Chapter 4101:1-4 Special Detailed Requirements

4101:1-4-01 Special detailed requirements based on use and occupancy.

[Comment: When a reference is made within this rule to a federal statutory provision, an industry consensus standard, or any other technical publication, the specific date and title of the publication as well as the name and address of the promulgating agency are listed in rule 4101:1-35-01 of the Administrative Code. The application of the referenced standards shall be limited and as prescribed in section 102.5 of rule 4101:1-1-01 of the Administrative Code.]

SECTION 401

SCOPE

401.1 Detailed use and occupancy requirements. In addition to the occupancy and construction requirements in this code, the provisions of this chapter apply to the special uses and occupancies described herein.

SECTION 402

COVERED MALL AND OPEN MALL BUILDINGS

402.1 Applicability. The provisions of this section shall apply to buildings or structures defined herein as covered or open mall buildings not exceeding three floor levels at any point nor more than three stories above grade plane. Except as specifically required by this section, covered and open mall buildings shall meet applicable provisions of this code.

Exceptions:

1. Foyers and lobbies of Groups B, R-1 and R-2 are not required to comply with this section.

2. Buildings need not comply with the provisions of this section where they totally comply with other applicable provisions of this code.

402.1.1 Open space. A covered mall building and attached anchor buildings and parking garages shall be surrounded on all sides by a permanent open space or not less than 60 feet (18 288 mm). An open mall building and anchor buildings and parking garages adjoining the perimeter line shall be surrounded on all sides by a permanent open space of not less than 60 feet (18 288 mm).

Exception: The permanent open space of 60 feet (18 288 mm) shall be permitted to be reduced to not less than 40 feet (12 192 mm), provided the following requirements are met:

1. The reduced open space shall not be allowed for more than 75 percent of the perimeter of the covered or open mall building and anchor buildings;

2. The exterior wall facing the reduced open space shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 3 hours;

3. Openings in the exterior wall facing the reduced open space shall have opening protectives with a fire protection rating of not less than 3 hours; and

4. Group E, H, I or R occupancies are not located within the covered or open mall building or anchor buildings.

402.1.2 Open mall building perimeter line. For the purpose of this code, a perimeter line shall be established. The perimeter line shall encircle all buildings and structures that comprise the open mall building and shall encompass any open-air interior walkways, open-air courtyards or similar open-air spaces. The perimeter line shall define the extent of the open mall building. Anchor buildings and parking structures shall be outside of the perimeter line and are not considered as part of the open mall building.

402.2 Definitions. The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

ANCHOR BUILDING.

COVERED MALL BUILDING.

Mall.

Open mall.

Open mall building.

FOOD COURT.

GROSS LEASABLE AREA.

402.3 Lease plan. Each owner of a covered mall building or of an open mall building shall provide both the building and fire departments with a lease plan, to the extent known, showing the location of each occupancy and its exits before the certificate of occupancy has been issued. As a condition of the certificate of occupancy, such plans shall be kept current by the owner. No modifications or changes in occupancy or use shall be made from that shown on the lease plan with- out prior approval of the building official.

402.4 Construction. The construction of covered and open mall buildings, anchor buildings and parking garages associated with a mall building shall comply with Sections 402.4.1 through 402.4.3.

402.4.1 Area and types of construction. The building area and type of construction of covered mall or open mall buildings, anchor buildings and parking garages shall comply with this section.

402.4.1.1 Covered and open mall buildings. The building area of any covered mall or open mall building shall not be limited provided the covered mall or open mall building does not exceed three floor levels at stories above grade plane, and is of Type I, II, III or IV construction.

402.4.1.2 Anchor buildings. The building area and building height of any anchor building shall be based on the type of construction as required by Section 503 as modified by Sections 504 and 506.

Exception: The building area of any anchor building shall not be limited provided the anchor building is not more than three stories above grade plane, and is of Type I, II, III or IV construction.

402.4.1.3 Parking garage. The building area and building height of any parking garage, open or enclosed, shall be based on the type of construction as required by Sections 406.5 and 406.6, respectively.

402.4.2 Fire-resistance-rated separation. Fire-resistance-rated separation is not required between tenant spaces and the mall. Fire-resistance-rated separation is not required between a food court and adjacent tenant spaces or the mall.

402.4.2.1 Tenant separations. Each tenant space shall be separated from other tenant spaces by a fire partition complying with Section 708. A tenant separation wall is not required between any tenant space and the mall.

402.4.2.2 Anchor building separation. An anchor building shall be separated from the covered or open mall building by fire walls complying with Section 706.

Exceptions:

1. Anchor buildings of not more than three stories above grade plane that have an occupancy classification the same as that permitted for tenants of the mall building shall be separated by 2-hour fire-resistance-rated fire barriers complying with Section 707.

2. The exterior walls of anchor buildings separated from an open mall building by an open mall shall comply with Table 602.

402.4.2.2.1 Openings between anchor building and mall. Except for the separation between Group R-1 sleeping units and the mall, openings between anchor buildings of Type IA, IB, IIA or IIB construction and the mall need not be protected.

402.4.2.3 Parking garages. An attached garage for the storage of passenger vehicles having a capacity of not more than nine persons and open parking garages shall be considered as a separate building where it is separated from the covered or open mall building or anchor building by not less than 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both.

Parking garages, open or enclosed, which are separated from covered mall buildings, open mall buildings or anchor buildings, shall comply with the provisions of Table 602.

Pedestrian walkways and tunnels that connect garages to mall buildings or anchor buildings shall be constructed in accordance with Section 3104.

402.4.3 Open mall construction. Floor assemblies in, and roof assemblies over, the open mall of an open mall building shall be open to the atmosphere for not less than 20 feet (9096 mm), measured perpendicular from the face of the tenant spaces on the lowest level, from edge of balcony to edge of balcony on upper floors and from edge of roof line to edge of roof line. The openings within, or the unroofed area of, an open mall shall extend from the lowest/grade level of the open mall through the entire roof assembly. Balconies on upper levels of the mall shall not project into the required width of the opening.

402.4.3.1 Pedestrian walkways. Pedestrian walkways connecting balconies in an open mall shall be located not less than 20 feet (9096 mm) from any other pedestrian walkway.

402.5 Automatic sprinkler system. Covered and open mall buildings and buildings connected shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, which shall comply with all of the following:

1. The automatic sprinkler system shall be complete and operative throughout occupied space in the mall building prior to occupancy of any of the tenant spaces. Unoccupied tenant spaces shall be similarly protected unless provided with approved alternative protection.

2. Sprinkler protection for the mall of a covered mall building shall be independent from that provided for tenant spaces or anchor buildings.

3. Sprinkler protection for the tenant spaces of an open mall building shall be independent from that provided for anchor buildings.

4. Sprinkler protection shall be provided beneath exterior circulation balconies located adjacent to an open mall.

5. Where tenant spaces are supplied by the same system, they shall be independently controlled.

Exception: An automatic sprinkler system shall not be required in spaces or areas of open parking garages separated from the covered or open mall building in accordance with Section 402.4.2.3 and constructed in accordance with Section 406.5.

402.6 Interior finishes and features. Interior finishes within the mall and installations within the mall shall comply with Sections 402.6.1 through 402.6.4.

402.6.1 Interior finish. Interior wall and ceiling finishes within the mall of a covered mall building and within the exits of covered or open mall buildings shall have a mini- mum flame spread index and smoke-developed index of Class B in accordance with Chapter 8. Interior floor finishes shall meet the requirements of Section 804.

402.6.2 Kiosks. Kiosks and similar structures (temporary or permanent) located within the mall of a covered mall building or within the perimeter line of an open mall building shall meet the following requirements:

1. Combustible kiosks or other structures shall not be located within a covered or open mall unless constructed of any of the following materials:

1.1. Fire-retardant-treated wood complying with Section 2303.2.

1.2. Foam plastics having a maximum heat release rate not greater than 100 kW (105 Btu/h) when tested in accordance with the exhibit booth protocol in UL 1975 or when tested in accordance with NFPA 289 using the 20 kW ignition source.

1.3. Aluminum composite material (ACM) meeting the requirements of Class A interior finish in accordance with Chapter 8 when tested as an assembly in the maxi- mum thickness intended.

2. Kiosks or similar structures located within the mall shall be provided with approved automatic sprinkler system and detection devices.

3. The horizontal separation between kiosks or groupings thereof and other structures within the mall shall be not less than 20 feet (6096 mm).

4. Each kiosk or similar structure or groupings thereof shall have an areanot greater than 300 square feet (28 m2 ).

402.6.3 Children's play structures. Children's play structures located within the mall of a covered mall building or within the perimeter line of an open mall building shall comply with Section 424. The horizontal separation between children's play structures, kiosks and similar structures within the mall shall be not less than 20 feet (6096 mm).

406.6.4 Plastic signs. Plastic signs affixed to the store front of any tenant space facing a mall or open mall shall be limited as specified in Sections 402.6.4.1 through 402.6.4.5.

402.6.4.1 Area. Plastic signs shall be not more than 20 percent of the wall area facing the mall.

402.6.4.2 Height and width. Plastic signs shall be not greater than 36 inches (914 mm) in height, except that where the sign is vertical, the height shall be not greater than 96 inches (2438 mm) and the width shall be not greater than 36 inches (914 mm).

402.6.4.3 Location. Plastic signs shall be located not less than 18 inches (457 mm) from adjacent tenants.

402.6.4.4 Plastics other than foam plastics. Plastics other than foam plastics used in signs shall be light-transmitting plastics complying with Section 2606.4 or shall have a self-ignition temperature of 650°F (343°C) or greater when tested in accordance with ASTM D 1929, and a flame spread index not greater than 75 and smoke-developed index not greater than 450 when tested in the manner intended for use in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723 or meet the acceptance criteria of Section 803.1.2.1 when tested in accordance with NFPA 286.

402.6.4.4.1 Encasement. Edges and backs of plastic signs in the mall shall be fully encased in metal.

402.6.4.5 Foam plastics. Foam plastics used in signs shall have flame-retardant characteristics such that the sign has a maximum heat-release rate of 150 kilowatts when tested in accordance with UL 1975 or when tested in accordance with NFPA 289 using the 20 kW ignition source, and the foam plastics shall have the physical characteristics specified in this section. Foam plastics used in signs installed in accordance with Section 402.6.4 shall not be required to comply with the flame spread and smoke-developed indices specified in Section 2603.3.

402.6.4.5.1 Density. The density of foam plastics used in signs shall be not less than 20 pounds per cubic foot (pcf) (320 kg/ m3).

402.6.4.5.2 Thickness. The thickness of foam plastic signs shall not be greater than ½ inch ( 12.7 mm).

402.7 Emergency systems. Covered and open mall buildings, anchor buildings and associated parking garages shall be provided with emergency systems complying with Sections 402.7.1 through 402.7.5.

402.7.1 Standpipe system. Covered and open mall buildings shall be equipped throughout with a standpipe system as required by Section 905.3.3.

402.7.2 Smoke control. Where a covered mall building contains an atrium, a smoke control system shall be provided in accordance with Section 404.5.

Exception: A smoke control system is not required in covered mall buildings where an atrium connects only two stories.

402.7.3 Emergency power. Covered mall buildings greater than 50,000 square feet (4645 m2) in area and open mall buildings greater than 50,000 square feet (4645 m2) within the established perimeter line shall be provided with emergency power that is capable of operating the emergency voice/alarm communication system in accordance with Section 2702.

402.7.4 Emergency voice/alarm communication system. Where the total floor area is greater than 50,000 square feet (4645 m2) within either a covered mall building or within the perimeter line of an open mall building, an emergency voice/alarm communication system shall be provided. Emergency voice/alarm communication systems serving a mall, required or otherwise, shall be accessible to the fire department. The systems shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.

402.7.5 Fire department access to equipment. Rooms or areas containing controls for air-conditioning systems, automatic fire-extinguishing systems, automatic sprinkler systems or other detection, suppression or control elements shall be identified for use by the fire department.

402.8 Means of egress. Covered mall buildings, open mall buildings and each tenant space within a mall building shall be provided with means of egress as required by this section and this code. Where there is a conflict between the requirements of this code and the requirements of Sections 402.8.1 through 402.8.8, the requirements of Sections 402.8.1 through 402.8.8 shall apply.

402.8.1 Mall width. For the purpose of providing required egress, malls are permitted to be considered as corridors but need not comply with the requirements of Section 1005.1 of this code where the width of the mall is as specified in this section.

402.8.1.1 Minimum width. The aggregate clear egress width of the mall in either a covered or open mall building shall be not less than 20 feet (6096 mm). The mall width shall be sufficient to accommodate the occupant load served. No portion of the minimum required aggregate egress width shall be less than 10 feet (3048 mm) measured to a height of 8 feet (2438 mm) between any projection of a tenant space bordering the mall and the nearest kiosk, vending machine, bench, display opening, food court or other obstruction to means of egress travel.

402.8.2 Determination of occupant load. The occupant load permitted in any individual tenant space in a covered or open mall building shall be determined as required by this code. Means of egress requirements for individual ten- ant spaces shall be based on the occupant load thus determined.

402.8.2.1 Occupant formula. In determining required means of egress of the mall, the number of occupants for whom means of egress are to be provided shall be based on gross leasable area of the covered or open mall building (excluding anchor buildings) and the occupant load factor as determined by Equation 4-1.

OLF = ( 0.00007 ) (GLA) + 25(Equation 4-1)

where:

OLF = The occupant load factor (square feet per person).

GLA = The gross leasable area (square feet).

Exception: Tenant spaces attached to a covered or open mall building but with a means of egress system that is totally independent of the open mall of an open mall building or of a covered mall building shall not be considered as gross leasable area for determining the required means of egress for the mall building.

402.8.2.2 OLF range. The occupant load factor (OLF) is not required to be less than 30 and shall not exceed 50.

402.8.2.3 Anchor buildings. The occupant load of anchor buildings opening into the mall shall not be included in computing the total number of occupants for the mall.

402.8.2.4 Food courts. The occupant load of a food court shall be determined in accordance with Section 1004. For the purposes of determining the means of egress requirements for the mall, the food court occupant load shall be added to the occupant load of the covered or open mall building as calculated above.

402.8.3 Number of means of egress. Wherever the distance of travel to the mall from any location within a tenant space used by persons other than employees is greater than 75 feet (22 860 mm) or the tenant space has an occupant load of 50 or more, no fewer than two means of egress shall be provided.

402.8.4 Arrangements of means of egress. Assembly occupancies with an occupant load of 500 or more located within a covered mall building shall be so located such that their entrance will be immediately adjacent to a principal entrance to the mall and shall have not less than one-half of their required means of egress opening directly to the exterior of the covered mall building. Assembly occupancies located within the perimeter line of an open mall building shall be permitted to have their main exit open to the open mall.

402.8.4.1 Anchor building means of egress. Required means of egress for anchor buildings shall be provided independently from the mall means of egress system. The occupant load of anchor buildings opening into the mall shall not be included in determining means of egress requirements for the mall. The path of egress travel of malls shall not exit through anchor buildings. Malls terminating at an anchor building where no other means of egress has been provided shall be considered as a dead-end mall.

402.8.5 Distance to exits. Within each individual tenant space in a covered or open mall building, the distance of travel from any point to an exit or entrance to the mall shall be not greater than 200 feet (60 960 mm). The distance of travel from any point within a mall of a covered mall building to an exit shall be not greater than 200 feet (60 960 mm). The maximum distance of travel from any point within an open mall to the perimeter line of the open mall building shall be not greater than 200 feet (60 960 mm).

402.8.6 Access to exits. Where more than one exit is required, they shall be so arranged that it is possible to travel in either direction from any point in a mall of a covered mall building to separate exits or from any point in an open mall of an open mall building to two separate locations on the perimeter line, provided neither location is an exterior wall of an anchor building or parking garage. The width of an exit passageway or corridor from a mall shall be not less than 66 inches (1676 mm).

Exception: Access to exits is permitted by way of a dead-end mall that does not exceed a length equal to twice the width of the mall measured at the narrowest location within the dead-end portion of the mall.

402.8.6.1 Exit passageways. Where exit passageways provide a secondary means of egress from a tenant space, doorways to the exit passageway shall be protected by 1-hour fire door assemblies that are self- or automatic-closing by smoke detection in accordance with Section 716.5.9.3.

402.8.7 Service areas fronting on exit passageways. Mechanical rooms, electrical rooms, building service areas and service elevators are permitted to open directly into exit passageways, provided the exit passageway is separated from such rooms with not less than 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both. The fire protection rating of openings in the fire barriers shall be not less than 1 hour.

402.8.8 Security grilles and doors. Horizontal sliding or vertical security grilles or doors that are a part of a required means of egress shall conform to the following:

1. Doors and grilles shall remain in the full open position during the period of occupancy by the general public.

2. Doors or grilles shall not be brought to the closed position when there are 10 or more persons occupying spaces served by a single exit or 50 or more per- sons occupying spaces served by more than one exit.

3. The doors or grilles shall be openable from within without the use of any special knowledge or effort where the space is occupied.

4. Where two or more exits are required, not more than one-half of the exits shall be permitted to include either a horizontal sliding or vertical rolling grille or door.

SECTION 403

HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS

403.1 Applicability. High-rise buildings shall comply with Sections 403.2 through 403.6.

Exception: The provisions of Sections 403.2 through 403.6 shall not apply to the following buildings and structures:

1. Airport traffic control towers in accordance with Section 412.3.

2. Open parking garages in accordance with Section 406.5.

3. The portion of a building containing a Group A-5 occupancy in accordance with Section 303.6.

4. Special industrial occupancies in accordance with Section 503.1.1.

5. Buildings with:

5.1. A Group H-1 occupancy;

5.2. A Group H-2 occupancy in accordance with Section 415.8, 415.9.2, 415.9.3 or 426.1; or,

5.3. A Group H-3 occupancy in accordance with Section 415.8.

403.2 Construction. The construction of high-rise buildings shall comply with the provisions of Sections 403.2.1 through 403.2.4.

403.2.1 Reduction in fire-resistance rating. The fire-resistance-rating reductions listed in Sections 403.2.1.1 and 403.2.1.2 shall be allowed in buildings that have sprinkler control valves equipped with supervisory initiating devices and water-flow initiating devices for each floor.

403.2.1.1 Type of construction. The following reductions in the minimum fire-resistance rating of the building elements in Table 601 shall be permitted as follows:

1. For buildings not greater than 420 feet (128 000 mm) in building height, the fire-resistance rating of the building elements in Type IA construction shall be permitted to be reduced to the minimum fire-resistance ratings for the building elements in Type IB.

Exception: The required fire-resistance rating of columns supporting floors shall not be reduced.

2. In other than Group F-1, M and S-1 occupancies, the fire-resistance rating of the building elements in Type IB construction shall be permitted to be reduced to the fire-resistance ratings in Type IIA.

3. The building height and building area limitations of a building containing building elements with reduced fire-resistance ratings shall be permitted to be the same as the building without such reductions.

403.2.1.2 Shaft enclosures. For buildings not greater than 420 feet (128 000 mm) in building height, the required fire-resistance rating of the fire barriers enclosing vertical shafts, other than interior exit stairway and elevator hoistway enclosures, is permitted to be reduced to 1 hour where automatic sprinklers are installed within the shafts at the top and at alternate floor levels.

403.2.2 Seismic considerations. For seismic considerations, see Chapter 16.

403.2.3 Structural integrity of interior exit stairways and elevator hoistway enclosures. For high-rise buildings of Risk Category III or IV in accordance with Section 1604.5, and for all buildings that are more than 420 feet (128 000 mm) in building height, enclosures for interior exit stairways and elevator hoistway enclosures shall com- ply with Sections 403.2.3.1 through 403.2.3.4.

403.2.3.1 Wall assembly. The wall assemblies making up the enclosures for interior exit stairways and elevator hoistway enclosures shall meet or exceed Soft Body Impact Classification Level 2 as measured by the test method described in ASTM C 1629/C 1629M.

403.2.3.2 Wall assembly materials. The face of the wall assemblies making up the enclosures for interior exit stairways and elevator hoistway enclosures that are not exposed to the interior of the enclosures for interior exit stairways or elevator hoistway enclosure shall be constructed in accordance with one of the following methods:

1. The wall assembly shall incorporate no fewer than two layers of impact-resistant construction board each of which meets or exceeds Hard Body Impact Classification Level 2 as measured by the test method described in ASTM C 1629/C 1629M.

2. The wall assembly shall incorporate no fewer than one layer of impact-resistant construction material that meets or exceeds Hard Body Impact Classification Level 3 as measured by the test method described in ASTM C 1629/C 1629M.

3. The wall assembly incorporates multiple layers of any material, tested in tandem, that meets or exceeds Hard Body Impact Classification Level 3 as measured by the test method described in ASTM C 1629/C 1629M.

403.2.3.3 Concrete and masonry walls. Concrete or masonry walls shall be deemed to satisfy the requirements of Sections 403.2.3.1 and 403.2.3.2.

403.2.3.4 Other wall assemblies. Any other wall assembly that provides impact resistance equivalent to that required by Sections 403.2.3.1 and 403.2.3.2 for Hard Body Impact Classification Level 3, as measured by the test method described in ASTM C 1629/C 1629M, shall be permitted.

403.2.4 Sprayed fire-resistant materials (SFRM). The bond strength of the SFRM installed throughout the building shall be in accordance with Table 403.2.4.

TABLE 403.2.4 MINIMUM BOND STRENGTH

HEIGHT OF BUILDINGa

SFRM MINIMUM BOND STRENGTH

Up to 420 feet

430 psf

Greater than 420 feet

1,000 psf

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot (psf) = 0.0479 kW/m 2 .

a. Above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access.

403.3 Automatic sprinkler system. Buildings and structures shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and a secondary water supply where required by Section 403.3.3.

Exception: An automatic sprinkler system shall not be required in spaces or areas of:

1. Open parking garages in accordance with Section 406.5.

2. Telecommunications equipment buildings used exclusively for telecommunications equipment, associated electrical power distribution equipment, batteries and standby engines, provided that those spaces or areas are equipped throughout with an automatic fire detection system in accordance with Section 907.2 and are separated from the remainder of the building by not less than 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or not less than 2-hour horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both.

403.3.1 Number of sprinkler risers and system design. Each sprinkler system zone in buildings that are more than 420 feet (128 000 mm) in building height shall be supplied by no fewer than two risers. Each riser shall supply sprinklers on alternate floors. If more than two risers are provided for a zone, sprinklers on adjacent floors shall not be supplied from the same riser.

403.3.1.1 Riser location. Sprinkler risers shall be placed in interior exit stairways and ramps that are remotely located in accordance with Section 1007.1.

403.3.2 Water supply to required fire pumps. In buildings that are more than 420 feet (128 000 mm) in building height, required fire pumps shall be supplied by connections to no fewer than two water mains located in different streets. Separate supply piping shall be provided between each connection to the water main and the pumps. Each connection and the supply piping between the connection and the pumps shall be sized to supply the flow and pressure required for the pumps to operate.

Exception: Two connections to the same main shall be permitted provided the main is valved such that an interruption can be isolated so that the water supply will continue without interruption through no fewer than one of the connections.

403.3.3 Secondary water supply. An automatic secondary on-site water supply having a capacity not less than the hydraulically calculated sprinkler demand, including the hose stream requirement, shall be provided for high-rise buildings assigned to Seismic Design Category C, D, E or F as determined by Section 1613. An additional fire pump shall not be required for the secondary water supply unless needed to provide the minimum design intake pressure at the suction side of the fire pump supplying the automatic sprinkler system. The secondary water supply shall have a duration of not less than 30 minutes.

403.3.4 Fire pump room. Fire pumps shall be located in rooms protected in accordance with Section 913.2.1.

403.4 Emergency systems. The detection, alarm and emergency systems of high-rise buildings shall comply with Sections 403.4.1 through 403.4.8.

403.4.1 Smoke detection. Smoke detection shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.2.13.1.

403.4.2 Fire alarm system. A fire alarm system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.2.13.

403.4.3 Standpipe system. A high-rise building shall be equipped with a standpipe system as required by Section 905.3.

403.4.4 Emergency voice/alarm communication system. An emergency voice/alarm communication system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.

403.4.5 Emergency responder radio coverage. Emergency responder radio coverage shall be provided in accordance with Section 510 of the fire code.

403.4.6 Fire command. A fire command center complying with Section 911 shall be provided in a location approved by the fire department.

403.4.7 Smoke removal. To facilitate smoke removal in post-fire salvage and overhaul operations, buildings and structures shall be equipped with natural or mechanical ventilation for removal of products of combustion in accordance with one of the following:

1. Easily identifiable, manually operable windows or panels shall be distributed around the perimeter of each floor at not more than 50-foot (15 240 mm) intervals. The aggregate area of operable windows or panels shall be not less than 40 square feet ( 3.7 m 2) per 50 linear feet (15 240 mm) of perimeter.

Exceptions:

1. In Group R occupancies, each sleeping unit or suite having an exterior wall shall be permitted to be provided with 2 square feet ( 0.19 m2 ) of venting area in lieu of the area specified in Item 1.

2. Windows shall be permitted to be fixed provided that glazing can be cleared or broken by fire fighters.

2. Mechanical air-handling equipment providing one exhaust air change every 15 minutes for the area involved. Return and exhaust air shall be moved directly to the outside without recirculation to other portions of the building.

3. Any other approved design that will produce equivalent results.

403.4.8 Standby and emergency power. A standby power system complying with Section 2702 and Section 3003 shall be provided for the standby power loads specified in Section 403.4.8.2. An emergency power system complying with Section 2702 shall be provided for the emergency power loads specified in Section 403.4.8.3.

403.4.8.1 Equipment room. If the standby or emergency power system includes a generator set inside a building, the system shall be located in a separate room enclosed with 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both. System supervision with manual start and transfer features shall be provided at the fire command center.

Exception: In Group I-2, Condition 2, manual start and transfer features for the critical branch of the emergency power are not required to be provided at the fire command center.

403.4.8.2 Fuel line piping protection. Fuel lines supplying a generator set inside a building shall be separated from areas of the building other than the room the generator is located in by an approved method or assembly that has a fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours. Where the building is protected through- out with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, the required fire-resistance rating shall be reduced to 1 hour.

403.4.8.3 Standby power loads. The following are classified as standby power loads:

1. Power and lighting for the fire command center required by Section 403.4.6.

2. Ventilation and automatic fire detection equipment for smokeproof enclosures.

3. Elevators.

4. Where elevators are provided in a high-rise building for accessible means of egress, fire service access or occupant self-evacuation, the standby power system shall also comply with Sections 1009.4, 3007 or 3008, as applicable.

403.4.8.4 Emergency power loads. The following are classified as emergency power loads:

1. Exit signs and means of egress illumination required by Chapter 10.

2. Elevator car lighting.

3. Emergency voice/alarm communications systems.

4. Automatic fire detection systems.

5. Fire alarm systems.

6. Electrically powered fire pumps.

403.5 Means of egress and evacuation. The means of egress in high-rise buildings shall comply with Sections 403.5.1 through 403.5.6.

403.5.1 Remoteness of interior exit stairways. Required interior exit stairways shall be separated by a distance not less than 30 feet (9144 mm) or not less than one-fourth of the length of the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the building or area to be served, whichever is less. The distance shall be measured in a straight line between the nearest points of the enclosure surrounding the interior exit stairways. In buildings with three or more interior exit stairways, no fewer than two of the interior exit stairways shall comply with this section. Interlocking or scissor stairs shall be counted as one interior exit stairway.

403.5.2 Additional interior exit stairway. For buildings other than Group R-2 that are more than 420 feet (128 000 mm) in building height, one additional interior exit stair- way meeting the requirements of Sections 1011 and 1023 shall be provided in addition to the minimum number of exits required by Section 1006.3. The total width of any combination of remaining interior exit stairways with one interior exit stairway removed shall be not less than the total width required by Section 1005.1. Scissor stairways shall not be considered the additional interior exit stairway required by this section.

Exception: An additional interior exit stairway shall not be required to be installed in buildings having elevators used for occupant self-evacuation in accordance with Section 3008.

403.5.3 Stairway door operation. Stairway doors other than the exit discharge doors shall be permitted to be locked from the stairway side. Stairway doors that are locked from the stairway side shall be capable of being unlocked simultaneously without unlatching upon a signal from the fire command center.

403.5.3.1 Stairway communication system. A telephone or other two-way communications system connected to an approved constantly attended station shall be provided at not less than every fifth floor in each stairway where the doors to the stairway are locked.

403.5.4 Smokeproof enclosures. Every required interior exit stairway serving floors more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access shall be a smokeproof enclosure in accordance with Sections 909.20 and 1023.10.

403.5.5 Luminous egress path markings. Deleted.

403.5.6 Emergency escape and rescue. Emergency escape and rescue openings specified in Section 1030 are not required.

403.6 Elevators. Elevator installation and operation in high- rise buildings shall comply with Chapter 30 and Sections 403.6.1 and 403.6.2.

403.6.1 Fire service access elevator. In buildings with an occupied floor more than 120 feet (36 576 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access, no fewer than two fire service access elevators, or all elevators, whichever is less, shall be provided in accordance with Section 3007. Each fire service access elevator shall have a capacity of not less than 3,500 pounds (1588 kg) and shall comply with Section 3002.4.

403.6.2 Occupant evacuation elevators. Where installed in accordance with Section 3008, passenger elevators for general public use shall be permitted to be used for occupant self-evacuation.

SECTION 404

ATRIUMS

404.1 General. In other than Group H occupancies, and where permitted by Section 712.1.7, the provisions of Sections 404.1 through 404.10 shall apply to buildings or structures containing vertical openings defined as "Atriums."

404.1.1 Definition. The following term is defined in Chapter 2:

ATRIUM.

404.2 Use. The floor of the atrium shall not be used for other than low fire hazard uses and only approved materials and decorations in accordance with the fire code shall be used in the atrium space.

Exception: The atrium floor area is permitted to be used for any approved use where the individual space is provided with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

404.3 Automatic sprinkler protection. An approved automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout the entire building.

Exceptions:

1. That area of a building adjacent to or above the atrium need not be sprinklered provided that portion of the building is separated from the atrium portion by not less than 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both.

2. Where the ceiling of the atrium is more than 55 feet (16 764 mm) above the floor, sprinkler protection at the ceiling of the atrium is not required.

404.4 Fire alarm system. A fire alarm system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.2.14.

404.5 Smoke control. A smoke control system shall be installed in accordance with Section 909 as follows:

1. In Group I-2, Condition 1 and Condition 2, and Group I-1, Condition 2, smoke control is required for atriums that connect two or more stories.

2. In all other occupancies, smoke control is required for atriums that connect three or more stories.

404.6 Enclosure of atriums. Atrium spaces shall be separated from adjacent spaces by a 1-hour fire barrier constructed in accordance with Section 707 or a horizontal assembly constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both.

Exceptions:

1. A fire barrier is not required where a glass wall forming a smoke partition is provided. The glass wall shall comply with all of the following:

1.1. Automatic sprinklers are provided along both sides of the separation wall and doors, or on the room side only if there is not a walkway on the atrium side. The sprinklers shall be located between 4 inches and 12 inches (102 mm and 305 mm) away from the glass and at intervals along the glass not greater than 6 feet (1829 mm). The sprinkler system shall be designed so that the entire surface of the glass is wet upon activation of the sprinkler system without obstruction;

1.2. The glass wall shall be installed in a gasketed frame in a manner that the framing system deflects without breaking (loading) the glass before the sprinkler system operates; and

1.3. Where glass doors are provided in the glass wall, they shall be either self-closing or automatic-closing.

2. A fire barrier is not required where a glass-block wall assembly complying with Section 2110 and having a ¾ -hour fire protection rating is provided.

3. A fire barrier is not required between the atrium and the adjoining spaces of any three floors of the atrium provided such spaces are accounted for in the design of the smoke control system.

404.7 Standby power. Equipment required to provide smoke control shall be provided with standby power in accordance with Section 909.11.

404.8 Interior finish. The interior finish of walls and ceilings of the atrium shall be not less than Class B with no reduction in class for sprinkler protection.

404.9 Exit access travel distance. Exit access travel distance for areas open to an atrium shall comply with the requirements of this section.

404.9.1 Egress not through the atrium. Where required access to the exits is not through the atrium, exit access travel distance shall comply with Section 1017.

404.9.2 Exit access travel distance at the level of exit discharge.Where the path of egress travel is through an atrium space, exit access travel distance at the level of exit discharge shall be determined in accordance with Section 1017.

404.9.3 Exit access travel distance at other than the level of exit discharge. Where the path of egress travel is not at the level of exit discharge from the atrium, that portion of the total permitted exit access travel distance that occurs within the atrium shall be not greater than 200 feet (60 960 mm).

404.10 Interior exit stairways. A maximum of 50 percent of interior exit stairways are permitted to egress through an atrium on the level of exit discharge in accordance with Section 1028.

SECTION 405

UNDERGROUND BUILDINGS

405.1 General. The provisions of Sections 405.2 through 405.9 apply to building spaces having a floor level used for human occupancy more than 30 feet (9144 mm) below the finished floor of the lowest level of exit discharge.

Exceptions: The provisions of Section 405 are not applicable to the following buildings or portions of buildings:

1. Deleted.

2. Parking garages provided with automatic sprinkler systems in compliance with Section 405.3.

3. Fixed guideway transit systems.

4. Grandstands, bleachers, stadiums, arenas and similar facilities.

5. Where the lowest story is the only story that would qualify the building as an underground building and has an area not greater than 1,500 square feet (139 m2 ) and has an occupant load less than 10.

6. Pumping stations and other similar mechanical spaces intended only for limited periodic use by service or maintenance personnel.

405.2 Construction requirements. The underground portion of the building shall be of Type I construction.

405.3 Automatic sprinkler system. The highest level of exit discharge serving the underground portions of the building and all levels below shall be equipped with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Water-flow switches and control valves shall be supervised in accordance with Section 903.4.

405.4 Compartmentation. Compartmentation shall be in accordance with Sections 405.4.1 through 405.4.3.

405.4.1 Number of compartments. A building having a floor level more than 60 feet (18 288 mm) below the finished floor of the lowest level of exit discharge shall be divided into no fewer than two compartments of approximately equal size. Such compartmentation shall extend through the highest level of exit discharge serving the underground portions of the building and all levels below.

Exception: The lowest story need not be compartmented where the area is not greater than 1,500 square feet (139 m2) and has an occupant load of less than 10.

405.4.2 Smoke barrier penetration. The compartments shall be separated from each other by a smoke barrier in accordance with Section 709. Penetrations between the two compartments shall be limited to plumbing and electrical piping and conduit that are firestopped in accordance with Section 714. Doorways shall be protected by fire door assemblies that are automatic-closing by smoke detection in accordance with Section 716.5.9.3 and are installed in accordance with NFPA 105 and Section 716.5.3. Where provided, each compartment shall have an air supply and an exhaust system independent of the other compartments.

405.4.3 Elevators. Where elevators are provided, each compartment shall have direct access to an elevator. Where an elevator serves more than one compartment, an elevator lobby shall be provided and shall be separated from each compartment by a smoke barrier in accordance with Section 709. Doors shall be gasketed, have a drop sill and be automatic-closing by smoke detection in accordance with Section 716.5.9.3.

405.5 Smoke control system. A smoke control system shall be provided in accordance with Sections 405.5.1 and 405.5.2.

405.5.1 Control system. A smoke control system is required to control the migration of products of combustion in accordance with Section 909 and the provisions of this section. Smoke control shall restrict movement of smoke to the general area of fire origin and maintain means of egress in a usable condition.

405.5.2 Compartment smoke control system. Where compartmentation is required, each compartment shall have an independent smoke control system. The system shall be automatically activated and capable of manual operation in accordance with Sections 907.2.18 and 907.2.19.

405.6 Fire alarm systems. A fire alarm system shall be provided where required by Sections 907.2.18 and 907.2.19.

405.7 Means of egress. Means of egress shall be in accordance with Sections 405.7.1 and 405.7.2.

405.7.1 Number of exits. Each floor level shall be pro- vided with no fewer than two exits. Where compartmentation is required by Section 405.4, each compartment shall have no fewer than one exit and shall also have no fewer than one exit access doorway into the adjoining compartment.

405.7.2 Smokeproof enclosure. Every required stairway serving floor levels more than 30 feet (9144 mm) below the finished floor of its level of exit discharge shall comply with the requirements for a smokeproof enclosure as pro- vided in Section 1023.10.

405.8 Standby and emergency power. A standby power system complying with Section 2702 shall be provided for the standby power loads specified in Section 405.8.1. An emergency power system complying with Section 2702 shall be provided for the emergency power loads specified in Section 405.8.2.

405.8.1 Standby power loads. The following loads are classified as standby power loads:

1. Smoke control system.

2. Ventilation and automatic fire detection equipment for smokeproof enclosures.

3. Fire pumps.

4. Elevators, as required in Section 3003.

405.8.2 Emergency power loads. The following loads are classified as emergency power loads:

1. Emergency voice/alarm communications systems.

2. Fire alarm systems.

3. Automatic fire detection systems.

4. Elevator car lighting.

5. Means of egress and exit sign illumination as required by Chapter 10.

405.9 Standpipe system. The underground building shall be equipped throughout with a standpipe system in accordance with Section 905.

SECTION 406

MOTOR-VEHICLE-RELATED OCCUPANCIES

406.1 General. Motor-vehicle-related occupancies shall comply with Sections 406.1 through 406.8.

406.2 Definitions. The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

MECHANICAL-ACCESS.

OPEN PARKING GARAGES.

OPEN PARKING GARAGE.

PRIVATE GARAGE.

RAMP-ACCESS.

OPEN PARKING GARAGES.

406.3 Private garages and carports. Private garages and carports shall comply with Sections 406.3.1 through 406.3.6.

406.3.1 Classification. Private garages and carports shall be classified as Group U occupancies. Each private garage shall be not greater than 1,000 square feet (93 m 2) in area. Multiple private garages are permitted in a building where each private garage is separated from the other private garages by 1-hour fire barriers in accordance with Section 707, or 1-hour horizontal assemblies in accordance with Section 711, or both.

406.3.2 Clear height. In private garages and carports, the clear height in vehicle and pedestrian traffic areas shall be not less than 7 feet (2134 mm). Vehicle and pedestrian areas accommodating van-accessible parking shall comply with Section 1106.5.

406.3.3 Garage floor surfaces. Garage floor surfaces shall be of approved noncombustible material. The area of floor used for parking of automobiles or other vehicles shall be sloped to facilitate the movement of liquids to a drain or toward the main vehicle entry doorway.

406.3.4 Separation. For other than private garages adjacent to dwelling units, the separation of private garages from other occupancies shall comply with Section 508. Separation of private garages from dwelling units shall comply with Sections 406.3.4.1 through 406.3.4.3.

406.3.4.1 Dwelling unit separation. The private garage shall be separated from the dwelling unit and its attic area by means of gypsum board, not less than ½ inch ( 12.7 mm) in thickness, applied to the garage side. Garages beneath habitable rooms shall be separated from all habitable rooms above by not less than a 5/8-inch ( 15.9 mm) Type X gypsum board or equivalent and ½-inch ( 12.7 mm) gypsum board applied to structures supporting the separation from habitable rooms above the garage. Door openings between a private garage and the dwelling unit shall be equipped with either solid wood doors or solid or honeycomb core steel doors not less than ½ inches ( 34.9 mm) in thickness, or doors in compliance with Section 716.5.3 with a fire protection rating of not less than 20 minutes. Doors shall be self-closing and self-latching.

406.3.4.2 Openings prohibited. Openings from a private garage directly into a room used for sleeping purposes shall not be permitted.

406.3.4.3 Ducts. Ducts in a private garage and ducts penetrating the walls or ceilings separating the dwelling unit from the garage, including its attic area, shall be constructed of sheet steel of not less than 0.019 inch ( 0.48 mm) in thickness and shall have no openings into the garage.

406.3.5 Carports. Carports shall be open on at least two sides. Carport floor surfaces shall be of an approved non- combustible material. Carports not open on at least two sides shall be considered a garage and shall comply with the requirements for private garages.

Exception: Asphalt surfaces shall be permitted at ground level in carports. The area of floor used for parking of automobiles or other vehicles shall be sloped to facilitate the movement of liquids to a drain or toward the main vehicle entry doorway.

406.3.5.1 Carport separation. A separation is not required between a Group R-3 and U carport, provided the carport is entirely open on two or more sides and there are not enclosed areas above.

406.3.6 Automatic garage door openers. Automatic garage door openers, where provided, shall be listed in accordance with UL 325.

406.4 Public parking garages. Parking garages, other than private garages, shall be classified as public parking garages and shall comply with the provisions of Sections 406.4.2 through 406.4.8 and shall be classified as either an open parking garage or an enclosed parking garage. Open parking garages shall also comply with Section 406.5. Enclosed parking garages shall also comply with Section 406.6. See Section 510 for special provisions for parking garages.

406.4.1 Clear height. The clear height of each floor level in vehicle and pedestrian traffic areas shall be not less than 7 feet (2134 mm). Vehicle and pedestrian areas accommodating van-accessible parking shall comply with Section 1106.5.

406.4.2 Guards. Guards shall be provided in accordance with Section 1015. Guards serving as vehicle barriers shall comply with Sections 406.4.3 and 1015.

406.4.3 Vehicle barriers. Vehicle barriers not less than 2 feet 9 inches (835 mm) in height shall be placed where the vertical distance from the floor of a drive lane or parking space to the ground or surface directly below is greater than 1 foot (305 mm). Vehicle barriers shall comply with the loading requirements of Section 1607.8.3.

Exception: Vehicle barriers are not required in vehicle storage compartments in a mechanical access parking garage.

406.4.4 Ramps. Vehicle ramps shall not be considered as required exits unless pedestrian facilities are provided. Vehicle ramps that are utilized for vertical circulation as well as for parking shall not exceed a slope of 1:15 ( 6.67 percent).

406.4.5 Floor surface. Parking surfaces shall be of concrete or similar noncombustible and nonabsorbent materials.

The area of floor used for parking of automobiles or other vehicles shall be sloped to facilitate the movement of liquids to a drain or toward the main vehicle entry doorway.

Exceptions:

1. Asphalt parking surfaces shall be permitted at ground level.

2. Floors of Group S-2 parking garages shall not be required to have a sloped surface.

406.4.6 Mixed occupancy separation. Parking garages shall be separated from other occupancies in accordance with Section 508.1.

406.4.7 Special hazards. Connection of a parking garage with any room in which there is a fuel-fired appliance shall be by means of a vestibule providing a two-doorway separation.

Exception: A single door shall be allowed provided the sources of ignition in the appliance are not less than 18 inches (457 mm) above the floor.

406.4.8 Attached to rooms. Openings from a parking garage directly into a room used for sleeping purposes shall not be permitted.

406.5 Open parking garages. Open parking garages shall comply with Sections 406.5.1 through 406.5.11.

406.5.1 Construction. Open parking garages shall be of Type I, II or IV construction. Open parking garages shall meet the design requirements of Chapter 16. For vehicle barriers, see Section 406.4.3.

406.5.2 Openings. For natural ventilation purposes, the exterior side of the structure shall have uniformly distributed openings on two or more sides. The area of such openings in exterior walls on a tier shall be not less than 20 percent of the total perimeter wall area of each tier. The aggregate length of the openings considered to be providing natural ventilation shall be not less than 40 percent of the perimeter of the tier. Interior walls shall be not less than 20 percent open with uniformly distributed openings.

Exception: Openings are not required to be distributed over 40 percent of the building perimeter where the required openings are uniformly distributed over two opposing sides of the building.

406.5.2.1 Openings below grade. Where openings below grade provide required natural ventilation, the outside horizontal clear space shall be one and one-half times the depth of the opening. The width of the horizontal clear space shall be maintained from grade down to the bottom of the lowest required opening.

406.5.3 Uses. Mixed uses shall be allowed in the same building as an open parking garage subject to the provisions of Sections 402.4.2.3, 406.5.11, 508.1, 510.3, 510.4 and 510.7.

406.5.4 Area and height. Area and height of open parking garages shall be limited as set forth in Chapter 5 for Group S-2 occupancies and as further provided for in Section 508.1.

406.5.4.1 Single use. Where the open parking garage is used exclusively for the parking or storage of private motor vehicles, with no other uses in the building, the area and height shall be permitted to comply with Table 406.5.4, along with increases allowed by Section 406.5.5.

Exception: The grade-level tier is permitted to contain an office, waiting and toilet rooms having a total combined area of not more than 1,000 square feet (93 m2). Such area need not be separated from the open parking garage.

In open parking garages having a spiral or sloping floor, the horizontal projection of the structure at any cross section shall not exceed the allowable area per parking tier. In the case of an open parking garage having a continuous spiral floor, each 9 feet 6 inches (2896 mm) of height, or portion thereof, shall be considered a tier.

The clear height of a parking tier shall be not less than 7 feet (2134 mm), except that a lower clear height is permitted in mechanical-access open parking garages where approved by the building official.

406.5.5 Area and height increases. The allowable area and height of open parking garages shall be increased in accordance with the provisions of this section. Garages with sides open on three-fourths of the building's perimeter are permitted to be increased by 25 percent in area and one tier in height. Garages with sides open around the entire building's perimeter are permitted to be increased by 50 percent in area and one tier in height. For a side to be considered open under the above provisions, the total area of openings along the side shall not be less than 50 percent of the interior area of the side at each tier and such openings shall be equally distributed along the length of the tier. For purposes of calculating the interior area of the side, the height shall not exceed 7 feet (2134 mm).

Allowable tier areas in Table 406.5.4 shall be increased for open parking garages constructed to heights less than the table maximum. The gross tier area of the garage shall not exceed that permitted for the higher structure. No fewer than three sides of each such larger tier shall have continuous horizontal openings not less than 30 inches (762 mm) in clear height extending for not less than 80 percent of the length of the sides and no part of such larger tier shall be more than 200 feet (60 960 mm) horizontally from such an opening. In addition, each such opening shall face a street or yard accessible to a street with a width of not less than 30 feet (9144 mm) for the full length of the opening, and standpipes shall be provided in each such tier.

Open parking garages of Type II construction, with all sides open, shall be unlimited in allowable area where the building height does not exceed 75 feet (22 860 mm). For a side to be considered open, the total area of openings along the side shall be not less than 50 percent of the interior area of the side at each tier and such openings shall be equally distributed along the length of the tier. For purposes of calculating the interior area of the side, the height shall not exceed 7 feet (2134 mm). All portions of tiers shall be within 200 feet (60 960 mm) horizontally from such openings or other natural ventilation openings as defined in Section 406.5.2. These openings shall be permitted to be provided in courts with a minimum dimension of 20 feet (6096 mm) for the full width of the openings.

406.5.6 Fire separation distance. Exterior walls and openings in exterior walls shall comply with Tables 601 and 602. The distance to an adjacent lot line shall be deter- mined in accordance with Table 602 and Section 705.

406.5.7 Means of egress. Where persons other than parking attendants are permitted, open parking garages shall meet the means of egress requirements of Chapter 10. Where no persons other than parking attendants are permitted, there shall be no fewer than two exit stairways. Each exit stairway shall be not less than 36 inches (914 mm) in width. Lifts shall be permitted to be installed for use of employees only, provided they are completely enclosed by noncombustible materials.

406.5.8 Standpipe system. An open parking garage shall be equipped with a standpipe system as required by Section 905.3.

406.5.9 Enclosure of vertical openings. Enclosure shall not be required for vertical openings except as specified in Section 406.5.7.

406.5.10 Ventilation. Ventilation, other than the percent- age of openings specified in Section 406.5.2, shall not be required.

406.5.11 Prohibitions. The following uses and alterations are not permitted:

1. Vehicle repair work.

2. Parking of buses, trucks and similar vehicles.

3. Partial or complete closing of required openings in exterior walls by tarpaulins or any other means.

4. Dispensing of fuel.

406.6 Enclosed parking garages. Enclosed parking garages shall comply with Sections 406.6.1 through 406.6.3.

406.6.1 Heights and areas. Enclosed vehicle parking garages and portions thereof that do not meet the definition of open parking garages shall be limited to the allow- able heights and areas specified in Sections 504 and 506 as modified by Section 507. Roof parking is permitted.

TABLE 406.5.4

OPEN PARKING GARAGES AREA AND

HEIGHT

TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION

AREA PER TIER (square feet)

HEIGHT (in tiers)

Ramp access

Mechanical access

Automatic sprinkler system

No

Yes

IA

Unlimited

Unlimited

Unlimited

Unlimited

IB

Unlimited

12 tiers

12 tiers

18 tiers

IIA

50,000

10 tiers

10 tiers

15 tiers

IIB

50,000

8 tiers

8 tiers

12 tiers

IV

50,000

4 tiers

4 tiers

4 tiers

For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 m 2 .

406.6.2 Ventilation. A mechanical ventilation system shall be provided in accordance with the mechanical code.

406.6.3 Automatic sprinkler system. An enclosed parking garage shall be equipped with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.2.10.

406.7 Motor fuel-dispensing facilities. Buildings and canopies housing motor fuel-dispensing operations shall comply with this code (Sections 406.7.1 and 406.7.2) and chapter 5 of the mechanical code. The installation of the fuel tanks, the dispensing equipment, and the operational requirements at a motor fuel-dispensing facility shall be in accordance with chapter 23 of the fire code and enforced by the fire official.

406.7.1 Vehicle fueling pad. The vehicle shall be fueled on noncoated concrete or other approved paving material having a resistance not exceeding 1 megohm as determined by the methodology in EN 1081.

406.7.2 Canopies. Canopies under which fuels are dispensed shall have a clear, unobstructed height of not less than 13 feet 6 inches (4115 mm) to the lowest projecting element in the vehicle drive-through area. Canopies and their supports over pumps shall be of noncombustible materials, fire-retardant-treated wood complying with Chapter 23, wood of Type IV sizes or of construction providing 1-hour fire-resistance. Combustible materials used in or on a canopy shall comply with one of the following:

1. Shielded from the pumps by a noncombustible element of the canopy, or wood of Type IV sizes;

2. Plastics covered by aluminum facing having a thick- ness of not less than 0.010 inch ( 0.30 mm) or corrosion-resistant steel having a base metal thickness of not less than 0.016 inch ( 0.41 mm). The plastic shall have a flame spread index of 25 or less and a smoke- developed index of 450 or less when tested in the form intended for use in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723 and a self-ignition temperature of 650°F (343°C) or greater when tested in accordance with ASTM D 1929; or 3. Panels constructed of light-transmitting plastic materials shall be permitted to be installed in canopies erected over motor vehicle fuel-dispensing station fuel dispensers, provided the panels are located not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from any building on the same lot and face yards or streets not less than 40 feet (12 192 mm) in width on the other sides. The aggregate areas of plastics shall be not greater than 1,000 square feet (93 m2). The maximum area of any individual panel shall be not greater than 100 square feet ( 9.3 m2).

406.7.2.1 Canopies used to support gaseous hydrogen systems.

Canopies that are used to shelter dispensing operations where flammable compressed gases are located on the roof of the canopy shall be in accordance with the following:

1. The canopy shall meet or exceed Type I construction requirements.

2. Operations located under canopies shall be limited to refueling only.

3. The canopy shall be constructed in a manner that prevents the accumulation of hydrogen gas.

406.8 Repair garages. Repair garages shall be constructed in accordance with the fire code and Sections 406.8.1 through 406.8.6. This occupancy shall not include motor fuel-dispensing facilities, as regulated in Section 406.7.

406.8.1 Mixed uses. Mixed uses shall be allowed in the same building as a repair garage subject to the provisions of Section 508.1.

406.8.2 Ventilation. Repair garages shall be mechanically ventilated in accordance with the mechanical code. The ventilation system shall be controlled at the entrance to the garage.

406.8.3 Floor surface. Repair garage floors shall be of concrete or similar noncombustible and nonabsorbent materials.

Exception: Slip-resistant, nonabsorbent, interior floor finishes having a critical radiant flux not more than 0.45 W/cm2, as determined by NFPA 253, shall be permitted.

406.8.4 Heating equipment. Heating equipment shall be installed in accordance with the mechanical code.

406.8.5 Gas detection system. Repair garages used for the repair of vehicles fueled by nonodorized gases such as hydrogen and nonodorized LNG, shall be provided with a flammable gas detection system.

406.8.5.1 System design. The flammable gas detection system shall be listed or approved and shall be calibrated to the types of fuels or gases used by vehicles to be repaired. The gas detection system shall be designed to activate when the level of flammable gas exceeds 25 percent of the lower flammable limit (LFL). Gas detection shall be provided in lubrication or chassis service pits of repair garages used for repairing non- odorized LNG-fueled vehicles.

406.8.5.1.1 Gas detection system components. Gas detection system control units shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 864 or UL 2017. Gas detectors shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 2075 for use with the gases and vapors being detected.

406.8.5.2 Operation. Activation of the gas detection system shall result in all of the following:

1. Initiation of distinct audible and visual alarm signals in the repair garage.

2. Deactivation of all heating systems located in the repair garage.

3. Activation of the mechanical ventilation system, where the system is interlocked with gas detection.

406.8.5.3 Failure of the gas detection system. Failure of the gas detection system shall result in the deactivation of the heating system, activation of the mechanical ventilation system where the system is interlocked with the gas detection system and cause a trouble signal to sound in an approved location.

406.8.6 Automatic sprinkler system. A repair garage shall be equipped with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.2.9.1.

SECTION 407

GROUP I-2

407.1 General. Occupancies in Group I-2 shall comply with the provisions of Sections 407.1 through 407.10 and other applicable provisions of this code.

407.2 Corridors continuity and separation. Corridors in occupancies in Group I-2 shall be continuous to the exits and shall be separated from other areas in accordance with Section 407.3 except spaces conforming to Sections 407.2.1 through 407.2.4.

407.2.1 Waiting and similar areas. Waiting areas and similar spaces constructed as required for corridors shall be permitted to be open to a corridor, only where all of the following criteria are met:

1. The spaces are not occupied as care recipient's sleeping rooms, treatment rooms, incidental uses in accordance with Section 509, or hazardous uses.

2. The open space is protected by an automatic fire detection system installed in accordance with Section 907.

3. The corridors onto which the spaces open, in the same smoke compartment, are protected by an automatic fire detection system installed in accordance with Section 907, or the smoke compartment in which the spaces are located is equipped throughout with quick-response sprinklers in accordance with Section 903.3.2.

4. The space is arranged so as not to obstruct access to the required exits.

407.2.2 Care providers' stations. Spaces for care providers', supervisory staff, doctors' and nurses' charting, communications and related clerical areas shall be permitted to be open to the corridor, where such spaces are constructed as required for corridors.

407.2.3 Psychiatric treatment areas. Areas wherein psychiatric care recipients who are not capable of self-preservation are housed, or group meeting or multipurpose therapeutic spaces other than incidental uses in accordance with Section 509, under continuous supervision by facility staff, shall be permitted to be open to the corridor, where the following criteria are met:

1. Each area does not exceed 1,500 square feet (140 m2).

2. The area is located to permit supervision by the facility staff.

3. The area is arranged so as not to obstruct any access to the required exits.

4. The area is equipped with an automatic fire detection system installed in accordance with Section 907.2.

5. Not more than one such space is permitted in any one smoke compartment.

6. The walls and ceilings of the space are constructed as required for corridors.

407.2.4 Gift shops. Gift shops and associated storage that are less than 500 square feet (455 m2) in area shall be permitted to be open to the corridor where such spaces are constructed as required for corridors.

407.2.5 Nursing home housing units. In Group I-2, Condition 1, occupancies, in areas where nursing home residents are housed, shared living spaces, group meeting or multipurpose therapeutic spaces shall be permitted to be open to the corridor, where all of the following criteria are met:

1. The walls and ceilings of the space are constructed as required for corridors.

2. The spaces are not occupied as resident sleeping rooms, treatment rooms, incidental uses in accordance with Section 509, or hazardous uses.

3. The open space is protected by an automatic fire detection system installed in accordance with Section 907.

4. The corridors onto which the spaces open, in the same smoke compartment, are protected by an automatic fire detection system installed in accordance with Section 907, or the smoke compartment in which the spaces are located is equipped throughout with quick-response sprinklers in accordance with Section 903.3.2.

5. The space is arranged so as not to obstruct access to the required exits.

407.2.6 Nursing home cooking facilities. In Group I-2, Condition 1, occupancies, rooms or spaces that contain a cooking facility with domestic cooking appliances shall be permitted to be open to the corridor where all of the following criteria are met:

1. The number of care recipients housed in the smoke compartment is not greater than 30.

2. The number of care recipients served by the cooking facility is not greater than 30.

3. Only one cooking facility area is permitted in a smoke compartment.

4. The types of domestic cooking appliances permitted are limited to ovens, cooktops, ranges, warmers and microwaves.

5. The corridor is a clearly identified space delineated by construction or floor pattern, material or color.

6. The space containing the domestic cooking facility shall be arranged so as not to obstruct access to the required exit.

7. A domestic cooking hood installed and constructed in accordance with Section 505 of the mechanical code is provided over the cooktop or range.

8. The domestic cooking hood provided over the cooktop or range shall be equipped with an automatic fire-extinguishing system of a type recognized for protection of domestic cooking equipment. Pre-engineered automatic extinguishing systems shall be tested in accordance with UL 300A and listed and labeled for the intended application. The system shall be installed in accordance with this code, its listing and the manufacturer's instructions.

9. A manual actuation device for the hood suppression system shall be installed in accordance with Sections 904.12.1 and 904.12.2.

10. An interlock device shall be provided such that upon activation of the hood suppression system, the power or fuel supply to the cooktop or range will be turned off.

11. A shut-off for the fuel and electrical power supply to the cooking equipment shall be provided in a location that is accessible only to staff.

12. A timer shall be provided that automatically deactivates the cooking appliances within a period of not more than 120 minutes.

13. A portable fire extinguisher shall be installed in accordance with Section 906 and within 30 feet (9144 mm) of domestic cooking appliances.

407.3 Corridor wall construction. Corridor walls shall be constructed as smoke partitions in accordance with Section 710.

407.3.1 Corridor doors. Corridor doors, other than those in a wall required to be rated by Section 509.4 or for the enclosure of a vertical opening or an exit, shall not have a required fire protection rating and shall not be required to be equipped with self-closing or automatic-closing devices, but shall provide an effective barrier to limit the transfer of smoke and shall be equipped with positive latching. Roller latches are not permitted. Other doors shall conform to Section 716.5.

407.4 Means of egress. Group I-2 occupancies shall be provided with means of egress complying with Chapter 10 and Sections 407.4.1 through 407.4.4. The fire safety and evacuation plans provided in accordance with Section 1001.4 shall identify the building components necessary to support a defend-in-place emergency response in accordance with Sections 404 and 408 of the fire code.

407.4.1 Direct access to a corridor. Habitable rooms in Group I-2 occupancies shall have an exit access door leading directly to a corridor.

Exceptions:

1. Rooms with exit doors opening directly to the outside at ground level.

2. Rooms arranged as care suites complying with Section 407.4.3

407.4.1.1. Locking devices. Locking devices that restrict access to a care recipient's room from the corridor and that are operable only by staff from the corridor side shall not restrict the means of egress from the care recipient's room.

Exceptions:

1. This section shall not apply to rooms in psychiatric treatment and similar care areas.

2. Locking arrangements in accordance with Section 1010.1.9.6.

407.4.2 Distance of travel. The distance of travel between any point in a Group I-2 occupancy sleeping room, not located in a care suite, and an exit access door in that room shall be not greater than 50 feet (15 240 mm).

407.4.3 Projections in nursing home corridors. In Group I-2, Condition 1, occupancies, where the corridor width is a minimum of 96 inches (2440 mm), projections shall be permitted for furniture where all of the following criteria are met:

1. The furniture is attached to the floor or to the wall.

2. The furniture does not reduce the clear width of the corridor to less than 72 inches (1830 mm) except where other encroachments are permitted in accordance with Section 1005.7.

3. The furniture is positioned on only one side of the corridor.

4. Each arrangement of furniture is 50 square feet ( 4.6 m2) maximum in area.

5. Furniture arrangements are separated by 10 feet (3048 mm) minimum.

6. Placement of furniture is considered as part of the fire and safety plans in accordance with Section 1001.4.

407.4.4 Group I-2 care suites. Care suites in Group I-2 shall comply with Sections 407.4.4.1 through 407.4.4.4 and either Section 407.4.4.5 or 407.4.4.6.

407.4.4.1 Exit access through care suites. Exit access from all other portions of a building not classified as a care suite shall not pass through a care suite. In a care suite required to have more than one exit, one exit access is permitted to pass through an adjacent care suite provided all of the other requirements of Sections 407.4 and 1016.2 are satisfied.

407.4.4.2 Separation. Care suites shall be separated from other portions of the building, including other care suites, by a smoke partition complying with Section 710.

407.4.4.3 Access to corridor. Movement from habit- able rooms shall not require passage through more than three doors and 100 feet (30 480 mm) distance of travel within the suite.

Exception: The distance of travel shall be permitted to be increased to 125 feet (38 100 mm) where an automatic smoke detection system is provided throughout the care suite and installed in accordance with NFPA 72.

407.4.4.4 Doors within care suites. Doors in care suites serving habitable rooms shall be permitted to comply with one of the following:

1. Manually operated horizontal sliding doors per- mitted in accordance with Exception 9 to Section 1010.1.2.

2. Power-operated doors permitted in accordance with Exception 7 to Section 1010.1.2.

3. Means of egress doors complying with Section 1010.

407.4.4.5 Care suites containing sleeping room areas. Sleeping rooms shall be permitted to be grouped into care suites where one of the following criteria is met:

1. The care suite is not used as an exit access for more than eight care recipient beds.

2. The arrangement of the care suite allows for direct and constant visual supervision into the sleeping rooms by care providers.

3. An automatic smoke detection system is provided in the sleeping rooms and installed in accordance with NFPA 72.

407.4.4.5.1 Area. Care suites containing sleeping rooms shall be not greater than 7,500 square feet (696 m2) in area.

Exception: Care suites containing sleeping rooms shall be permitted to be not greater than 10,000 square feet (929 m2) in area where an automatic smoke detection system is provided throughout the care suite and installed in accordance with NFPA 72.

407.4.4.5.2 Exit access. Any sleeping room, or any care suite that contains sleeping rooms, of more than 1,000 square feet (93 m2) shall have no fewer than two exit access doors from the care suite located in accordance with Section 1007.

407.4.4.6 Care suites not containing sleeping rooms. Areas not containing sleeping rooms, but only treatment areas and the associated rooms, spaces or circulation space, shall be permitted to be grouped into care suites and shall conform to the limitations in Sections 407.4.4.6.1 and 407.4.4.6.2.

407.4.4.6.1 Area. Care suites of rooms, other than sleeping rooms, shall have an area not greater than 12,500 square feet (1161 m2).

Exception: Care suites not containing sleeping rooms shall be permitted to be not greater than 15,000 square feet (1394 m2) in area where an automatic smoke detection system is provided throughout the care suite in accordance with Section 907.

407.4.4.6.2 Exit access. Care suites, other than sleeping rooms, with an area of more than 2,500 square feet (232 m2) shall have no fewer than two exit access doors from the care suite located in accordance with Section 1007.1.

407.5 Smoke barriers. Smoke barriers shall be provided to subdivide every story used by inpatients for treatment or sleeping, regardless of occupant load, into no fewer than two smoke compartments, and to divide other stories containing a health care occupancy with an occupant load of 50 or more persons, regardless of use, into no fewer than two smoke compartments. Such stories shall be divided into smoke compartments with an area of not more than 22,500 square feet (2092 m2) in Group I-2, Condition 1, and not more than 40,000 square feet (3716 m2) in Group I-2, Condition 2, and the distance of travel from any point in a smoke compartment to a smoke barrier door shall be not greater than 200 feet (60 960 mm). The smoke barrier shall be in accordance with Section 709.

407.5.1 Refuge area. Refuge areas shall be provided within each smoke compartment. The size of the refuge area shall accommodate the occupants and care recipients from the adjoining smoke compartment. Where a smoke compartment is adjoined by two or more smoke compartments, the minimum area of the refuge area shall accommodate the largest occupant load of the adjoining compartments. The size of the refuge area shall provide the following:

1. Not less than 30 net square feet ( 2.8 m2) for each care recipient confined to bed or stretcher.

2. Not less than 6 square feet ( 0.56 m2) for each ambulatory care recipient not confined to bed or stretcher and for other occupants. Areas or spaces permitted to be included in the calculation of refuge area are corridors, sleeping areas, treatment rooms, lounge or dining areas and other low-hazard areas.

407.5.2 Independent egress. A means of egress shall be provided from each smoke compartment created by smoke barriers without having to return through the smoke compartment from which means of egress originated.

407.5.3 Horizontal assemblies. Horizontal assemblies supporting smoke barriers required by this section shall be designed to resist the movement of smoke. Elevator lobbies shall be in accordance with Section 3006.2.

407.6 Automatic sprinkler system. Smoke compartments containing sleeping rooms shall be equipped through- out with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Sections 903.3.1.1 and 903.3.2.

407.7 Fire alarm system. A fire alarm system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.2.6.

407.8 Automatic fire detection. Corridors in Group I-2, Condition 1, occupancies, long-term care facilities, detoxification facilities and spaces permitted to be open to the corridors by Section 407.2 shall be equipped with an automatic fire detection system.

Group I-2, Condition 2, occupancies shall be equipped with smoke detection as required in Section 407.2.

Exceptions:

1. Corridor smoke detection is not required where sleeping rooms are provided with smoke detectors that comply with UL 268. Such detectors shall pro- vide a visual display on the corridor side of each sleeping room and an audible and visual alarm at the care provider's station attending each unit.

2. Corridor smoke detection is not required where sleeping room doors are equipped with automatic door-closing devices with integral smoke detectors on the unit sides installed in accordance with their listing, provided that the integral detectors perform the required alerting function.

407.9 Secured yards. Grounds are permitted to be fenced and gates therein are permitted to be equipped with locks, provided that safe dispersal areas having 30 net square feet ( 2.8 m2) for bed and stretcher care recipients and 6 net square feet ( 0.56 m2) for ambulatory care recipients and other occupants are located between the building and the fence. Such provided safe dispersal areas shall be located not less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from the building they serve.

407.10 Electrical systems. In Group I-2 occupancies, the essential electrical system for electrical components, equipment and systems shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the provisions of Chapter 27 and NFPA 99.

SECTION 408

GROUP I-3

408.1 General. Occupancies in Group I-3 shall comply with the provisions of Sections 408.1 through 408.11 and other applicable provisions of this code (see Section 308.5 ).

408.1.1 Definitions. The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

CELL.

CELL TIER.

HOUSING UNIT.

SALLYPORT.

408.2 Other occupancies. Buildings or portions of buildings in Group I-3 occupancies where security operations necessitate the locking of required means of egress shall be permitted to be classified as a different occupancy. Occupancies classified as other than Group I-3 shall meet the applicable requirements of this code for that occupancy where provisions are made for the release of occupants at all times.

Means of egress from detention and correctional occupancies that traverse other use areas shall, as a minimum, con- form to requirements for detention and correctional occupancies.

Exception: It is permissible to exit through a horizontal exit into other contiguous occupancies that do not conform to detention and correctional occupancy egress provisions but that do comply with requirements set forth in the appropriate occupancy, as long as the occupancy is not a Group H use.

408.3 Means of egress. Except as modified or as provided for in this section, the means of egress provisions of Chapter 10 shall apply.

408.3.1 Door width. Doors to resident sleeping units shall have a clear width of not less than 28 inches (711 mm).

408.3.2 Sliding doors. Where doors in a means of egress are of the horizontal-sliding type, the force to slide the door to its fully open position shall be not greater than 50 pounds (220 N) with a perpendicular force against the door of 50 pounds (220 N).

408.3.3 Guard tower doors. A hatch or trap door not less than 16 square feet (610 m2) in area through the floor and having dimensions of not less than 2 feet (610 mm) in any direction shall be permitted to be used as a portion of the means of egress from guard towers.

408.3.4 Spiral stairways. Spiral stairways that conform to the requirements of Section 1011.10 are permitted for access to and between staff locations.

408.3.5 Ship ladders. Ship ladders shall be permitted for egress from control rooms or elevated facility observation rooms in accordance with Section 1011.15.

408.3.6 Exit discharge. Exits are permitted to discharge into a fenced or walled courtyard. Enclosed yards or courts shall be of a size to accommodate all occupants, be located not less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from the building and have an area of not less than 15 square feet ( 1.4 m 2 ) per person.

408.3.7 Sallyports. A sallyport shall be permitted in a means of egress where there are provisions for continuous and unobstructed passage through the sallyport during an emergency egress condition.

408.3.8 Interior exit stairway and ramp construction. One interior exit stairway or ramp in each building shall be permitted to have glazing installed in doors and interior walls at each landing level providing access to the interior exit stairway or ramp, provided that the following conditions are met:

1. The interior exit stairway or ramp shall not serve more than four floor levels.

2. Exit doors shall be not less than ¾-hour fire door assembliescomplying with Section 716.5

3. The total area of glazing at each floor level shall not exceed 5,000 square inches ( 3.2 m2) and individual panels of glazing shall not exceed 1,296 square inches ( 0.84 m2

4. The glazing shall be protected on both sides by an automatic sprinkler system. The sprinkler system shall be designed to wet completely the entire surface of any glazing affected by fire when actuated.

5. The glazing shall be in a gasketed frame and installed in such a manner that the framing system will deflect without breaking (loading) the glass before the sprinkler system operates.

6. Obstructions, such as curtain rods, drapery traverse rods, curtains, drapes or similar materials shall not be installed between the automatic sprinklers and the glazing.

408.4 Locks. Egress doors are permitted to be locked in accordance with the applicable use condition. Doors from a refuge area to the outside are permitted to be locked with a key in lieu of locking methods described in Section 408.4.1. The keys to unlock the exterior doors shall be available at all times and the locks shall be operable from both sides of the door.

408.4.1 Remote release. Remote release of locks on doors in a means of egress shall be provided with reliable means of operation, remote from the resident living areas, to release locks on all required doors. In Occupancy Condition 3 or 4, the arrangement, accessibility and security of the release mechanisms required for egress shall be such that with the minimum available staff at any time, the lock mechanisms are capable of being released within 2 minutes.

Exception: Provisions for remote locking and unlocking of occupied rooms in Occupancy Condition 4 are not required provided that not more than 10 locks are necessary to be unlocked in order to move occupants from one smoke compartment to a refuge area within 3 minutes. The opening of necessary locks shall be accomplished with not more than two separate keys.

408.4.2 Power-operated doors and locks. Power- operated sliding doors or power-operated locks for swinging doors shall be operable by a manual release mechanism at the door. Emergency power shall be provided for the doors and locks in accordance with Section 2702.

Exceptions:

1. Emergency power is not required in facilities with 10 or fewer locks complying with the exception to Section 408.4.1.

2. Emergency power is not required where remote mechanical operating releases are provided.

408.4.3 Redundant operation. Remote release, mechanically operated sliding doors or remote release, mechanically operated locks shall be provided with a mechanically operated release mechanism at each door, or shall be provided with a redundant remote release control.

408.4.4 Relock capability. Doors remotely unlocked under emergency conditions shall not automatically relock when closed unless specific action is taken at the remote location to enable doors to relock.

408.5 Protection of vertical openings. Any vertical opening shall be protected by a shaft enclosure in accordance with Section 713, or shall be in accordance with Section 408.5.1.

408.5.1 Floor openings. Openings in floors within a housing unit are permitted without a shaft enclosure, provided all of the following conditions are met:

1. The entire normally occupied areas so interconnected are open and unobstructed so as to enable observation of the areas by supervisory personnel;

2. Means of egress capacity is sufficient for all occupants from all interconnected cell tiers and areas;

3. The height difference between the floor levels of the highest and lowest cell tiers shall not exceed 23 feet (7010 mm); and

4. Egress from any portion of the cell tier to an exit or exit access door shall not require travel on more than one additional floor level within the housing unit.

408.5.2 Shaft openings in communicating floor levels. Where a floor opening is permitted between communicating floor levels of a housing unit in accordance with Section 408.5.1, plumbing chases serving vertically staked individual cells contained with the housing unit shall be permitted without a shaft enclosure.

408.6 Smoke barrier. Occupancies in Group I-3 shall have smoke barriers complying with Sections 408.7 and 709 to divide every story occupied by residents for sleeping, or any other story having an occupant load of 50 or more persons, into no fewer than two smoke compartments.

Exception: Spaces having a direct exit to one of the following, provided that the locking arrangement of the doors involved complies with the requirements for doors at the smoke barrier for the use condition involved:

1. A public way.

2. A building separated from the resident housing area by a 2-hour fire-resistance-rated assembly or 50 feet (15 240 mm) of open space.

3. A secured yard or court having a holding space 50 feet (15 240 mm) from the housing area that pro- vides 6 square feet ( 0.56 m2) or more of refuge area per occupant, including residents, staff and visitors.

408.6.1 Smoke compartments. The number of residents in any smoke compartment shall be not more than 200. The distance of travel to a door in a smoke barrier from any room door required as exit access shall be not greater than 150 feet (45 720 mm). The distance of travel to a door in a smoke barrier from any point in a room shall be not greater than 200 feet (60 960 mm).

408.6.2 Refuge area. Not less than 6 net square feet ( 0.56 m2) per occupant shall be provided on each side of each smoke barrier for the total number of occupants in adjoining smoke compartments. This space shall be readily avail- able wherever the occupants are moved across the smoke barrier in a fire emergency.

408.6.3 Independent egress. A means of egress shall be provided from each smoke compartment created by smoke barriers without having to return through the smoke compartment from which means of egress originates.

408.7 Security glazing. In occupancies in Group I-3, windows and doors in 1hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707, fire partitions constructed in accordance with Section 708 and smoke barriers constructed in accordance with Section 709 shall be permitted to have security glazing installed provided that the following conditions are met.

1. Individual panels of glazing shall not exceed 1,296 square inches ( 0.84 m2).

2. The glazing shall be protected on both sides by an automatic sprinkler system. The sprinkler system shall be designed to, when actuated, wet completely the entire surface of any glazing affected by fire.

3. The glazing shall be in a gasketed frame and installed in such a manner that the framing system will deflect without breaking (loading) the glass before the sprinkler system operates.

4. Obstructions, such as curtain rods, drapery traverse rods, curtains, drapes or similar materials shall not be installed between the automatic sprinklers and the glazing.

408.8 Subdivision of resident housing areas. Sleeping areas and any contiguous day room, group activity space or other common spaces where residents are housed shall be separated from other spaces in accordance with Sections 408.8.1 through 408.8.4.

408.8.1 Occupancy Conditions 3 and 4. Each sleeping area in Occupancy Conditions 3 and 4 shall be separated from the adjacent common spaces by a smoke-tight partition where the distance of travel from the sleeping area through the common space to the corridor exceeds 50 feet (15 240 mm).

408.8.2 Occupancy Condition 5. Each sleeping area in Occupancy Condition 5 shall be separated from adjacent sleeping areas, corridors and common spaces by a smoke- tight partition. Additionally, common spaces shall be separated from the corridor by a smoke-tight partition.

408.8.3 Openings in room face. The aggregate area of openings in a solid sleeping room face in Occupancy Conditions 2, 3, 4 and 5 shall not exceed 120 square inches ( 0.77 m2 ). The aggregate area shall include all openings including door undercuts, food passes and grilles. Openings shall be not more than 36 inches (914 mm) above the floor. In Occupancy Condition 5, the openings shall be closeable from the room side.

408.8.4 Smoke-tight doors. Doors in openings in partitions required to be smoke tight by Section 408.8 shall be substantial doors, of construction that will resist the pas- sage of smoke. Latches and door closures are not required on cell doors.

408.9 Windowless buildings. For the purposes of this section, a windowless building or portion of a building is one with nonopenable windows, windows not readily breakable or without windows. Windowless buildings shall be provided with an engineered smoke control system to provide a tenable environment for exiting from the smoke compartment in the area of fire origin in accordance with Section 909 for each windowless smoke compartment.

408.10 Fire alarm system. A fire alarm system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.2.6.3.

408.11 Automatic sprinkler system. Group I-3 occupancies shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.2.6.

SECTION 409

MOTION PICTURE PROJECTION ROOMS

409.1 General. The provisions of Sections 409.1 through 409.5 shall apply to rooms in which ribbon-type cellulose acetate or other safety film is utilized in conjunction with electric arc, xenon or other light-source projection equipment that develops hazardous gases, dust or radiation. Where cellulose nitrate film is utilized or stored, such rooms shall comply with NFPA 40.

409.1.1 Projection room required. Every motion picture machine projecting film as mentioned within the scope of this section shall be enclosed in a projection room. Appurtenant electrical equipment, such as rheostats, transformers and generators, shall be within the projection room or in an adjacent room of equivalent construction.

409.2 Construction of projection rooms. Every projection room shall be of permanent construction consistent with the construction requirements for the type of building in which the projection room is located. Openings are not required to be protected.

The room shall have a floor area of not less than 80 square feet ( 7.44 m2) for a single machine and not less than 40 square feet ( 3.7 m2) for each additional machine. Each motion picture projector, floodlight, spotlight or similar piece of equipment shall have a clear working space of not less than 30 inches by 30 inches (762 mm by 762 mm) on each side and at the rear thereof, but only one such space shall be required between two adjacent projectors. The projection room and the rooms appurtenant thereto shall have a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet 6 inches (2286 mm). The aggregate of openings for projection equipment shall not exceed 25 percent of the area of the wall between the projection room and the auditorium. Openings shall be provided with glass or other approved material, so as to close completely the opening.

409.3 Projection room and equipment ventilation. Ventilation shall be provided in accordance with the mechanical code.

409.3.1 Supply air. Each projection room shall be pro- vided with adequate air supply inlets so arranged as to pro- vide well-distributed air throughout the room. Air inlet ducts shall provide an amount of air equivalent to the amount of air being exhausted by projection equipment. Air is permitted to be taken from the outside; from adjacent spaces within the building, provided the volume and infiltration rate is sufficient; or from the building air-conditioning system, provided it is so arranged as to provide sufficient air when other systems are not in operation.

409.3.2 Exhaust air. Projection rooms are permitted to be exhausted through the lamp exhaust system. The lamp exhaust system shall be positively interconnected with the lamp so that the lamp will not operate unless there is the required airflow. Exhaust air ducts shall terminate at the exterior of the building in such a location that the exhaust air cannot be readily recirculated into any air supply system. The projection room ventilation system is permitted to also serve appurtenant rooms, such as the generator and rewind rooms.

409.3.3 Projection machines. Each projection machine shall be provided with an exhaust duct that will draw air from each lamp and exhaust it directly to the outside of the building. The lamp exhaust is permitted to serve to exhaust air from the projection room to provide room air circulation. Such ducts shall be of rigid materials, except for a flexible connector approved for the purpose. The projection lamp or projection room exhaust system, or both, is permitted to be combined but shall not be inter- connected with any other exhaust or return system, or both, within the building.

409.4 Lighting control. Provisions shall be made for control of the auditorium lighting and the means of egress lighting systems of theaters from inside the projection room and from not less than one other convenient point in the building.

409.5 Miscellaneous equipment. Each projection room shall be provided with rewind and film storage facilities.

SECTION 410

STAGES, PLATFORMS AND TECHNICAL PRODUCTION AREAS

410.1 Applicability. The provisions of Sections 410.1 through 410.8 shall apply to all parts of buildings and structures that contain stages or platforms and similar appurtenances as herein defined.

410.2 Definitions. The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

PLATFORM. PROSCENIUM WALL. STAGE.

TECHNICAL PRODUCTION AREA.

410.3 Stages. Stage construction shall comply with Sections 410.3.1 through 410.3.7.

410.3.1 Stage construction. Stages shall be constructed of materials as required for floors for the type of construction of the building in which such stages are located.

Exception: Stages need not be constructed of the same materials as required for the type of construction pro- vided the construction complies with one of the following:

1. Stages of Type IIB or IV construction with a nominal 2-inch (51 mm) wood deck, provided that the stage is separated from other areas in accordance with Section 410.3.4.

2. In buildings of Type IIA, IIIA and VA construction, a fire-resistance-rated floor is not required, provided the space below the stage is equipped with an automatic sprinkler system or fire-extinguishing system in accordance with Section 903 or 904.

3. In all types of construction, the finished floor shall be constructed of wood or approved non- combustible materials. Openings through stage floors shall be equipped with tight-fitting, solid wood trap doors with approved safety locks.

410.3.1.1 Stage height and area. Stage areas shall be measured to include the entire performance area and adjacent backstage and support areas not separated from the performance area by fire-resistance-rated construction. Stage height shall be measured from the lowest point on the stage floor to the highest point of the roof or floor deck above the stage.

410.3.2 Technical production areas: galleries, gridirons and catwalks. Beams designed only for the attachment of portable or fixed theater equipment, gridirons, galleries and catwalks shall be constructed of approved materials consistent with the requirements for the type of construction of the building; and a fire-resistance rating shall not be required. These areas shall not be considered to be floors, stories, mezzanines or levels in applying this code.

Exception: Floors of fly galleries and catwalks shall be constructed of any approved material.

410.3.3 Exterior stage doors. Where protection of openings is required, exterior exit doors shall be protected with fire door assemblies that comply with Section 716. Exterior openings that are located on the stage for means of egress or loading and unloading purposes, and that are likely to be open during occupancy of the theater, shall be constructed with vestibules to prevent air drafts into the auditorium.

410.3.4 Proscenium wall. Where the stage height is greater than 50 feet (15 240 mm), all portions of the stage shall be completely separated from the seating area by a proscenium wall with not less than a 2-hour fire-resistance rating extending continuously from the foundation to the roof.

410.3.5 Proscenium curtain. Where a proscenium wall is required to have a fire-resistance rating, the stage opening shall be provided with a fire curtain complying with NFPA 80, horizontal sliding doors complying with Section 716.5.2 having a fire protection rating of at least 1 hour, or an approved water curtain complying with Section 903.3.1.1 or, in facilities not utilizing the provisions of smoke-protected assembly seating in accordance with Section 1029.6.2, a smoke control system complying with Section 909 or natural ventilation designed to maintain the smoke level not less than 6 feet (1829 mm) above the floor of the means of egress.

410.3.6 Scenery. Combustible materials used in sets and scenery shall meet the fire propagation performance criteria of Test Method 1 or Test Method 2, as appropriate, of NFPA 701, in accordance with Section 806 and the fire code. Foam plastics and materials containing foam plastics shall comply with Section 2603 and the fire code.

410.3.7 Stage ventilation. Emergency ventilation shall be provided for stages larger than 1,000 square feet (93 m2) in floor area, or with a stage height greater than 50 feet (15240 mm). Such ventilation shall comply with Section 410.3.7.1 or 410.3.7.2.

410.3.7.1 Roof vents. Two or more vents constructed to open automatically by approved heat-activated devices and with an aggregate clear opening area of not less than 5 percent of the area of the stage shall be located near the center and above the highest part of the stage area. Supplemental means shall be provided for manual operation of the ventilator. Curbs shall be pro- vided as required for skylights in Section 2610.2. Vents shall be labeled.

410.3.7.2 Smoke control. Smoke control in accordance with Section 909 shall be provided to maintain the smoke layer interface not less than 6 feet (1829 mm) above the highest level of the assembly seating or above the top of the proscenium opening where a proscenium wall is provided in compliance with Section 410.3.4.

410.4 Platform construction. Permanent platforms shall be constructed of materials as required for the type of construction of the building in which the permanent platform is located. Permanent platforms are permitted to be constructed of fire-retardant-treated wood for Types I, II and IV construction where the platforms are not more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the main floor, and not more than one-third of the room floor area and not more than 3,000 square feet (279 m2) in area. Where the space beneath the permanent platform is used for storage or any purpose other than equipment, wiring or plumbing, the floor assembly shall be not less than 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction. Where the space beneath the permanent platform is used only for equipment, wiring or plumbing, the underside of the permanent platform need not be protected.

410.4.1 Temporary platforms. Platforms installed for a period of not more than 30 days are permitted to be constructed of any materials permitted by this code. The space between the floor and the platform above shall only be used for plumbing and electrical wiring to platform equipment.

410.5 Dressing and appurtenant rooms. Dressing and appurtenant rooms shall comply with Sections 410.5.1 and 410.5.2.

410.5.1 Separation from stage. The stage shall be separated from dressing rooms, scene docks, property rooms, workshops, storerooms and compartments appurtenant to the stage and other parts of the building by fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both. The fire-resistance rating shall be not less than 2 hours for stage heights greater than 50 feet (15 240 mm) and not less than 1 hour for stage heights of 50 feet (15 240 mm) or less.

410.5.2 Separation from each other. Dressing rooms, scene docks, property rooms, workshops, storerooms and compartments appurtenant to the stage shall be separated from each other by not less than 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both.

410.6 Means of egress. Except as modified or as provided for in this section, the provisions of Chapter 10 shall apply.

410.6.1 Arrangement. Where two or more exits or exit access doorways from the stage are required in accordance with Section 1006.2, no fewer than one exit or exit access doorway shall be provided on each side of a stage.

410.6.2 Stairway and ramp enclosure. Exit access stairways and ramps serving a stage or platform are not required to be enclosed. Exit access stairways and ramps serving technical production areas are not required to be enclosed.

410.6.3 Technical production areas. Technical production areas shall be provided with means of egress and means of escape in accordance with Sections 410.6.3.1 through 410.6.3.5.

410.6.3.1 Number of means of egress. No fewer than one means of egress shall be provided from technical production areas.

410.6.3.2 Exit access travel distance. The exit access travel distance shall be not greater than 300 feet (91 440 mm) for buildings without a sprinkler system and 400 feet (121 900 mm) for buildings equipped through- out with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

410.6.3.3 Two means of egress. Where two means of egress are required, the common path of travel shall be not greater than 100 feet (30 480 mm).

Exception: A means of escape to a roof in place of a second means of egress is permitted.

410.6.3.4 Path of egress travel. The following exit access components are permitted where serving technical production areas:

1. Stairways.

2. Ramps.

3. Spiral stairways.

4. Catwalks.

5. Alternating tread devices.

6. Permanent ladders.

410.6.3.5 Width. The path of egress travel within and from technical support areas shall be not less than 22 inches (559 mm).

410.7 Automatic sprinkler system. Stages shall be equipped with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Sprinklers shall be installed under the roof and gridiron and under all catwalks and galleries over the stage. Sprinklers shall be installed in dressing rooms, performer lounges, shops and storerooms accessory to such stages.

Exceptions:

1. Sprinklers are not required under stage areas less than 4 feet (1219 mm) in clear height that are utilized exclusively for storage of tables and chairs, provided the concealed space is separated from the adjacent spaces by Type X gypsum board not less than 5/8-inch ( 15.9 mm) in thickness.

2. Sprinklers are not required for stages 1,000 square feet (93 m2) or less in area and 50 feet (15 240 mm) or less in height where curtains, scenery or other combustible hangings are not retractable vertically. Combustible hangings shall be limited to a single main curtain, borders, legs and a single backdrop.

3. Sprinklers are not required within portable orchestra enclosures on stages.

410.8 Standpipes. Standpipe systems shall be provided in accordance with Section 905.

SECTION 411

SPECIAL AMUSEMENT BUILDINGS

411.1 General. Special amusement buildings having an occupant load of 50 or more shall comply with the requirements for the appropriate Group A occupancy and Sections 411.1 through 411.8. Special amusement buildings having an occupant load of less than 50 shall comply with the requirements for a Group B occupancy and Sections 411.1 through 411.8.

Exception: Special amusement buildings or portions thereof that are without walls or a roof and constructed to prevent the accumulation of smoke need not comply with this section. For flammable decorative materials, see the fire code.

411.2 Definition. The following term is defined in Chapter 2:

SPECIAL AMUSEMENT BUILDING.

411.3 Automatic fire detection. Special amusement buildings shall be equipped with an automatic fire detection system in accordance with Section 907.

411.4 Automatic sprinkler system. Special amusement buildings shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Where the special amusement building is temporary, movable, or portable, the sprinkler water supply shall be of an approved temporary means.

Exceptions:

1. Automatic sprinklers are not required where the total floor area of a temporary special amusement occupancy is less than 1,000 square feet(93 m2 ) and the exit access travel distance from any point to an exit is less than 50 feet (15 240 mm).

2. Automatic fire sprinklers are not required where the total floor area of a temporary special amusement occupancy in an existing building is less than 5000 square feet (93 m2), the travel distance from any point to an exit is less than 50 feet (15,240 mm), and where, in the opinion of the building official, additional means have been provided to ensure an equivalent level of safety for all occupants during the hours that the special amusement building is operated and occupied. Such additional means may include, but not be limited to: fire watches; reduced occupant loads; additional means of egress; additional detection; and portable fire extinguishers.

411.5 Alarm. Actuation of a single smoke detector, the automatic sprinkler system or other automatic fire detection device shall immediately sound an alarm at the building at a constantly attended location from which emergency action can be initiated including the capability of manual initiation of requirements in Section 907.2.12.2.

411.6 Emergency voice/alarm communications sys- tem. An emergency voice/alarm communications system shall be provided in accordance with Sections 907.2.12 and 907.5.2.2, which is also permitted to serve as a public address system and shall be audible throughout the entire special amusement building.

411.7 Exit marking. Exit signs shall be installed at the required exit or exit access doorways of amusement buildings in accordance with this section and Section 1013. Approved directional exit markings shall also be provided. Where mirrors, mazes or other designs are utilized that disguise the path of egress travel such that they are not apparent, approved and listed low-level exit signs that comply with Section 1013.5, and directional path markings listed in accordance with UL 1994, shall be provided and located not more than 8 inches (203 mm) above the walking surface and on or near the path of egress travel. Such markings shall become visible in an emergency. The directional exit marking shall be activated by the automatic fire detection system and the automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 907.2.12.2.

411.7.1 Photoluminescent exit signs. Where photoluminescent exit signs are installed, activating light source and viewing distance shall be in accordance with the listing and markings of the signs.

411.8 Interior finish. The interior finish shall be Class A in accordance with Section 803.1.

SECTION 412

AIRCRAFT-RELATED OCCUPANCIES

412.1 General. Aircraft-related occupancies shall comply with Sections 412.1 through 412.8 and the fire code.

412.2 Definitions. The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

FIXED BASE OPERATOR (FBO).

HELIPORT.

HELISTOP.

RESIDENTIAL AIRCRAFT HANGAR.

TRANSIENT AIRCRAFT.

412.3 Airport traffic control towers. The provisions of Sections 412.3.1 through 412.3.8 shall apply to airport traffic control towers occupied only for the following uses:

1. Airport traffic control cab.

2. Electrical and mechanical equipment rooms.

3. Airport terminal radar and electronics rooms.

4. Office spaces incidental to the tower operation.

5. Lounges for employees, including sanitary facilities.

412.3.1 Type of construction. Airport traffic control towers shall be constructed to comply with the height limitations of Table 412.3.1.

TABLE 412.3.1

HEIGHT LIMITATIONS FOR

AIRPORT TRAFFIC CONTROL TOWERS

TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION

HEIGHTa

(feet)

IA

Unlimited

IB

240

IIA

100

IIB

85

IIIA

65

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2 .

a. Height to be measured from grade plane to cab floor.

412.3.2 Stairways. Stairways in airport traffic control towers shall be in accordance with Section 1011. Stairways shall be smokeproof enclosures complying with one of the alternatives provided in Section 909.20.

Exception: Stairways in airport traffic control towers are not required to comply with Section 1011.12.

412.3.3 Exit access. From observation levels, airport traffic control towers shall be permitted to have a single means of exit access for a distance of travel not greater than 100 feet (30 480 mm). Exit access stairways from the observation level need not be enclosed.

412.3.4 Number of exits. Not less than one exit stairway shall be permitted for airport traffic control towers of any height provided that the occupant load per floor is not greater than 15 and the area per floor does not exceed 1,500 square feet (140 m 2).

412.3.4.1 Interior finish. Where an airport traffic control tower is provided with only one exit stairway, interior wall and ceiling finishes shall be either Class A or Class B.

412.3.5 Automatic fire detection systems. Airport traffic control towers shall be provided with an automatic fire detection system installed in accordance with Section 907.2.

412.3.6 Automatic sprinkler system. Where an occupied floor is located more than 35 feet (10 668 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access, airport traffic control towers shall be equipped with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

412.3.7 Elevator protection. Wires or cables that provide normal or standby power, control signals, communication with the car, lighting, heating, air conditioning, ventilation and fire detecting systems to elevators shall be protected by construction having a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour, or shall be circuit integrity cable having a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour.

412.3.7.1 Elevators for occupant evacuation. Where provided in addition to an exit stairway, occupant evacuation elevators shall be in accordance with Section 3008.

412.3.8 Accessibility. Airport traffic control towers shall conform to the requirements of Chapter 11.

412.4 Aircraft hangars. Aircraft hangars shall be in accordance with Sections 412.4.1 through 412.4.6.

412.4.1 Exterior walls. Exterior walls located less than 30 feet (9144 mm) from lot lines or a public way shall have a fire-resistance rating not less than 2 hours.

412.4.2 Basements. Where hangars have basements, floors over basements shall be of Type IA construction and shall be made tight against seepage of water, oil or vapors. There shall be no opening or communication between basements and the hangar. Access to basements shall be from outside only.

412.4.3 Floor surface. Floors shall be graded and drained to prevent water or fuel from remaining on the floor. Floor drains shall discharge through an oil separator to the sewer or to an outside vented sump.

Exception: Aircraft hangars with individual lease spaces not exceeding 2,000 square feet (186 m2) each in which servicing, repairing or washing is not conducted and fuel is not dispensed shall have floors that are graded toward the door, but shall not require a separator.

412.4.4 Heating equipment. Heating equipment shall be placed in another room separated by 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both. Entrance shall be from the outside or by means of a vestibule providing a two-doorway separation.

Exceptions:

1. Unit heaters and vented infrared radiant heating equipment suspended not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) above the upper surface of wings or engine enclosures of the highest aircraft that are permitted to be housed in the hangar need not be located in a separate room provided they are mounted not less than 8 feet (2438 mm) above the floor in shops, offices and other sections of the hangar communicating with storage or service areas.

2. Entrance to the separated room shall be permitted by a single interior door provided the sources of ignition in the appliances are not less than 18 inches (457 mm) above the floor.

412.4.5 Finishing. The process of "doping," involving use of a volatile flammable solvent, or of painting, shall be carried on in a separate detached building equipped with automatic fire-extinguishing equipment in accordance with Section 903.

412.4.6 Fire suppression. Aircraft hangars shall be provided with a fire suppression system designed in accordance with NFPA 409, based upon the classification for the hangar given in Table 412.4.6.

Exception: Where a fixed base operator has separate repair facilities on site, Group II hangars operated by a fixed base operator used for storage of transient air- craft only shall have a fire suppression system, but the system is exempt from foam requirements.

TABLE

412.4.6

HANGAR FIRE SUPPRESSION REQUIREMENTSa, b, c

MAXIMUM

SINGLE FIRE

AREA

(square feet)

TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION

IA

IB

IIA

IIB

IIIA

IIIB

IV

VA

VB

40,001

Group I

Group I

Group I

Group I

Group I

Group I

Group I

Group I

Group I

40,000

Group II

Group II

Group II

Group II

Group II

Group II

Group II

Group II

Group II

30,000

Group III

Group II

Group II

Group II

Group II

Group II

Group II

Group II

Group II

20,000

Group III

Group III

Group II

Group II

Group II

Group II

Group II

Group II

Group II

15,000

Group III

Group III

Group III

Group II

Group III

Group II

Group III

Group II

Group II

12,000

Group III

Group III

Group III

Group III

Group III

Group III

Group III

Group II

Group II

8,000

Group III

Group III

Group III

Group III

Group III

Group III

Group III

Group III

Group II

5,000

Group III

Group III

Group III

Group III

Group III

Group III

Group III

Group III

Group III

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m 2 .

a. Aircraft hangars with a door height greater than 28 feet shall be provided with fire suppression for a Group I hangar regardless of maximum fire area.

b. Groups shall be as classified in accordance with NFPA 409.

c. Membrane structures complying with Section 3102 shall be classified as a Group IV hangar.

412.4.6.1 Hazardous operations. Any Group III aircraft hangar according to Table 412.4.6 that contains hazardous operations including, but not limited to, the following shall be provided with a Group I or II fire suppression system in accordance with NFPA 409 as applicable:

1. Doping.

2. Hot work including, but not limited to, welding, torch cutting and torch soldering.

3. Fuel transfer.

4. Fuel tank repair or maintenance not including defueled tanks in accordance with NFPA 409, inerted tanks or tanks that have never been fueled.

5. Spray finishing operations.

6. Total fuel capacity of all aircraft within the unsprinklered single fire area in excess of 1,600 gallons (6057 L).

7. Total fuel capacity of all aircraft within the maxi- mum single fire area in excess of 7,500 gallons (28 390 L) for a hangar with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

412.4.6.2 Separation of maximum single fire areas. Maximum single fire areas established in accordance with hangar classification and construction type in Table 412.4.6 shall be separated by 2-hour fire walls constructed in accordance with Section 706. In determining the maximum single fire area as set forth in Table 412.4.6, ancillary uses that are separated from aircraft servicing areas by a fire barrier of not less than 1 hour, constructed in accordance with Section 707, shall not be included in the area.

412.5 Residential aircraft hangars. Residential aircraft hangars shall comply with Sections 412.5.1 through 412.5.5.

412.5.1 Fire separation. A hangar shall not be attached to a dwelling unless separated by a fire barrier having a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour. Such separation shall be continuous from the foundation to the underside of the roof and unpierced except for doors leading to the dwelling unit. Doors into the dwelling unit shall be equipped with self-closing devices and conform to the requirements of Section 716 with a noncombustible raised sill not less than 4 inches (102 mm) in height. Openings from a hangar directly into a room used for sleeping purposes shall not be permitted.

412.5.2 Egress. A hangar shall provide two means of egress. One of the doors into the dwelling shall be considered as meeting only one of the two means of egress.

412.5.3 Smoke alarms. Smoke alarms shall be pro- vided within the hangar in accordance with Section 907.2.21.

412.5.4 Independent systems. Electrical, mechanical and plumbing drain, waste and vent (DWV) systems installed within the hangar shall be independent of the systems installed within the dwelling. Building sewer lines shall be permitted to be connected outside the structures.

Exception: Smoke detector wiring and feed for electrical subpanels in the hangar.

412.5.5 Height and area limits. Residential aircraft hangars shall be not greater than 2,000 square feet (186 m2) in area and 20 feet (6096 mm) in building height.

412.6 Aircraft paint hangars. Aircraft painting operations where flammable liquids are used in excess of the maximum allowable quantities per control area listed in Table 307.1(1) shall be conducted in an aircraft paint hangar that complies with the provisions of Sections 412.6.1 through 412.6.6.

412.6.1 Occupancy group. Aircraft paint hangars shall be classified as Group H-2. Aircraft paint hangars shall comply with the applicable requirements of this code and the fire code for such occupancy.

412.6.2 Construction. The aircraft paint hangar shall be of Type I or II construction.

412.6.3 Operations. Only those flammable liquids necessary for painting operations shall be permitted in quantities less than the maximum allowable quantities per control area in Table 307.1(1). Spray equipment cleaning operations shall be conducted in a liquid use, dispensing and mixing room.

412.6.4 Storage. Storage of flammable liquids shall be in a liquid storage room.

412.6.5 Fire suppression. Aircraft paint hangars shall be provided with fire suppression as required by NFPA 409.

412.6.6 Ventilation. Aircraft paint hangars shall be provided with ventilation as required in the mechanical code.

412.7 Aircraft manufacturing facilities. In buildings used for the manufacturing of aircraft, exit access travel distances indicated in Section 1017.1 shall be increased in accordance with the following:

1. The building shall be of Type I or II construction.

2. Exit access travel distance shall not exceed the distances given in Table 412.7.

412.7.1 Ancillary areas. Rooms, areas and spaces ancillary to the primary manufacturing area shall be permitted to egress through such area having a minimum height as indicated in Table 412.7. Exit access travel distance within the ancillary room, area or space shall not exceed that indicated in Table 1017.2 based on the occupancy classification of that ancillary area. Total exit access travel distance shall not exceed that indicated in Table 412.7.

412.8 Heliports and helistops. Heliports and helistops shall be permitted to be erected on buildings or other locations where they are constructed in accordance with Sections 412.8.1 through 412.8.5.

412.8.1 Size. The landing area for helicopters less than 3,500 pounds (1588 kg) shall be not less than 20 feet (6096 mm) in length and width. The landing area shall be surrounded on all sides by a clear area having a minimum average width at roof level of 15 feet (4572 mm) but with no width less than 5 feet (1524 mm).

412.8.2 Design. Helicopter landing areas and the sup- ports thereof on the roof of a building shall be noncombustible construction. Landing areas shall be designed to confine any flammable liquid spillage to the landing area itself and provisions shall be made to drain such spillage away from any exit or stairway serving the helicopter landing area or from a structure housing such exit or stairway. For structural design requirements, see Section 1607.6.

412.8.3 Means of egress. The means of egress from heliports and helistops shall comply with the provisions of Chapter 10. Landing areas located on buildings or structures shall have two or more means of egress. For landing areas less than 60 feet (18 288 mm) in length or less than 2,000 square feet (186 m2) in area, the second means of egress is permitted to be a fire escape, alternating tread device or ladder leading to the floor below.

412.8.4 Rooftop heliports and helistops. Rooftop heliports and helistops shall comply with NFPA 418.

412.8.5 Standpipe system. In buildings equipped with a standpipe system, the standpipe shall extend to the roof level in accordance with Section 905.3.6.

SECTION 413

COMBUSTIBLE STORAGE

413.1 General. High-piled stock or rack storage in any occupancy group shall comply with NFPA 13 and Chapter 32 of the fire code.

413.2 Attic, under-floor and concealed spaces. Attic, under-floor and concealed spaces used for storage of combustible materials shall be protected on the storage side as required for 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction. Openings shall be protected by assemblies that are self-closing and are of noncombustible construction or solid wood core not less than 1 ¾ inch (45 mm) in thickness.

Exception: Neither fire-resistance-rated construction nor open protectives are required in any of the following locations:

1. Areas protected by approved automatic sprinkler systems.

2. Group R-3 and U occupancies.

TABLE 412.7

AIRCRAFT MANUFACTURING EXIT ACCESS TRAVEL DISTANCE

HEIGHT (feet)b

MANUFACTURING AREA (sq. ft.)a

>150,000

>200,000

>250,000

>500,000

>750,000

>1,000,000

>25

400

450

500

500

500

500

>50

400

500

600

700

700

700

>75

400

500

700

850

1,000

1,000

>100

400

500

750

1,000

1,250

1,500

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

a. Contiguous floor area of the aircraft manufacturing facility having the indicated height.

b. Minimum height from finished floor to bottom of ceiling or roof slab or deck.

SECTION 414

HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

414.1 General. The provisions of Sections 414.1 through 414.6 dispensing, use or storage of hazardous materials.

414.1.1 Other provisions. Buildings and structures with an occupancy in Group H shall comply with this section and the applicable provisions of Section 415 and the fire code.

414.1.2 Materials. The safe design of hazardous material occupancies is material dependent. Individual material requirements are also found in Sections 307 and 415, and in the mechanical code and the fire code.

414.1.2.1 Aerosols. Level 2 and 3 aerosol products shall be stored and displayed in accordance with the fire code. See Section 311.2 and the fire code for occupancy group requirements.

414.1.3 Information required. A report shall be submitted to the building official identifying the maximum expected quantities of hazardous materials to be stored, used in a closed system and used in an open system, and subdivided to separately address hazardous material classification categories based on Tables 307.1(1) and 307.1(2). The methods of protection from such hazards, including but not limited to control areas, fire protection systems and Group H occupancies shall be indicated in the report and on the construction documents. The opinion and report shall be prepared by a qualified person, firm or corporation approved by the building official and provided without charge to the enforcing agency.

For buildings and structures with an occupancy in Group H, separate floor plans shall be submitted identifying the locations of anticipated contents and processes so as to reflect the nature of each occupied portion of every building and structure.

414.2 Control areas. Control areas shall comply with Sections 414.2.1 through 414.2.5 and the fire code.

414.2.1 Construction requirements. Control areas shall be separated from each other by fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both.

414.2.2 Percentage of maximum allowable quantities. The percentage of maximum allowable quantities of hazardous materials per control area permitted at each floor level within a building shall be in accordance with Table 414.2.2.

414.2.3 Number. The maximum number of control areas within a building shall be in accordance with Table 414.2.2.

414.2.4 Fire-resistance-rating requirements. The required fire-resistance rating for fire barriers shall be in accordance with Table 414.2.2. The floor assembly of the control area and the construction supporting the floor of the control area shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours.

Exception: The floor assembly of the control area and the construction supporting the floor of the control area are allowed to be 1-hour fire-resistance rated in buildings of Types IIA, IIIA and VA construction, provided that both of the following conditions exist:

1. The building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1; and

2. The building is three or fewer stories above grade plane.

414.2.5 Hazardous material in Group M display and storage areas and in Group S storage areas. The aggregate quantity of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous materials permitted within a single control area of a Group M display and storage area, a Group S storage area or an outdoor control area is permitted to exceed the maximum allowable quantities per control area specified in Tables 307.1(1) and 307.1(2) without classifying the building or use as a Group H occupancy, provided that the materials are displayed and stored in accordance with the fire code and quantities do not exceed the maximum allowable specified in Table 414.2.5(1).

In Group M occupancy wholesale and retail sales uses, indoor storage of flammable and combustible liquids shall not exceed the maximum allowable quantities per control area as indicated in Table 414.2.5(2), provided that the materials are displayed and stored in accordance with the fire code. The maximum quantity of aerosol products in Group M occupancy retail display areas, storage areas adjacent to retail display areas and retail storage areas shall be in accordance with the fire code.

TABLE 414.2.2

DESIGN AND NUMBER OF CONTROL AREAS

FLOOR LEVEL

PERCENTAGE OF THE

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE

QUANTITY PER CONTROL

NUMBER OF

CONTROL AREAS

PER FLOOR

FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING FOR FIRE BARRIERS IN HOURSb

Above grade plane

Higher than

5

1

2

7-9

5

2

2

6

12.5

2

2

5

12.5

2

2

4

12.5

2

2

3

50

2

1

2

75

3

1

  

1

100

4

1

Below grade plane

1

75

3

1

2

50

2

1

Lower than 2

Not Allowed

Not Allowed

Not Allowed

a. Percentages shall be of the maximum allowable quantity per control area shown in Tables 307.1(1) and 307.1(2), with all increases allowed in the notes to those tables.

b. Separation shall include fire barriers and horizontal assemblies as necessary to provide separation from other portions of the building.

414.3 Ventilation. Rooms, areas or spaces in which explosive, corrosive, combustible, flammable or highly toxic dusts, mists, fumes, vapors or gases are or may be emitted due to the processing, use, handling or storage of materials shall be mechanically ventilated where required by this code, the fire code or the mechanical code.

Emissions generated at workstations shall be confined to the area in which they are generated as specified in the fire code and the mechanical code.

414.4 Hazardous material systems. Systems involving hazardous materials shall be suitable for the intended application. Controls shall be designed to prevent materials from entering or leaving process or reaction systems at other than the intended time, rate or path. Automatic controls, where provided, shall be designed to be fail safe.

TABLE 414.2.5(1)

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER INDOOR AND OUTDOOR CONTROL

AREA IN GROUP M AND S OCCUPANCIES NONFLAMMABLE SOLIDS AND

NONFLAMMABLE AND NONCOMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDSd, e, f

CONDITION

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA

Materiala

Class

Solids pounds

Liquids gallons

A. Health-hazard materials-nonflammable and noncombustible solids and liquids

1. Corrosivesb,c

Not Applicable

9,750

975

2. Highly toxics

Not Applicable

20b,c

2b,c

3. Toxicsb,c

Not Applicable

1,000

100

B. Physical-hazard materials-nonflammable and noncombustible solids and liquids

1. Oxidizersb,c

4

Not Allowed

Not Allowed

3

1,150g

115

2

2,250h

225

1

18,000i, j

1,800i, j

2. Unstable (reactives)b,c

4

Not Allowed

Not Allowed

3

550

55

2

1,150

115

  

1

Not Limited

Not Limited

3. Water reactives

3b,c

550

55

2b,c

1,150

115

1

Not Limited

Not Limited

For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L.

a. Hazard categories are as specified in the fire code.

b. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent in buildings that are sprinklered in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. When Note c also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively.

c. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent when stored in approved storage cabinets, in accordance with the fire code. When Note b also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively.

d. See Table 414.2.2 for design and number of control areas.

e. Allowable quantities for other hazardous material categories shall be in accordance with Section 307.

f. Maximum quantities shall be increased 100 percent in outdoor control areas.

g. Maximum amounts shall be increased to 2,250 pounds when individual packages are in the original sealed containers from the manufacturer or packager and do not exceed 10 pounds each.

h. Maximum amounts shall be increased to 4,500 pounds when individual packages are in the original sealed containers from the manufacturer or packager and do not exceed 10 pounds each.

i. The permitted quantities shall not be limited in a building equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

j. Quantities are unlimited in an outdoor control area.

TABLE 414.2.5(2)

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY OF FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE

LIQUIDS IN WHOLESALE AND RETAIL SALES OCCUPANCIES PER CONTROL

AREAa

TYPE OF LIQUID

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA (gallons)

Sprinklered in accordance with note b densities and arrangements

Sprinklered in accordance with Tables

5704.3.6.3(4) through 5704.3.6.3(8) and

5704.3.7.5.1 of the fire code

Nonsprinklered

Class IA

60

60

30

Class IB, IC, II and IIIA

7,500c

15,000c

1,600

Class IIIB

Unlimited

Unlimited

13,200

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2 , 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 gallon per minute

per square foot = 40.75 L/min/m 2 .

a. Control areas shall be separated from each other by not less than a 1-hour fire barrier wall.

b. To be considered as sprinklered, a building shall be equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system with a design providing minimum densities as follows:

1. For uncartoned commodities on shelves 6 feet or less in height where the ceiling height does not exceed 18 feet, quantities are those permitted with a minimum sprinkler design density of Ordinary Hazard Group 2.

2. For cartoned, palletized or racked commodities where storage is 4 feet 6 inches or less in height and where the ceiling height does not exceed 18 feet, quantities are those permitted with a minimum sprinkler design density of 0.21 gallon per minute per square foot over the most remote 1,500-square-foot area.

c. Where wholesale and retail sales or storage areas exceed 50,000 square feet in area, the maximum allowable quantities are allowed to be increased by 2 percent for each 1,000 square feet of area in excess of 50,000 square feet, up to a maximum of 100 percent of the table amounts. A control area separation is not required. The cumulative amounts, including amounts attained by having an additional control area, shall not exceed 30,000 gallons.

414.5 Inside storage, dispensing and use. Buildings or structures used for the inside storage, dispensing and use of hazardous materials shall be provided with features as required in Sections 414.2, 414.3, 414.5.1 through 414.5.3 of this code, Section 502 of the mechanical code, and Chapter 50 of the fire code. These building features shall be enforced by the building official. The design, installation, dispensing, use, and storage of hazardous materials within a building shall be regulated by the fire code and enforced by the fire official. The building official shall be notified as required in Sections 106.1.1 (item #16), 106.1.2 (item #7), and 414.1.3.

Exceptions:

1. The design, installation, and storage of flammable or combustible liquids or gases and the associated piping connected to and supplying emergency or standby generators shall comply with Section 2702.1.1.1.1 and shall be enforced by the building official.

2. The design, installation, and storage of hazardous materials, flammable or combustible liquids or gases supplying and piped to other building service equipment shall be in accordance with the applicable provisions of this code, the mechanical code, the plumbing code, or the International Fuel Gas Code and shall be enforced by the building official.

414.5.1 Explosion control. Explosion control shall be provided in accordance with the fire code as required by Table 414.5.1 where quantities of hazardous materials specified in that table exceed the maximum allowable quantities in Table 307.1(1) or where a structure, room or space is occupied for purposes involving explosion hazards as required by Section 415 or the fire code.

414.5.2 Emergency or standby power. Where required by the fire code or this code, mechanical ventilation, treatment systems, temperature control, alarm, detection or other electrically operated systems shall be provided with emergency or standby power in accordance with Section 2702. For storage and use areas for highly toxic or toxic materials, see Sections and 6004.3.4.2 of the fire code.

414.5.2.1 Exempt applications. Emergency or standby power is not required for the mechanical ventilation systems provided for any of the following:

1. Storage of Class IB and IC flammable and combustible liquids in closed containers not exceeding 6.5 gallons (25 L) capacity.

2. Storage of Class 1 and 2 oxidizers.

3. Storage of Class II, III, IV and V organic peroxides.

4. Storage of asphyxiant, irritant and radioactive gases.

414.5.2.2 Fail-safe engineered systems. Standby power for mechanical ventilation, treatment systems and temperature control systems shall not be required where an approved fail-safe engineered system is installed.

414.5.3 Spill control, drainage and containment. Rooms, buildings or areas occupied for the storage of solid and liquid hazardous materials shall be provided with a means to control spillage and to contain or drain off spill- age and fire protection water discharged in the storage area where required in the fire code. The methods of spill control shall be in accordance with the fire code.

414.6 Outdoor storage, dispensing and use. The outdoor storage, dispensing and use of hazardous materials, flammable or combustible liquids or gases supplying and piped to building service equipment shall be in accordance with the applicable provisions of this code, the mechanical code, the plumbing code, the fire code, or the International Fuel Gas Code and shall be enforced by the building official. The outdoor storage, dispensing, and use of all other hazardous materials shall be regulated by the fire code and enforced by the fire official.

414.6.1 Weather protection. Where weather protection is provided for sheltering outdoor hazardous material storage or use areas, such areas shall be considered out- door storage or use when the weather protection structure complies with Sections 414.6.1.1 through 414.6.1.3.

414.6.1.1 Walls. Walls shall not obstruct more than one side of the structure.

Exception: Walls shall be permitted to obstruct portions of multiple sides of the structure, provided that the obstructed area is not greater than 25 percent of the structure's perimeter.

414.6.1.2 Separation distance. The distance from the structure to buildings, lot lines, public ways or means of egress to a public way shall be not less than the distance required for an outside hazardous material storage or use area without weather protection.

414.6.1.3 Noncombustible construction. The overhead structure shall be of approved noncombustible construction with a maximum area of 1,500 square feet (140 m2).

Exception: The maximum area is permitted to be increased as provided by Section 506.

SECTION 415

GROUPS H-1, H-2, H-3, H-4 AND H-5

415.1 Scope. The provisions of Sections 415.1 through 415.11 shall apply to the storage and use of hazardous materials in excess of the maximum allowable quantities per control area listed in Section 307.1. Buildings and structures with an occupancy in Group H shall also comply with the applicable provisions of Section 414 and the fire code.

415.2 Definitions. The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

CONTINUOUS GAS DETECTION SYSTEM.

DETACHED BUILDING.

EMERGENCY CONTROL STATION.

EXHAUSTED ENCLOSURE.

FABRICATION AREA.

FLAMMABLE VAPORS OR FUMES.

GAS CABINET. GASROOM.

HAZARDOUS PRODUCTION MATERIAL (HPM).

HPM FLAMMABLE LIQUID.

HPM ROOM.

IMMEDIATELY DANGEROUS TO LIFE AND HEALTH (IDLH).

LIQUID.

LIQUID STORAGE ROOM.

LIQUID USE, DISPENSING AND MIXING ROOM.

LOWER FLAMMABLE LIMIT (LFL).

NORMAL TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE (NTP).

PHYSIOLOGICAL WARNING THRESHOLD LEVEL.

SERVICE CORRIDOR.

SOLID.

STORAGE, HAZARDOUS MATERIALS.

USE (MATERIAL).

WORKSTATION.

TABLE 414.5.1

EXPLOSION CONTROL REQUIREMENTSa, h

MATERIAL

CLASS

EXPLOSION CONTROL METHODS

Barricade construction

Explosion (deflagration)

venting or explosion

(deflagration) prevention

systemsb

HAZARD CATEGORY

Combustible dustsc

-

Not Required

Required

Cryogenic flammables

-

Not Required

Required

Explosives

Division 1.1

Required

Not Required

Division 1.2

Required

Not Required

Division 1.3

Not Required Not Required

Required Required

Division 1.4

Division 1.5

Required

Not Required

Division 1.6

Required

Not Required

Flammable gas

Gaseous Liquefied

Not Required Not Required

Required Required

Flammable liquid

IA dIBe

Not Required Not Required

Required Required

Organic peroxides

U I

Required Required

Not Permitted Not Permitted

Oxidizer liquids and solids

4

Required

Not Permitted

Pyrophoric gas

-

Not Required

Required

Unstable (reactive)

4

3 Detonable

3 Nondetonable

Required Required Not Required

Not Permitted Not Permitted Required

Water-reactive liquids and solids

3

2g

Not Required Not Required

Required Required

SPECIAL USES

Acetylene generator rooms

-

Not Required

Required

Grain processing

-

Not Required

Required

Liquefied petroleum gas-distribution facilities

-

Not Required

Required

Where explosion hazards existf

Detonation Deflagration

Required Not Required

Not Permitted Required

a. See Section 414.1.3.

b. See the fire code.

c. As generated during manufacturing or processing.

d. Storage or use.

e. In open use or dispensing.

f. Rooms containing dispensing and use of hazardous materials when an explosive environment can occur because of the characteristics or nature of the hazardous materials or as a result of the dispensing or use process.

g. A method of explosion control shall be provided when Class 2 water-reactive materials can form potentially explosive mixtures.

h. Explosion venting is not required for Group H-5 fabrication areas complying with Section 415.11.1 and the fire code.

415.3 Automatic fire detection systems. Group H occupancies shall be provided with an automatic fire detection system in accordance with Section 907.2.

415.4 Automatic sprinkler system. Group H occupancies shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.2.5.

415.5 Emergency alarms. Emergency alarms for the detection and notification of an emergency condition in Group H occupancies shall be provided as set forth herein.

415.5.1 Storage. An approved manual emergency alarm system shall be provided in buildings, rooms or areas used for storage of hazardous materials. Emergency alarm-initiating devices shall be installed outside of each interior exit or exit access door of storage buildings, rooms or areas. Activation of an emergency alarm-initiating device shall sound a local alarm to alert occupants of an emergency situation involving hazardous materials.

415.5.2 Dispensing, use and handling. Where hazardous materials having a hazard ranking of 3 or 4 in accordance with NFPA 704 are transported through corridors, interior exit stairways or ramps, or exit passageways, there shall be an emergency telephone system, a local manual alarm station or an approved alarm-initiating device at not more than 150-foot (45 720 mm) intervals and at each exit and exit access doorway throughout the transport route. The signal shall be relayed to an approved central, proprietary or remote station service or constantly attended on-site location and shall initiate a local audible alarm.

415.5.3 Supervision. Emergency alarm systems shall be supervised by an approved central, proprietary or remote station service or shall initiate an audible and visual signal at a constantly attended on-site location.

415.5.4 Emergency alarm systems. Emergency alarm systems shall be provided with emergency power in accordance with Section 2702.

415.6 Fire separation distance. Group H occupancies shall be located on property in accordance with the other provisions of this chapter. In Groups H-2 and H-3, not less than 25 percent of the perimeter wall of the occupancy shall be an exterior wall.

Exceptions:

1. Liquid use, dispensing and mixing rooms having a floor area of not more than 500 square feet ( 46.5 m2) need not be located on the outer perimeter of the building where they are in accordance with the fire code and NFPA 30.

2. Liquid storage rooms having a floor area of not more than 1,000 square feet (93 m2) need not be located on the outer perimeter where they are in accordance with the fire code and NFPA 30.

3. Spray paint booths that comply with the fire code need not be located on the outer perimeter.

415.6.1 Group H occupancy minimum fire separation distance.

Regardless of any other provisions, buildings containing Group H occupancies shall be set back to the minimum fire separation distance as set forth in Sections 415.6.1.1 through 415.6.1.4. Distances shall be measured from the walls enclosing the occupancy to lot lines, including those on a public way. Distances to assumed lot lines established for the purpose of determining exterior wall and opening protection are not to be used to establish the minimum fire separation distance for buildings on sites where explosives are manufactured or used when separation is provided in accordance with the quantity distance tables specified for explosive materials in the fire code.

Exception: All buildings used in the manufacturing, storage, or sale of fireworks shall be located in accordance with the fire code.

415.6.1.1 Group H-1. Group H-1 occupancies shall be set back not less than 75 feet (22 860 mm) and not less than required by the fire code.

Exception: Deleted.

415.6.1.2 Group H-2. Group H-2 occupancies shall be set back not less than 30 feet (9144 mm) where the area of the occupancy is greater than 1,000 square feet (93 m2) and it is not required to be located in a detached building.

415.6.1.3 Groups H-2 and H-3. Group H-2 and H- 3 occupancies shall be set back not less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) where a detached building is required (see Table 415.6.2).

415.6.1.4 Explosive materials. Group H-2 and H-3 occupancies containing materials with explosive characteristics shall be separated as required by the fire code. Where separations are not specified, the distances required shall be determined by a technical report issued in accordance with Section 414.1.3.

415.6.2 Detached buildings for Group H-1, H-2 or H-3 occupancy. The storage or use of hazardous materials in excess of those amounts listed in Table 415.6.2 shall be in accordance with the applicable provisions of Sections 415.7 and 415.8.

415.6.2.1 Wall and opening protection. Where a detached building is required by Table 415.6.2, there are no requirements for wall and opening protection based on fire separation distance.

415.7 Special provisions for Group H-1 occupancies. Group H-1 occupancies shall be in detached buildings used for no other purpose. Roofs shall be of lightweight construction with suitable thermal insulation to prevent sensitive material from reaching its decomposition temperature. Group H-1 occupancies containing materials that are in themselves both physical and health hazards in quantities exceeding the maximum allowable quantities per control area in Table 307.1(2) shall comply with requirements for both Group H-1 and H-4 occupancies.

415.7.1 Floors in storage rooms. Floors in storage areas for organic peroxides, pyrophoric materials and unstable (reactive) materials shall be of liquid-tight, non-combustible construction.

415.8 Special provisions for Group H-2 and H-3 occupancies. Group H-2 and H-3 occupancies containing quantities of hazardous materials in excess of those set forth in Table 415.6.2 shall be in detached buildings used for manufacturing, processing, dispensing, use or storage of hazardous materials. Materials listed for Group H-1 occupancies in Section 307.3 are permitted to be located within Group H-2 or H-3 detached buildings provided the amount of materials per control area do not exceed the maximum allowed quantity specified in Table 307.1(1).

415.8.1 Multiple hazards. Group H-2 or H-3 occupancies containing materials that are in themselves both physical and health hazards in quantities exceeding the maximum allowable quantities per control area in Table 307.1(2) shall comply with requirements for Group H-2, H-3 or H-4 occupancies as applicable.

415.8.2 Separation of incompatible materials. Hazardous materials other than those listed in Table 415.6.2 shall be allowed in manufacturing, processing, dispensing, use or storage areas when separated from incompatible materials in accordance with the provisions of the fire code.

415.8.3 Water reactives. Group H-2 and H-3 occupancies containing water-reactive materials shall be resistant to water penetration. Piping for conveying liquids shall not be over or through areas containing water reactives, unless isolated by approved liquid-tight construction.

Exception: Fire protection piping shall be permitted over or through areas containing water reactives without isolating it with liquid-tight construction.

TABLE 415.6.2

DETACHED BUILDING REQUIRED

A DETACHED BUILDING IS REQUIRED WHEN THE QUANTITY OF MATERIAL EXCEEDS THAT LISTED HEREIN

Material

Class

Solids and Liquids (tons)a, b

Gases (cubic feet)a, b

Explosives

Division 1.1

Division 1.2

Division 1.3

Division 1.4

Division 1 4 c

Division 1.5

Division 1.6

Maximum Allowable Quantity

Maximum Allowable Quantity

Maximum Allowable Quantity

Maximum Allowable Quantity 1

Maximum Allowable Quantity

Maximum Allowable Quantity

Not Applicable

Oxidizers

Class 4

Maximum Allowable Quantity

Maximum Allowable Quantity

Unstable (reactives) detonable

Class 3 or 4

Maximum Allowable Quantity

Maximum Allowable Quantity

Oxidizer, liquids and solids

Class 3

Class 2

1,200

2,000

Not Applicable Not Applicable

Organic peroxides

Detonable

Maximum Allowable Quantity

Not Applicable

Class I

Maximum Allowable Quantity

Not Applicable

Class II

25

Not Applicable

Class III

50

Not Applicable

Unstable (reactives) nondetonable

Class 3

Class 2

1 25

2,000 10,000

Water reactives

Class 3

Class 2

1 25

Not Applicable Not Applicable

Pyrophoric gases

Not Applicable

Not Applicable

2,000

For SI: 1 ton = 906 kg, 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m3, 1 pound = 0.454 kg.

a. For materials that are detonable, the distance to other buildings or lot lines shall be in accordance with Chapter 56 of the fire code based on trinitrotoluene (TNT) equivalence of the material. For materials classified as explosives, see Chapter 56 of the fire code.

b. "Maximum Allowable Quantity" means the maximum allowable quantity per control area set forth in Table 307.1(1).

c. Limited to Division 1.4 materials and articles, including articles packaged for shipment, that are not regulated as an explosive under Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (BATF) regulations or unpackaged articles used in process operations that do not propagate a detonation or deflagration between articles, provided the net explosive weight of individual articles does not exceed 1 pound.

415.8.4 Floors in storage rooms. Floors in storage areas for organic peroxides, oxidizers, pyrophoric materials, unstable (reactive) materials and water-reactive solids and liquids shall be of liquid-tight, noncombustible construction.

415.8.5 Waterproof room. Rooms or areas used for the storage of water-reactive solids and liquids shall be constructed in a manner that resists the penetration of water through the use of waterproof materials. Piping carrying water for other than approved automatic sprinkler systems shall not be within such rooms or areas.

415.9 Group H-2. Occupancies in Group H-2 shall be constructed in accordance with Sections 415.9.1 through 415.9.3 and the fire code.

415.9.1 Flammable and combustible liquids. Buildings of Group H-2 and H-3 occupancies used for the storage, handling, processing and transporting of flammable and combustible liquids shall be protected in accordance with Sections 415.9.1.1 through 415.9.1.9, the mechanical code and the fire code. The storage, handling, and processing of the flammable and combustible liquids shall be in accordance with the fire code and enforced by the fire official.

Exception: The design, installation, registration, and inspection of regulated underground storage tanks shall be in accordance with the fire code and rules adopted by the state fire marshal and enforced by the fire official, in accordance with sections 3737.87 to 3737.89 of the Revised Code.

415.9.1.1 Mixed occupancies. Where the storage tank area is located in a building of two or more occupancies and the quantity of liquid exceeds the maxi- mum allowable quantity for one control area, the use shall be completely separated from adjacent occupancies in accordance with the requirements of Section 508.4.

415.9.1.1.1 Height exception. Where storage tanks are located within a building no more than one story above grade plane, the height limitation of Section 504 shall not apply for Group H.

415.9.1.2 Tank protection. Storage tanks shall be noncombustible and protected from physical damage. Fire barriers or horizontal assemblies or both around the storage tanks shall be permitted as the method of protection from physical damage.

415.9.1.3 Tanks. Storage tanks shall be approved tanks conforming to the requirements of the fire code.

415.9.1.4 Leakage containment. A liquid-tight containment area compatible with the stored liquid shall be provided. The method of spill control, drainage control and secondary containment shall be in accordance with the fire code.

Exception: Rooms where only double-wall storage tanks conforming to Section 415.9.1.3 are used to store Class I, II and IIIA flammable and combustible liquids shall not be required to have a leakage containment area.

415.9.1.5 Leakage alarm. An approved automatic alarm shall be provided to indicate a leak in a storage tank and room. The alarm shall sound an audible signal, 15 dBa above the ambient sound level, at every point of entry into the room in which the leaking storage tank is located. An approved sign shall be posted on every entry door to the tank storage room indicating the potential hazard of the interior room environment, or the sign shall state: WARNING, WHEN ALARM SOUNDS, THE ENVIRONMENT WITHIN THE ROOM MAY BE HAZARDOUS. The leakage alarm shall also be supervised in accordance with Chapter 9 to transmit a trouble signal.

415.9.1.6 Tank vent. Storage tank vents for Class I, II or IIIA liquids shall terminate to the outdoor air in accordance with the fire code.

415.9.1.7 Room ventilation. Storage tank areas storing Class I, II or IIIA liquids shall be provided with mechanical ventilation. The mechanical ventilation system shall be in accordance with the mechanical code and the fire code.

415.9.1.8 Explosion venting. Where Class I liquids are being stored, explosion venting shall be provided in accordance with the fire code.

415.9.1.9 Tank openings other than vents. Tank openings other than vents from tanks inside buildings shall be designed to ensure that liquids or vapor concentrations are not released inside the building.

415.9.2 Liquefied petroleum gas facilities. The construction and installation of liquefied petroleum gas facilities shall be in accordance with the requirements of this code, the fire code, the mechanical code, the International Fuel Gas Code and NFPA 58.

415.9.3 Dry cleaning plants. The construction and installation of dry cleaning plants shall be in accordance with the requirements of this code, the mechanical code, the plumbing code and NFPA 32. Dry cleaning solvents and systems shall be classified in accordance with the fire code.

415.10 Groups H-3 and H-4. Groups H-3 and H-4 shall be constructed in accordance with the applicable provisions of this code and the fire code.

415.10.1 Flammable and combustible liquids. Buildings of Group H-3 occupancies used for the storage, handling, processing and transporting of flammable and combustible liquids shall be protected in accordance with Section 415.9.1.

415.10.2 Gas rooms. Where gas rooms are provided, such rooms shall be separated from other areas by not less than 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both.

415.10.3 Floors in storage rooms. Floors in storage areas for corrosive liquids and highly toxic or toxic materials shall be of liquid-tight, noncombustible construction.

415.10.4 Separation-highly toxic solids and liquids. Highly toxic solids and liquids not stored in approved hazardous materials storage cabinets shall be isolated from other hazardous materials storage by not less than 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both.

415.10.5 Consumer fireworks facilities. In addition to other applicable provisions of this code and the fire code, this section shall apply to all structures where consumer fireworks, 1.4 G, are located for display, sales, or storage.

415.10.5.1 Area limitation. Group H-3 fire areas used for the display and sale of consumer fireworks, 1.4 G, shall not exceed five thousand square feet.

415.10.5.2 Fire separation. Areas used for the display and sale of consumer fireworks, 1.4 G, shall be separated from areas used for the storage of consumer fireworks, 1.4 G, with fire walls that comply with

Section 706.

415.10.5.3 Smoke control. A smoke control system shall be provided throughout all display and sales areas in accordance with Section 909.

415.10.5.4 Awnings, tents, and canopies. Awnings, tents, and canopies shall not be used for the display, sale or storage of consumer fireworks, 1.4 G.

415.10.5.5 Exits. Horizontal exits shall not be used as a required exit leading from display and sales areas.

415.11 Group H-5. In addition to the requirements set forth elsewhere in this code, Group H-5 shall comply with the provisions of Sections 415.11.1 through 415.11.11 and the fire code.

415.11.1 Fabrication areas. Fabrication areas shall comply with Sections 415.11.1.1 through 415.11.1.8.

415.11.1.1 Hazardous materials. Hazardous materials and hazardous production materials (HPM) shall comply with Sections 415.11.1.1.1 and 415.11.1.1.2.

415.11.1.1.1 Aggregate quantities. The aggregate quantities of hazardous materials stored and used in a single fabrication area shall not exceed the quantities set forth in Table 415.11.1.1.1.

Exception: The quantity limitations for any hazard category in Table 415.11.1.1.1 shall not apply where the fabrication area contains quantities of hazardous materials not exceeding the maximum allowable quantities per control area established by Tables 307.1(1) and 307.1(2).

415.11.1.1.2 Hazardous production materials. The maximum quantities of hazardous production materials (HPM) stored in a single fabrication area shall not exceed the maximum allowable quantities per control area established by Tables 307.1(1) and 307.1(2).

415.11.1.2 Separation. Fabrication areas, whose sizes are limited by the quantity of hazardous materials allowed by Table 415.11.1.1.1, shall be separated from each other, from corridors and from other parts of the building by not less than 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both.

Exceptions:

1. Doors within such fire barrier walls, including doors to corridors, shall be only self-closing fire door assemblies having a fire protection rating of not less than ¾ hour.

2. Windows between fabrication areas and corridors are permitted to be fixed glazing listed and labeled for a fire protection rating of not less than ¾ hour in accordance with Section 716.

415.11.1.3 Location of occupied levels. Occupied levels of fabrication areas shall be located at or above the first story above grade plane.

415.11.1.4 Floors. Except for surfacing, floors within fabrication areas shall be of noncombustible construction.

Openings through floors of fabrication areas are permitted to be unprotected where the interconnected levels are used solely for mechanical equipment directly related to such fabrication areas (see also Section 415.11.1.5).

Floors forming a part of an occupancy separation shall be liquid tight.

415.11.1.5 Shafts and openings through floors. Elevator hoistways, vent shafts and other openings through floors shall be enclosed where required by Sections 712 and 713. Mechanical, duct and piping penetrations within a fabrication area shall not extend through more than two floors. The annular space around penetrations for cables, cable trays, tubing, piping, conduit or ducts shall be sealed at the floor level to restrict the movement of air. The fabrication area, including the areas through which the ductwork and piping extend, shall be considered a single conditioned environment.

415.11.1.6 Ventilation. Mechanical exhaust ventilation at the rate of not less than 1 cubic foot per minute per square foot [ 0.0051 m3/(s ·m2)] of floor area shall be provided throughout the portions of the fabrication area where HPM are used or stored. The exhaust air duct system of one fabrication area shall not connect to another duct system outside that fabrication area within the building.

A ventilation system shall be provided to capture and exhaust gases, fumes and vapors at workstations.

Two or more operations at a workstation shall not be connected to the same exhaust system where either one or the combination of the substances removed could constitute a fire, explosion or hazardous chemical reaction within the exhaust duct system.

Exhaust ducts penetrating fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711 shall be contained in a shaft of equivalent fire-resistance-rated construction. Exhaust ducts shall not penetrate fire walls.

Fire dampers shall not be installed in exhaust ducts.

415.11.1.7 Transporting hazardous production materials to fabrication areas. HPM shall be transported to fabrication areas through enclosed piping or tubing systems that comply with Section 415.11.6, through service corridors complying with Section 415.11.3, or in corridors as permitted in the exception to Section 415.11.2. The handling or transporting of HPM within service corridors shall comply with the fire code.

415.11.1.8 Electrical. Electrical equipment and devices within the fabrication area shall comply with NFPA 70. The requirements for hazardous locations need not be applied where the average air change is at least four times that set forth in Section 415.11.1.6 and where the number of air changes at any location is not less than three times that required by Section 415.11.1.6. The use of recirculated air shall be permitted.

415.11.1.8.1 Workstations. Workstations shall not be energized without adequate exhaust ventilation. See Section 415.11.1.6 for workstation exhaust ventilation requirements.

TABLE 415.11.1.1.1

QUANTITY LIMITS FOR HAZARDOUS MATERIALS IN A SINGLE FABRICATION

AREA IN GROUP H-5a

HAZARD CATEGORY

SOLIDS (pounds per square foot)

LIQUIDS (gallons per square foot)

GAS (cubic feet @ NTP/square foot)

PHYSICAL-HAZARD MATERIALS

Combustible dust

  

Note b

Not Applicable

Not Applicable

Combustible fiber

Loose

Baled

Note b

Notes b, c

Not Applicable

Not Applicable

Combustible liquid Combination Class

II

IIIA

IIIB

I, II and IIIA

Not Applicable

0.01

0.02

Not Limited 0.04

Not Applicable

Cryogenic gas

Flammable

Oxidizing

Not Applicable

Not Applicable

Note d

1.25

Explosives

  

Note b

Note b

Note b

Flammable gas

Gaseous

Liquefied

Not Applicable

Not Applicable

Note d

Note d

Flammable liquid

Combination Class

Combination Class

IA

IB

IC

IA, IB and IC

I, II and IIIA

Not Applicable

0.0025

0.025

0.025

0.025

0.04

Not Applicable

Flammable solid

  

0.001

Not Applicable

Not Applicable

Organic peroxide

Unclassified

detonable

Class I

Class II

Class III

Class IV Class V

Note b

Note b

0.025

0.1

Not Limited

Not Limited

Not Applicable

Not Applicable

Oxidizing gas

Combination of gaseous and liquefied

Gaseous

Liquefied

Not Applicable

Not Applicable

1.25

1.25

1.25

Oxidizer

Class 4

Note b

Note b

  
  

Class 3

0.003

0.03

  
  

Class 2

0.003

0.03

  
  

Class 1

0.003

0.03

Not Applicable

Combination Class

1, 2, 3

0.003

0.03

  

Pyrophoric materials

  

0.01

0.00125

Notes d and e

Unstable (reactive)

Class 4

Note b

Note b

Note b

  

Class 3

0.025

0.0025

Note b

  

Class 2

0.1

0.01

Note b

  

Class 1

Not Limited

Not Limited

Not Limited

Water reactive

Class 3

Note b

0.00125

  
  

Class 2 Class 1

0.25 Not Limited

0.025 Not Limited

Not Applicable

HEALTH-HAZARD MATERIALS

Corrosives

Not Limited

Not Limited

Not Limited

Highly toxic

Not Limited

Not Limited

Note d

Toxics

Not Limited

Not Limited

Note d

For SI: 1 pound per square foot = 4.882 kg/m2 , 1 gallon per square foot = 40.7 L/m2 , 1 cubic

foot @ NTP/square foot = 0.305 m3 @ NTP/m2 , 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m 3 .

a. Hazardous materials within piping shall not be included in the calculated quantities.

b. Quantity of hazardous materials in a single fabrication shall not exceed the maximum allowable quantities per control area in Tables 307.1(1) and 307.1(2).

c. Densely packed baled cotton that complies with the packing requirements of ISO 8115 shall not be included in this material class.

d. The aggregate quantity of flammable, pyrophoric, toxic and highly toxic gases shall not exceed 9,000 cubic feet at NTP.

e. The aggregate quantity of pyrophoric gases in the building shall not exceed the amounts set forth in Table 415.6.2.

415.11.2 Corridors. Corridors shall comply with Chapter 10 and shall be separated from fabrication areas as specified in Section 415.11.1.2. Corridors shall not contain HPM and shall not be used for transporting such materials except through closed piping systems as provided in Section 415.11.6.4

Exception: Where existing fabrication areas are altered or modified, HPM is allowed to be transported in existing corridors, subject to the following conditions:

1. Nonproduction HPM is allowed to be transported in corridors if utilized for maintenance, lab work and testing.

2. Where existing fabrication areas are altered or modified, HPM is allowed to be transported in existing corridors, subject to the following conditions:

2.1. Corridors. Corridors adjacent to the fabrication area where the alteration work is to be done shall comply with Section 1020 for a length determined as follows:

2.1.1. The length of the common wall of the corridor and the fabrication area; and

2.1.2. For the distance along the corridor to the point of entry of HPM into the corridor serving that fabrication area.

2.2. Emergency alarm system. There shall be an emergency telephone system, a local manual alarm station or other approved alarm-initiating device within corridors at not more than 150-foot (45 720 mm) intervals and at each exit and doorway. The signal shall be relayed to an approved central, proprietary or remote station service or the emergency control station and shall also initiate a local audible alarm.

2.3. Pass-throughs. Self-closing doors having a fire protection rating of not less than 1 hour shall separate pass-throughs from existing corridors. Pass-throughs shall be constructed as required for the corridors and protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system.

415.11.3 Service corridors. Service corridors within a Group H-5 occupancy shall comply with Sections 415.11.3.1 through 415.11.3.4.

415.11.3.1 Use conditions. Service corridors shall be separated from corridors as required by Section 415.11.1.2. Service corridors shall not be used as a required corridor.

415.11.3.2 Mechanical ventilation. Service corridors shall be mechanically ventilated as required by Section 415.11.1.6 or at not less than six air changes per hour.

415.11.3.3 Means of egress. The distance of travel from any point in a service corridor to an exit, exit access corridor or door into a fabrication area shall be not greater than 75 feet (22 860 mm). Dead ends shall be not greater than 4 feet (1219 mm) in length. There shall be not less than two exits, and not more than one- half of the required means of egress shall require travel into a fabrication area. Doors from service corridors shall swing in the direction of egress travel and shall be self-closing.

415.11.3.4 Minimum width. The clear width of a service corridor shall be not less than 5 feet (1524 mm), or 33 inches (838 mm) wider than the widest cart or truck used in the service corridor, whichever is greater.

415.11.3.5 Emergency alarm system. Emergency alarm systems shall be provided in accordance with this section and Sections 415.5.1 and 415.5.2. The maxi- mum allowable quantity per control area provisions shall not apply to emergency alarm systems required for HPM.

415.11.3.5.1 Service corridors. An emergency alarm system shall be provided in service corridors, with no fewer than one alarm device in each service corridor.

415.11.3.5.2 Corridors and interior exit stair- ways and ramps.

Emergency alarms for corridors, interior exit stairways and ramps and exit passage- ways shall comply with Section 415.5.2.

415.11.3.5.3 Liquid storage rooms, HPM rooms and gas rooms.

Emergency alarms for liquid storage rooms, HPM rooms and gas rooms shall comply with Section 415.5.1.

415.11.3.5.4 Alarm-initiating devices. An approved emergency telephone system, local alarm manual pull stations, or other approved alarm-initiating devices are allowed to be used as emergency alarm-initiating devices.

415.11.3.5.5 Alarm signals. Activation of the emergency alarm system shall sound a local alarm and transmit a signal to the emergency control station.

415.11.4 Storage of hazardous production materials. Storage of hazardous production materials (HPM) in fabrication areas shall be within approved or listed storage cabinets or gas cabinets or within a workstation. The storage of HPM in quantities greater than those listed in Section 5004.2 of the fire code shall be in liquid storage rooms, HPM rooms or gas rooms as appropriate for the materials stored. The storage of other hazardous materials shall be in accordance with other applicable provisions of this code and the fire code.

415.11.5 HPM rooms, gas rooms, liquid storage room construction.

HPM rooms, gas rooms and liquid shall be constructed in accordance with Sections 415.11.5.1 through 415.11.5.9.

415.11.5.1 HPM rooms and gas rooms. HPM rooms and gas rooms shall be separated from other areas by fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both. The fire-resistance rating shall be not less than 2 hours where the area is 300 square feet ( 27.9 m2) or more and not less than 1 hour where the area is less than 300 square feet ( 27.9 m2).

415.11.5.2 Liquid storage rooms. Liquid storage rooms shall be constructed in accordance with the following requirements:

1. Rooms greater than 500 square feet ( 46.5 m2) in area, shall have no fewer than one exterior door approved for fire department access.

2. Rooms shall be separated from other areas by fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both. The fire-resistance rating shall be not less than 1 hour for rooms up to 150 square feet ( 13.9 m2) in area and not less than 2 hours where the room is more than 150 square feet ( 13.9 m2) in area.

3. Shelving, racks and wainscotting in such areas shall be of noncombustible construction or wood of not less than 1-inch (25 mm) nominal thick- ness or fire-retardant-treated wood complying with Section 2303.2.

4. Rooms used for the storage of Class I flammable liquids shall not be located in a basement.

415.11.5.3 Floors. Except for surfacing, floors of HPM rooms and liquid storage rooms shall be of non- combustible liquid-tight construction. Raised grating over floors shall be of noncombustible materials.

415.11.5.4 Location. Where HPM rooms, liquid storage rooms and gas rooms are provided, they shall have no fewer than one exterior wall and such wall shall be not less than 30 feet (9144 mm) from lot lines, including lot lines adjacent to public ways.

415.11.5.5 Explosion control. Explosion control shall be provided where required by Section 414.5.1.

415.11.5.6 Exits. Where two exits are required from HPM rooms, liquid storage rooms and gas rooms, one shall be directly to the outside of the building.

415.11.5.7 Doors. Doors in a fire barrier wall, including doors to corridors, shall be self-closing fire door assemblies having a fire protection rating of not less than ¾ hour.

415.11.5.8 Ventilation. Mechanical exhaust ventilation shall be provided in liquid storage rooms, HPM rooms and gas rooms at the rate of not less than 1 cubic foot per minute per square foot ( 0.044 L/s/m2) of floor area or six air changes per hour.

Exhaust ventilation for gas rooms shall be designed to operate at a negative pressure in relation to the surrounding areas and direct the exhaust ventilation to an exhaust system.

415.11.5.9 Emergency alarm system. An approved emergency alarm system shall be provided for HPM rooms, liquid storage rooms and gas rooms.

Emergency alarm-initiating devices shall be installed outside of each interior exit door of such rooms.

Activation of an emergency alarm-initiating device shall sound a local alarm and transmit a signal to the emergency control station.

An approved emergency telephone system, local alarm manual pull stations or other approved alarm-initiating devices are allowed to be used as emergency alarm-initiating devices.

415.11.6 Piping and tubing. Hazardous production materials piping and tubing shall comply with this section and the applicable ASME code, as determined by the registered design professional.

In accordance with section 4104.42 of the Revised Code, the owner is responsible for ensuring compliance with the ASME codes. The construction documents shall identify the types and quantities of hazardous materials proposed to be used in the facility to the extent necessary to enable the building official to determine compliance with this code and the fire code. The building official is not authorized to request or review design calculations, material specifications or construction documents for the piping system or to ascertain compliance with the applicable ASME code.

415.11.6.1 HPM having a health-hazard ranking of 3 or 4. Systems supplying HPM liquids or gases having a health-hazard ranking of 3 or 4 shall be welded throughout, except for connections, to the systems that are within a ventilated enclosure if the material is a gas, or an approved method of drainage or containment is provided for the connections if the material is a liquid.

415.11.6.2 Location in service corridors. Hazardous production materials supply piping or tubing in service corridors shall be exposed to view.

415.11.6.3 Excess flow control. Where HPM gases or liquids are carried in pressurized piping above 15 pounds per square inch gauge (psig) ( 103.4 kPa), excess flow control shall be provided. Where the piping originates from within a liquid storage room, HPM room or gas room, the excess flow control shall be located within the liquid storage room, HPM room or gas room. Where the piping originates from a bulk source, the excess flow control shall be located as close to the bulk source as practical.

415.11.6.4 Installations in corridors and above other occupancies.

The installation of HPM piping and tubing within the space defined by the walls of corridors and the floor or roof above, or in concealed spaces above other occupancies, shall be in accordance with Sections 41 5.1 1.6.1 through 415.11.6.3 and the following conditions:

1. Automatic sprinklers shall be installed within the space unless the space is less than 6 inches (152 mm) in the least dimension.

2. Ventilation not less than six air changes per hour shall be provided.

The space shall not be used to convey air from any other area.

3. Where the piping or tubing is used to transport HPM liquids, a receptor shall be installed below such piping or tubing. The receptor shall be designed to collect any discharge or leakage and drain it to an approved location. The 1-hour enclosure shall not be used as part of the receptor.

4. HPM supply piping and tubing and nonmetallic waste lines shall be separated from the corridor and from occupancies other than Group H-5 by fire barriers or by an approved method or assembly that has a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour. Access openings into the enclosure shall be protected by approved fire-protection- rated assemblies.

5. Readily accessible manual or automatic remotely activated fail-safe emergency shutoff valves shall be installed on piping and tubing other than waste lines at the following locations:

5.1 At branch connections into the fabrication area.

5.2 At entries into corridors.

Exception: Transverse crossings of the corridors by supply piping that is enclosed within a ferrous pipe or tube for the width of the corridor need not com- ply with Items 1 through 5.

415.11.6.5 Identification. Piping, tubing and HPM waste lines shall be identified in accordance with ANSI A 13.1 to indicate the material being transported.

415.11.7 Continuous gas detection systems. A continuous gas detection system shall be provided for HPM gases where the physiological warning threshold level of the gas is at a higher level than the accepted permissible exposure limit (PEL) for the gas and for flammable gases in accordance with Sections 415.11.7.1 and 415.11.7.2.

415.11.7.1 Where required. A continuous gas detection system shall be provided in the areas identified in Sections 415.11.7.1.1 through 415.11.7.1.4.

415.11.7.1.1 Fabrication areas. A continuous gas detection system shall be provided in fabrication areas where gas is used in the fabrication area.

415.11.7.1.2 HPM rooms. A continuous gas detection system shall be provided in HPM rooms where gas is used in the room.

415.11.7.1.3 Gas cabinets, exhausted enclosures and gas rooms.

A continuous gas detection system shall be provided in gas cabinets and exhausted enclosures. A continuous gas detection system shall be provided in gas rooms where gases are not located in gas cabinets or exhausted enclosures.

415.11.7.1.4 Corridors. Where gases are trans- ported in piping placed within the space defined by the walls of a corridor and the floor or roof above the corridor, a continuous gas detection system shall be provided where piping is located and in the corridor.

Exception: A continuous gas detection system is not required for occasional transverse crossings of the corridors by supply piping that is enclosed in a ferrous pipe or tube for the width of the corridor.

415.11.7.2 Gas detection system operation. The continuous gas detection system shall be capable of monitoring the room, area or equipment in which the gas is located at or below all the following gas concentrations:

1. Immediately dangerous to life and health (IDLH) values where the monitoring point is within an exhausted enclosure, ventilated enclosure or gas cabinet.

2. Permissible exposure limit (PEL) levels where the monitoring point is in an area outside an exhausted enclosure, ventilated enclosure or gas cabinet.

3. For flammable gases, the monitoring detection threshold level shall be vapor concentrations in excess of 25 percent of the lower flammable limit (LFL) where the monitoring is within or outside an exhausted enclosure, ventilated enclosure or gas cabinet.

4. Except as noted in this section, monitoring for highly toxic and toxic gases shall also comply with Chapter 60 of the fire code.

415.11.7.2.1 Alarms. The gas detection system shall initiate a local alarm and transmit a signal to the emergency control station when a short-term hazard condition is detected. The alarm shall be both visual and audible and shall provide warning both inside and outside the area where the gas is detected. The audible alarm shall be distinct from all other alarms.

415.11.7.2.2 Shutoff of gas supply. The gas detection system shall automatically close the shut-off valve at the source on gas supply piping and tubing related to the system being monitored for which gas is detected when a short-term hazard condition is detected. Automatic closure of shutoff valves shall comply with the following:

1. Where the gas detection sampling point initiating the gas detection system alarm is within a gas cabinet or exhausted enclosure, the shut- off valve in the gas cabinet or exhausted enclosure for the specific gas detected shall automatically close.

2. Where the gas detection sampling point initiating the gas detection system alarm is within a room and compressed gas containers are not in gas cabinets or an exhausted enclosure, the shutoff valves on all gas lines for the specific gas detected shall automatically close.

3. Where the gas detection sampling point initiating the gas detection system alarm is within a piping distribution manifold enclosure, the shutoff valve supplying the manifold for the compressed gas container of the specific gas detected shall automatically close.

Exception: Where the gas detection sampling point initiating the gas detection system alarm is at the use location or within a gas valve enclosure of a branch line downstream of a piping distribution manifold, the shutoff valve for the branch line located in the piping distribution manifold enclosure shall automatically close.

415.11.8 Manual fire alarm system. An approved manual fire alarm system shall be provided throughout buildings containing Group H-5. Activation of the alarm system shall initiate a local alarm and transmit a signal to the emergency control station. The fire alarm system shall be designed and installed in accordance with Section 907.

415.11.9 Emergency control station. An emergency control station shall be provided in accordance with Sections 415.11.9.1 through 415.11.9.3.

415.11.9.1 Location. The emergency control station shall be located on the premises at an approved location outside the fabrication area.

415.11.9.2 Staffing. Trained personnel shall continuously staff the emergency control station.

415.11.9.3 Signals. The emergency control station shall receive signals from emergency equipment and alarm and detection systems. Such emergency equipment and alarm and detection systems shall include, but not be limited to, the following where such equipment or systems are required to be provided either in this chapter or elsewhere in this code:

1. Automatic sprinkler system alarm and monitoring systems.

2. Manual fire alarm systems.

3. Emergency alarm systems.

4. Continuous gas detection systems.

5. Smoke detection systems.

6. Emergency power system.

7. Automatic detection and alarm systems for pyrophoric liquids and Class 3 water-reactive liquids required in Section 2705.2.3.4 of the fire code.

8. Exhaust ventilation flow alarm devices for pyrophoric liquids and Class 3 water-reactive liquids cabinet exhaust ventilation systems required in Section 2705.2.3.4 of the fire code.

415.11.10 Emergency power system. An emergency power system shall be provided in Group H-5 occupancies in accordance with Section 2702. The emergency power system shall supply power automatically to the electrical systems specified in Section 415.11.10.1 when the normal electrical supply system is interrupted.

415.11.10.1 Required electrical systems. Emergency power shall be provided for electrically operated equipment and connected control circuits for the following systems:

1. HPM exhaust ventilation systems.

2. HPM gas cabinet ventilation systems.

3. HPM exhausted enclosure ventilation systems.

4. HPM gas room ventilation systems.

5. HPM gas detection systems.

6. Emergency alarm systems.

7. Manual and automatic fire alarm systems.

8. Automatic sprinkler system monitoring and alarm systems.

9. Automatic alarm and detection systems for pyrophoric liquids and Class 3 water-reactive liquids required in Section 2705.2.3.4 of the fire code.

10. Flow alarm switches for pyrophoric liquids and Class 3 water-reactive liquids cabinet exhaust ventilation systems required in Section 2705.2.3.4 of the fire code.

11. Electrically operated systems required elsewhere in this code or in the fire code applicable to the use, storage or handling of HPM.

415.11.10.2 Exhaust ventilation systems. Exhaust ventilation systems are allowed to be designed to operate at not less than one-half the normal fan speed on the emergency power system where it is demonstrated that the level of exhaust will maintain a safe atmosphere.

415.11.11 Automatic sprinkler system protection in exhaust ducts for HPM. An approved automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in exhaust ducts conveying gases, vapors, fumes, mists or dusts generated from HPM in accordance with Sections 415.11.11.1 through 415.10.11.3 and the mechanical code.

415.11.11.1 Metallic and noncombustible non- metallic exhaust ducts. An approved automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in metallic and noncombustible nonmetallic exhaust ducts where all of the following conditions apply:

1. Where the largest cross-sectional diameter is equal to or greater than 10 inches (254 mm).

2. The ducts are within the building.

3. The ducts are conveying flammable gases, vapors or fumes.

415.11.11.2 Combustible nonmetallic exhaust ducts. Automatic sprinkler system protection shall be provided in combustible nonmetallic exhaust ducts where the largest cross-sectional diameter of the duct is equal to or greater than 10 inches (254 mm).

Exception: Ducts need not be provided with automatic sprinkler protection as follows:

1. Ducts listed or approved for applications with- out automatic sprinkler system protection.

2. Ducts not more than 12 feet (3658 mm) in length installed below ceiling level.

415.11.11.3 Automatic sprinkler locations. Sprinkler systems shall be installed at 12-foot (3658 mm) intervals in horizontal ducts and at changes in direction. In vertical ducts, sprinklers shall be installed at the top and at alternate floor levels.

SECTION 416

APPLICATION OF FLAMMABLE FINISHES

416.1 General. The provisions of this section shall apply to the construction, installation and use of buildings and structures, or parts thereof, for the application of flammable finishes. Such construction and equipment shall comply with the fire code.

416.2 Spray rooms. Spray rooms shall be enclosed with not less than 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both. Floors shall be water- proofed and drained in an approved manner.

416.2.1 Surfaces. The interior surfaces of spray rooms shall be smooth and shall be so constructed to permit the free passage of exhaust air from all parts of the interior and to facilitate washing and cleaning, and shall be so designed to confine residues within the room. Aluminum shall not be used.

416.2.2 Ventilation. Mechanical ventilation and interlocks with the spraying operation shall be in accordance with the mechanical code.

416.3 Spraying spaces. Spraying spaces shall be ventilated with an exhaust system to prevent the accumulation of flammable mist or vapors in accordance with the mechanical code. Where such spaces are not separately enclosed, noncombustible spray curtains shall be provided to restrict the spread of flammable vapors.

416.3.1 Surfaces. The interior surfaces of spraying spaces shall be smooth and continuous without edges; shall be so constructed to permit the free passage of exhaust air from all parts of the interior and to facilitate washing and cleaning; and shall be so designed to confine residues within the spraying space. Aluminum shall not be used.

416.4 Spray booths. Spray booths shall be designed, constructed and operated in accordance with the fire code.

416.5 Fire protection. An automatic sprinkler system or fire-extinguishing system shall be provided in all spray, dip and immersing spaces and storage rooms and shall be installed in accordance with Chapter 9.

SECTION 417

DRYING ROOMS

417.1 General. A drying room or dry kiln installed within a building shall be constructed entirely of approved noncombustible materials or assemblies of such materials regulated by the approved rules or as required in the general and specific sections of this chapter for special occupancies and where applicable to the general requirements of the mechanical code.

417.2 Piping clearance. Overhead heating pipes shall have a clearance of not less than 2 inches (51 mm) from combustible contents in the dryer.

417.3 Insulation. Where the operating temperature of the dryer is 175°F (79°C) or more, metal enclosures shall be insulated from adjacent combustible materials by not less than 12 inches (305 mm) of airspace, or the metal walls shall be lined with 1/4-inch ( 6.4 mm) insulating mill board or other approved equivalent insulation.

417.4 Fire protection. Drying rooms designed for high- hazard materials and processes, including special occupancies as provided for in Chapter 4, shall be protected by an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system complying with the provisions of Chapter 9.

SECTION 418

ORGANIC COATINGS

418.1 Building features. Manufacturing of organic coatings shall be done only in buildings that do not have pits or basements.

418.2 Location. Organic coating manufacturing operations and operations incidental to or connected therewith shall not be located in buildings having other occupancies.

418.3 Process mills. Mills operating with close clearances and that process flammable and heat-sensitive materials, such as nitrocellulose, shall be located in a detached building or noncombustible structure.

418.4 Tank storage. Storage areas for flammable and combustible liquid tanks inside of structures shall be located at or above grade and shall be separated from the processing area by not less than 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both.

418.5 Nitrocellulose storage. Nitrocellulose storage shall be located on a detached pad or in a separate structure or a room enclosed with not less than 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both.

418.6 Finished products. Storage rooms for finished products that are flammable or combustible liquids shall be separated from the processing area by not less than 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both.

SECTION 419

LIVE/WORK UNITS

419.1 General. A live/work unit shall comply with Sections through 419.9.

Exception: Dwelling or sleeping units that include an office that is less than 10 percent of the area of the dwelling unit are permitted to be classified as dwelling units with accessory occupancies in accordance with Section 508.2.

419.1.1 Limitations. The following shall apply to all live/ work areas:

1. The live/work unit is permitted to be not greater than 3,000 square feet (279 m2) in area;

2. The nonresidential area is permitted to be not more than 50 percent of the area of each live/work unit;

3. The nonresidential area function shall be limited to the first or main floor only of the live/work unit; and

4. Not more than five nonresidential workers or employees are allowed to occupy the nonresidential area at any one time.

419.2 Occupancies. Live/work units shall be classified as a Group R-2 occupancy. Separation requirements found in Sections 420 and 508 shall not apply within the live/work unit where the live/work unit is in compliance with Section 419. Nonresidential uses that would otherwise be classified as either a Group H or S occupancy shall not be permitted in a live/work unit.

Exception: Storage shall be permitted in the live/work unit provided the aggregate area of storage in the nonresidential portion of the live/work unit shall be limited to 10 percent of the space dedicated to nonresidential activities.

419.3 Means of egress. Except as modified by this section, the means of egress components for a live/work unit shall be designed in accordance with Chapter 10 for the function served.

419.3.1 Egress capacity. The egress capacity for each element of the live/work unit shall be based on the occupant load for the function served in accordance with Table 1004.1.2.

419.3.2 Spiral stairways. Spiral stairways that conform to the requirements of Section 1011.10 shall be permitted.

419.4 Vertical openings. Floor openings between floor levels of a live/work unit are permitted without enclosure.

419.5 Fire protection. The live/work unit shall be pro- vided with a monitored fire alarm system where required by Section 907.2.9 and an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.2.8.

419.6 Structural. Floors within a live/work unit shall be designed for the live loads in Table 1607.1, based on the function within the space.

419.7 Accessibility. Accessibility shall be designed in accordance with Chapter 11 for the function served.

419.8 Ventilation. The applicable ventilation requirements of the mechanical code shall apply to each area within the live/work unit for the function within that space.

419.9 Plumbing facilities. The nonresidential area of the live/work unit shall be provided with minimum plumbing facilities as specified by Chapter 29, based on the function of the nonresidential area. Where the nonresidential area of the live/work unit is required to be accessible by Section 1103.2.13, the plumbing fixtures specified by Chapter 29 shall be accessible.

SECTION 420

GROUPS I-1, R-1, R-2, R-3 AND R-4

420.1 General. Occupancies in Groups I-1, R-1, R-2, R-3 and R-4 shall comply with the provisions of Sections 420.1 through 420.6 and other applicable provisions of this code.

420.2 Separation walls. Walls separating dwelling units in the same building, walls separating sleeping units in the same building and walls separating dwelling or sleeping units from other occupancies contiguous to them in the same building shall be constructed as fire partitions in accordance with Section 708.

420.3 Horizontal separation. Floor assemblies separating dwelling units in the same buildings, floor assemblies separating sleeping units in the same building and floor assemblies separating dwelling or sleeping units from other occupancies contiguous to them in the same building shall be constructed as horizontal assemblies in accordance with Section 711.

420.4 Smoke barriers in Group I-1, Condition 2. Smoke barriers shall be provided in Group I-1, Condition 2, to subdivide every story used by persons receiving care, treatment or sleeping and to provide other stories with an occupant load of 50 or more persons, into no fewer than two smoke compartments. Such stories shall be divided into smoke compartments with an area of not more than 22,500 square feet (2092 m2) and the distance of travel from any point in a smoke compartment to a smoke barrier door shall not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm). The smoke barrier shall be in accordance with Section 709.

420.4.1 Refuge area. Refuge areas shall be provided within each smoke compartment. The size of the refuge area shall accommodate the occupants and care recipients from the adjoining smoke compartment. Where a smoke compartment is adjoined by two or more smoke compartments, the minimum area of the refuge area shall accommodate the largest occupant load of the adjoining compartments. The size of the refuge area shall provide the following:

1. Not less than 15 net square feet ( 1.4 m2) for each care recipient.

2. Not less than 6 net square feet ( 0.56 m2) for other occupants. Areas or spaces permitted to be included in the calculation of the refuge area are corridors, lounge or dining areas and other low-hazard areas.

420.5 Automatic sprinkler system. Group R occupancies shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.2.8. Group I-1 occupancies shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.2.6. Quick- response or residential automatic sprinklers shall be installed in accordance with Section 903.3.2.

420.6 Fire alarm systems and smoke alarms. Fire alarm systems and smoke alarms shall be provided in Group I-1, R- 1, R-2 and R-4 occupancies in accordance with Sections 907.2.6, 907.2.8, 907.2.9 and 907.2.10, respectively. Single- or multiple- station smoke alarms shall be provided in Groups I-1, R-2, R-3 and R-4 in accordance with Section 907.2.11.

SECTION 421

HYDROGEN FUEL GAS ROOMS

421.1 General. Where required by the fire code, hydrogen fuel gas rooms shall be designed and constructed in accordance with Sections 421.1 through 421.7.

421.2 Definitions. The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

GASEOUS HYDROGEN SYSTEM.

HYDROGEN FUEL GAS ROOM.

421.3 Location. Hydrogen fuel gas rooms shall not be located below grade.

421.4 Design and construction. Hydrogen fuel gas rooms not classified as Group H shall be separated from other areas of the building in accordance with Section 509.1.

421.4.1 Pressure control. Hydrogen fuel gas rooms shall be provided with a ventilation system designed to maintain the room at a negative pressure in relation to sur- rounding rooms and spaces.

421.4.2 Windows. Operable windows in interior walls shall not be permitted. Fixed windows shall be permitted where in accordance with Section 716.

421.5 Exhaust ventilation. Hydrogen fuel gas rooms shall be provided with mechanical exhaust ventilation in accordance with the applicable provisions of Section 502.16.1 of the mechanical code.

421.6 Gas detection system. Hydrogen fuel gas rooms shall be provided with an approved flammable gas detection system in accordance with Sections 421.6.1 through 421.6.4.

421.6.1 System design. The flammable gas detection system shall be listed for use with hydrogen and any other flammable gases used in the hydrogen fuel gas room. The gas detection system shall be designed to activate when the level of flammable gas exceeds 25 percent of the lower flammability limit (LFL) for the gas or mixtures present at their anticipated temperature and pressure.

421.6.2 Gas detection system components. Gas detection system control units shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 864 or UL 2017. Gas detectors shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 2075 for use with the gases and vapors being detected.

421.6.3 Operation. Activation of the gas detection system shall result in all of the following:

1. Initiation of distinct audible and visual alarm signals both inside and outside of the hydrogen fuel gas room.

2. Activation of the mechanical exhaust ventilation system.

421.6.4 Failure of the gas detection system. Failure of the gas detection system shall result in activation of the mechanical exhaust ventilation system, cessation of hydrogen generation and the sounding of a trouble signal in an approved location.

421.7 Explosion control. Explosion control shall be pro- vided where required by Section 414.5.1.

421.8 Standby power. Mechanical ventilation and gas detection systems shall be provided with a standby power system in accordance with Section 2702.

SECTION 422

AMBULATORY CARE FACIILITIES

422.1 General. Occupancies classified as ambulatory care facilities shall comply with the provisions of Sections 422.1 through 422.5 and other applicable provisions of this code.

422.2 Separation. Ambulatory care facilities where the potential for four or more care recipients are to be incapable of self-preservation at any time, whether rendered incapable by staff or staff accepted responsibility for a care recipient already incapable, shall be separated from adjacent spaces, corridors or tenants with a fire partition installed in accordance with Section 708.

422.3 Smoke compartments. Where the aggregate area of one or more ambulatory care facilities is greater than 10,000 square feet (929 m2) on one story, the story shall be provided with a smoke barrier to subdivide the story into no fewer than two smoke compartments. The area of any one such smoke compartment shall be not greater than 22,500 square feet (2092 m2). The distance of travel from any point in a smoke compartment to a smoke barrier door shall be not greater than 200 feet (60 960 mm). The smoke barrier shall be installed in accordance with Section 709 with the exception that smoke barriers shall be continuous from outside wall to an outside wall, a floor to a floor, or from a smoke barrier to a smoke barrier or a combination thereof.

422.3.1 Means of egress. Where ambulatory care facilities require smoke compartmentation in accordance with Section 422.3, the fire safety evacuation plans provided in accordance with Section 1001.4 shall identify the building components necessary to support a defend-in-place emergency response in accordance with Sections 404 and 408 of the fire code.

422.3.2 Refuge area. Not less than 30 net square feet ( 2.8 m2) for each nonambulatory care recipient shall be provided within the aggregate area of corridors, care recipient rooms, treatment rooms, lounge or dining areas and other low-hazard areas within each smoke compartment. Each occupant of an ambulatory care facility shall be provided with access to a refuge area without passing through or utilizing adjacent tenant spaces.

422.3.3 Independent egress. A means of egress shall be provided from each smoke compartment created by smoke barriers without having to return through the smoke compartment from which means of egress originated.

422.4 Automatic sprinkler systems. Automatic sprinkler systems shall be provided for ambulatory care facilities in accordance with Section 903.2.2.

422.5 Fire alarm systems. A fire alarm system shall be provided for ambulatory care facilities in accordance with Section 907.2.2.

SECTION 423

STORM SHELTERS

423.1 General. In addition to other applicable requirements in this code, storm shelters shall be constructed in accordance with ICC 500.

423.1.1 Scope. This section applies to the construction of storm shelters constructed as separate detached buildings or constructed as safe rooms within buildings for the purpose of providing safe refuge from storms that produce high winds, such as tornados and hurricanes. Such structures shall be designated to be hurricane shelters, tornado shelters, or combined hurricane and tornado shelters.

423.2 Definitions. The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

STORM SHELTER.

Community storm shelter.

Residential storm shelter.

423.3 Critical emergency operations. In areas where the shelter design wind speed for tornados in accordance with Figure 304.2(1) of ICC 500 is 250 MPH, 911 call stations, emergency operation centers and fire, rescue, ambulance and police stations shall have a storm shelter constructed in accordance with ICC 500.

Exception: Buildings meeting the requirements for shelter design in ICC 500.

423.4 Group E occupancies. In areas where the shelter design wind speed for tornados is 250 MPH in accordance with Figure 304.2(1) of ICC 500, all Group E occupancies with an aggregate occupant load of 50 or more shall have a storm shelter constructed in accordance with ICC 500. The shelter shall be capable of housing the total occupant load of the Group E occupancy.

Exceptions:

1. Group E day care facilities.

2. Group E occupancies accessory to places of religious worship.

3. Buildings meeting the requirements for shelter design in ICC 500.

SECTION 424

CHILDREN'S PLAY STRUCTURES

424.1 Children's play structures. Children's play structures installed inside all occupancies covered by this code that exceed 10 feet (3048 mm) in height and 150 square feet (14 m2) in area shall comply with Sections 424.2 through 424.5.

424.2 Materials. Children's play structures shall be constructed of noncombustible materials or of combustible materials that comply with the following:

1. Fire-retardant-treated wood complying with Section 2303.2.

2. Light-transmitting plastics complying with Section 2606.

3. Foam plastics (including the pipe foam used in soft- contained play equipment structures) having a maxi- mum heat-release rate not greater than 100 kilowatts when tested in accordance with UL 1975 or when tested in accordance with NFPA 289, using the 20 kW ignition source.

4. Aluminum composite material (ACM) meeting the requirements of Class A interior finish in accordance with Chapter 8 when tested as an assembly in the maxi- mum thickness intended for use.

5. Textiles and films complying with the fire propagation performance criteria contained in Test Method 1 or Test Method 2, as appropriate, of NFPA 701.

6. Plastic materials used to construct rigid components of soft-contained play equipment structures (such as tubes, windows, panels, junction boxes, pipes, slides and decks) exhibiting a peak rate of heat release not exceeding 400 kW/ m2 when tested in accordance with ASTM E 1354 at an incident heat flux of 50 kWm2 in the horizontal orientation at a thickness of 6 mm.

7. Ball pool balls, used in soft-contained play equipment structures, having a maximum heat-release rate not greater than 100 kilowatts when tested in accordance with UL 1975 or when tested in accordance with NFPA 289, using the 20 kW ignition source. The minimum specimen test size shall be 36 inches by 36 inches (914 mm by 914 mm) by an average of 21 inches (533 mm) deep, and the balls shall be held in a box constructed of galvanized steel poultry netting wire mesh.

8. Foam plastics shall be covered by a fabric, coating or film meeting the fire propagation performance criteria contained in Test Method 1 or Test Method 2, as appropriate, of NFPA 701.

9. The floor covering placed under the children's play structure shall exhibit a Class I interior floor finish classification, as described in Section 804, when tested in accordance with NFPA 253.

424.3 Fire protection. Children's play structures shall be provided with the same level of approved fire suppression and detection devices required for the occupancy in which the play structure is located.

424.4 Separation. Children's play structures shall have a horizontal separation from building walls, partitions and from elements of the means of egress of not less than 5 feet (1524 mm). Children's playground structures shall have a horizontal separation from other children's play structures of not less than 20 feet (6090 mm).

424.5 Area limits. Deleted.

SECTION 425

HYPERBARIC FACILITIES

425.1 Hyperbaric facilities. Hyperbaric facilities shall meet the requirements contained in Chapter 20 of NFPA 99.

SECTION 426

COMBUSTIBLE DUSTS, GRAIN PROCESSING AND STORAGE

426.1 Combustible dusts, grain processing and storage. The provisions of Sections 426.1.1 through 426.1.7 shall apply to buildings in which materials that produce combustible dusts are stored or handled. Buildings that store or handle combustible dusts shall comply with the applicable provisions of NFPA 61, NFPA 85, NFPA 120, NFPA 484, NFPA 654, NFPA 655 and NFPA 664 and the fire code.

426.1.1 Type of construction and height exceptions. Buildings shall be constructed in compliance with the height, number of stories and area limitations specified in Sections 504 and 506; except that where erected of Type I or II construction, the heights and areas of grain elevators and similar structures shall be unlimited, and where of Type IV construction, the maximum building height shall be 65 feet (19 812 mm) and except further that, in isolated areas, the maximum building height of Type IV structures shall be increased to 85 feet (25 908 mm).

426.1.2 Grinding rooms. Every room or space occupied for grinding or other operations that produce combustible dusts in such a manner that the room or space is classified as a Group H-2 occupancy shall be enclosed with fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both. The fire-resistance rating of the enclosure shall be not less than 2 hours where the area is not more than 3,000 square feet (279 m2), and not less than 4 hours where the area is greater than 3,000 square feet (279 m2).

426.1.3 Conveyors. Conveyors, chutes, piping and similar equipment passing through the enclosures of rooms or spaces shall be constructed dirt tight and vapor tight, and be of approved noncombustible materials complying with Chapter 30.

426.1.4 Explosion control. Explosion control shall be provided as specified in the fire code, or spaces shall be equipped with the equivalent mechanical ventilation complying with the mechanical code.

426.1.5 Grain elevators. Grain elevators, malt houses and buildings for similar occupancies shall not be located within 30 feet (9144 mm) of interior lot lines or structures on the same lot, except where erected along a railroad right-of-way.

426.1.6 Coal pockets. Coal pockets located less than 30 feet (9144 mm) from interior lot lines or from structures on the same lot shall be constructed of not less than Type IB construction. Where more than 30 feet (9144 mm) from interior lot lines, or where erected along a rail- road right-of-way, the minimum type of construction of such structures not more than 65 feet (19 812 mm) in building height shall be Type IV.

426.1.7 Tire rebuilding. Buffing operations shall be located in a room separated from the remainder of the building housing the tire rebuilding or tire recapping operation by a 1-hour fire barrier.

Exception: Buffing operations are not required to be separated where all of the following conditions are met:

1. Buffing operations are equipped with an approved continuous automatic water-spray system directed at the point of cutting action;

2. Buffing machines are connected to particle-collecting systems providing a minimum air movement of 1,500 cubic feet per minute (cfm) ( 0.71 m3/s) in volume and 4,500 feet per minute (fpm) (23 m/s) in-line velocity; and

3. The collecting system shall discharge the rubber particles to an approved outdoor noncombustible fire resistant container, which is emptied at frequent intervals to prevent overflow.

Replaces: 4101:1-4-01

Cite as Ohio Admin. Code 4101:1-4-01

Effective: 11/1/2017
Five Year Review (FYR) Dates: 11/01/2022
Promulgated Under: 119.03
Statutory Authority: 3781.10(A)
Rule Amplifies: 3737.87, 3737.88, 3737.89, 3781.10 , 3781.11, 3791.04, 4104.42(C)
Prior Effective Dates: 7/1/79, 7/1/82, 3/1/85, 1/1/89, 9/1/92, 7/1/95, 2/1/96, 3/1/98, 1/1/02, 8/15/03, 3/1/05, 3/1/06, 7/1/07, 11/1/11, 3/1/13, 1/1/16

4101:1-4-02.3 Lease plan. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 7-1-07

4101:1-4-02.8 Automatic sprinkler system. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 7-1-07

4101:1-4-06.2.2 Clear height. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 7-1-07

4101:1-4-06.5.1 Construction. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 7-1-07

4101:1-4-07.6 Automatic fire detection. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 7-1-07

4101:1-4-08.1.1 Definition. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 7-1-07

4101:1-4-11.4 Automatic sprinkler system. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 7-1-07

4101:1-4-12.1.6 Accessibility. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 7-1-07

4101:1-4-12.3.1 Definition. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 7-1-07

4101:1-4-13.1 General. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 7-1-07

4101:1-4-13.1.1 Limited quantities of Group A plastics in mixed commodities. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-13.1.2.1 General. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-13.1.2.2 Designation based on engineering analysis. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-13.1.3.1 General. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-13.1.3.2 Extent and type of protection. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-13.1.3.3 Separation of high-piled storage areas. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-13.1.3.3.1 Separation from other uses. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-13.1.3.3.2 Multiple high-piled storage areas. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-13.1.3.3.2.1 Aggregate area. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-13.1.3.3.2.2 Multiclass high-piled storage areas. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-13.1.3.4 Automatic sprinklers. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-13.1.3.5 Fire detection. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-13.1.3.6 Building access. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-13.1.3.6.1 Access doors. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-13.1.3.6.1.1 Number of doors required. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-13.1.3.6.1.2 Door size and type. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-13.1.3.6.1.3 Locking devices. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-13.1.3.7 Smoke and heat removal. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-13.1.3.8 Fire department hose connections. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-13.1.3.9 Aisles. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-13.1.3.9.1 Width. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-13.1.3.9.1.1 Sprinklered buildings. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-13.1.3.9.1.2 Nonsprinklered buildings. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-13.1.3.9.2 Clear height. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-13.1.3.9.3 Dead ends. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-13.1.4.1 General. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-13.1.4.2 Fire protection. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-13.1.4.2.1 Shelf storage. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-13.1.4.3 Pile dimension and height limitations. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-13.1.4.4 Array. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-13.1.5.1 General. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-13.1.5.2 Fire protection. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-13.1.5.2.1 Plastic pallets and shelves. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-13.1.5.2.2 Racks with solid shelving. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-13.1.5.2.2.1 Fire protection. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-13.1.5.3 Flue spaces. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-13.1.5.4 Extra-high-rack storage systems. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-13.1.5.4.1 Fire protection. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-13.1.6.1 General. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-13.1.6.2 Automatic sprinklers. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-13.1.6.3 Carousel storage. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-13.1.7 General. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-14.3 Ventilation. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-14.5.1 Explosion control. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-14.5.4 Standby or emergency power. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 7-1-07

4101:1-4-15.2 Definitions. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 7-1-07

4101:1-4-15.3 Location on property. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-15.3.1 Group H minimum distance to lot lines. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 7-1-07

4101:1-4-15.6 Smoke and heat venting. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 7-1-07

4101:1-4-15.7.1 Combustible dusts, grain processing and storage. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 7-1-07

4101:1-4-15.7.1.4 Explosion control. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-15.7.2 Flammable and combustible liquids. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 7-1-07

4101:1-4-15.7.2.7 Tank vent. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-15.7.2.8 Room ventilation. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-15.7.2.9 Explosion venting. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-15.7.3 Liquefied petroleum gas distribution facilities. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 7-1-07

4101:1-4-15.7.3.3.3 Explosion venting. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-15.7.3.5 Rooms within buildings. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-15.8.4 Consumer fireworks facilities. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 7-1-07

4101:1-4-15.8.4.1 Area limitation. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 7-1-07

4101:1-4-15.8.4.2 Fire separation. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 7-1-07

4101:1-4-15.8.4.3 Smoke control. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 7-1-07

4101:1-4-15.8.4.4 Awnings, tents and canopies. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 7-1-07

4101:1-4-15.8.4.5 Exits. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 7-1-07

4101:1-4-15.9.2.8.1 General. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 7-1-07

4101:1-4-15.9.6.1 General. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 7-1-07

4101:1-4-15.9.7.2 Gas detection system operation. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-16.1 General. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-16.1.1 Ventilation. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-16.1.2 Fire protection. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-16.1.3 Spray finishing operations. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-16.2.2 Floor. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-16.3 Spray booths. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-16.3.1 Surfaces. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-16.3.2 Floor. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-16.3.3 Size. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-16.4 Limited spraying spaces. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-16.4.1 Job size. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-16.4.2 Frequency. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-16.4.3 Ventilation. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-16.4.4 Electrical wiring. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-16.5 Dip-tank operations. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-16.5.1 Ventilation of vapor areas. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-16.5.2 Fixed fire-extinguishing equipment. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-16.5.3 Dip-tank covers. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-16.6 Flow-coating operations. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-16.7 Electrostatic apparatus. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-16.7.1 Ventilation interlock. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05

4101:1-4-16.7.2 Protection for automated liquid electrostatic spray application equipment. [Rescinded].

Rescinded eff 3-1-05