listed materials. Listed materials used as flue linings shall be installed in accordance with the terms of their listings and the manufacturer's instructions.

2113.13.2 Space around lining. The space surrounding a chimney lining system or vent installed within a masonry chimney shall not be used to vent any other appliance.

Exception: This shall not prevent the installation of a separate flue lining in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

2113.14 Multiple flues. When two or more flues are located in the same chimney, masonry wythes shall be built between adjacent flue linings. The masonry wythes shall be at least 4 inches (102 mm) thick and bonded into the walls of the chimney.

Exception: When venting only one appliance, two flues are permitted to adjoin each other in the same chimney with only the flue lining separation between them. The joints of the adjacent flue linings shall be staggered at least 4 inches (102 mm).

2113.15 Flue area (appliance). Chimney flues shall not be smaller in area than the area of the connector from the appliance. Chimney flues connected to more than one appliance shall not be less than the area of the largest connector plus 50 percent of the areas of additional chimney connectors.

Exceptions:

1.Chimney flues serving oil-fired appliances sized in accordance with NFPA 31.

2.Chimney flues serving gas-fired appliances sized in accordance with the International Fuel Gas Code.

2113.16 Flue area (masonry fireplace). Flue sizing for chimneys serving fireplaces shall be in accordance with Section 2113.16.1 or 2113.16.2.

2113.16.1 Minimum area. Round chimney flues shall have a minimum net cross-sectional area of at least 1/12of the fireplace opening. Square chimney flues shall have a minimum net cross-sectional area of at least1/10 of the fireplace opening. Rectangular chimney flues with an aspect ratio less than 2 to 1 shall have a minimum net cross-sectional area of at least 1/10of the fireplace opening. Rectangular chimney flues with an aspect ratio of 2 to 1 or more shall have a minimum net cross-sectional area of at least 1/8of the fireplace opening.

2113.16.2 Determination of minimum area. The minimum net cross-sectional area of the flue shall be determined in accordance with Figure 2113.16 . A flue size providing at least the equivalent net cross-sectional area shall be used. Cross-sectional areas of clay flue linings are as provided in Tables 2113.16(1) and 2113.16(2) or as provided by the manufacturer or as measured in the field. The height of the chimney shall be measured from the firebox floor to the top of the chimney flue.

TABLE 2113.16(1)

NET CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA OF ROUND FLUE SIZES

FLUE SIZE, INSIDEDIAMETER(inches) CROSS-SECTIONALAREA(square inches)
6 28
7 38
8 50
10 78
10 3/4 90
12 113
15 176
18 254

2 For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 square inch = 645.16 mm2 .

a.Flue sizes are based on ASTM C 315.

TABLE 2113.16(2)

NET CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA OF SQUARE

AND RECTANGULAR FLUE SIZES

FLUE SIZE, OUTSIDE NOMINAL DIMENSIONS (inches) CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA (square inches)
4.5 x 8.5 23
4.5 x 13 34
8 x 8 42
8.5 x 8.5 49
8 x 12 67
8.5 x 13 76
12 x 12 102
8.5 x 18 101
13 x 13 127
12 x 16 131
13 x 18 173
16 x 16 181
16 x 20 222
18 x 18 233
20 x 20 298
20 x 24 335
24 x 24 431

2 For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 square inch = 645.16 mm 2.

2113.17 Inlet. Inlets to masonry chimneys shall enter from the side. Inlets shall have a thimble of fireclay, rigid refractory material or metal that will prevent the connector from pulling out of the inlet or from extending beyond the wall of the liner.

2113.18 Masonry chimney cleanout openings. Cleanout openings shall be provided within 6 inches (152 mm) of the base of each flue within every masonry chimney. The upper edge of the cleanout shall be located at least 6 inches (152 mm) below the lowest chimney inlet opening. The height of the opening shall be at least 6 inches (152 mm). The cleanout shall be provided with a noncombustible cover.

Exception: Chimney flues serving masonry fireplaces, where cleaning is possible through the fireplace opening.

2113.19 Chimney clearances. Any portion of a masonry chimney located in the interior of the building or within the exterior wall of the building shall have a minimum airspace clearance to combustibles of 2 inches (51 mm). Chimneys located entirely outside the exterior walls of the building, including chimneys that pass through the soffit or cornice, shall have a minimum airspace clearance of 1 inch (25 mm). The airspace shall not be filled, except to provide fireblocking in accordance with Section 2113.20 .

Exceptions:

1.Masonry chimneys equipped with a chimney lining system listed and labeled for use in chimneys in contact with combustibles in accordance with UL 1777, and installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions, are permitted to have combustible material in contact with their exterior surfaces.

2.Where masonry chimneys are constructed as part of masonry or concrete walls, combustible materials shall not be in contact with the masonry or concrete wall less than 12 inches (305 mm) from the inside surface of the nearest flue lining.

3.Exposed combustible trim and the edges of sheathing materials, such as wood siding, are permitted to abut the masonry chimney sidewalls, in accordance with Figure 2113.19 , provided such combustible trim or sheathing is a minimum of 12 inches (305 mm) from the inside surface of the nearest flue lining. Combustible material and trim shall not overlap the corners of the chimney by more than 1 inch (25 mm).

image: oh/admin/2014/4101$1-21-01_ph_ff_n_ru_20110418_1139-2.jpg

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 square inch = 645 mm2 .

image: oh/admin/2014/4101$1-21-01_ph_ff_n_ru_20110418_1139-3.jpg

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE 2113.19

ILLUSTRATION OF EXCEPTION THREE CHIMNEY CLEARANCE PROVISION

2113.20 Chimney fireblocking. All spaces between chimneys and floors and ceilings through which chimneys pass shall be fireblocked with noncombustible material securely fastened in place. The fireblocking of spaces between wood joists, beams or headers shall be to a depth of 1 inch (25 mm) and shall only be placed on strips of metal or metal lath laid across the spaces between combustible material and the chimney.

Replaces: 4101:1-21-01

Effective: 11/01/2011
R.C. 119.032 review dates: 11/01/2016
Promulgated Under: 119.03
Statutory Authority: 3781.10(A)
Rule Amplifies: 3781.10 , 3781.11 , 3791.04
Prior Effective Dates: 3/1/98, 1/1/02, 7/1/07

4101:1-21-05.3 Testing prisms from constructed masonry. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 7-1-07