4101:8-3-01 Building planning.

[Comment: When a reference is made within this rule to a federal statutory provision, an industry consensus standard, or any other technical publication, the specific date and title of the publication as well as the name and address of the promulgating agency are listed in rule 4101:8-44-01 of the Administrative Code. The application of the referenced standards shall be limited and as prescribed in section 102.5 of rule 4101:8-1-01 of the Administrative Code.]

SECTION 301

DESIGN CRITERIA

301.1 Application. Buildings and structures, and all parts thereof, shall be constructed to safely support all loads, including dead loads, live loads, roof loads, flood loads, snow loads, wind loads and seismic loads as prescribed by this code. The construction of buildings and structures in accordance with the provisions of this code shall result in a system that provides a complete load path that meets all requirements for the transfer of all loads from their point of origin through the load-resisting elements to the foundation. Buildings and structures constructed as prescribed by this code are deemed to comply with the requirements of this section.

301.1.1 Alternative provisions. As an alternative to the requirements in Section 301.1 the following standards are permitted subject to the limitations of this code and the limitations therein. Where engineered design is used in conjunction with these standards, the design shall comply with the Ohio Building Code.

1. American Forest and Paper Association (AF&PA) Wood Frame Construction Manual (WFCM).

2. American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) Standard for Cold-Formed Steel Framing-Prescriptive Method for One- and Two-Family Dwellings (AISI S230).

3. ICC-400 Standard on the Design and Construction of Log Structures.

301.1.2 Construction systems. The requirements of this code are based on platform and balloon-frame construction for light-frame buildings. The requirements for concrete and masonry buildings are based on a balloon framing system. Other systems must have equivalent detailing to ensure force transfer, continuity and compatible deformations.

301.1.3 Engineered design. When a building of otherwise conventional construction contains structural elements exceeding the limits of Section 301 or otherwise not conforming to this code, these elements shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice. The extent of such design need only demonstrate compliance of nonconventional elements with other applicable provisions and shall be compatible with the performance of the conventional framed system. Engineered design in accordance with the Ohio Building Code is permitted for all buildings and structures, and parts thereof, included in the scope of this code.

301.2 Climatic and geographic design criteria. Buildings shall be constructed in accordance with the provisions of this code as limited by the provisions of this section. Additional criteria shall be established by the local jurisdiction and set forth in Table 301.2(1).

301.2.1 Wind limitations. Buildings and portions thereof shall be limited by wind speed, as defined in Table 301.2(1) and construction methods in accordance with this code. Basic wind speeds shall be determined from Figure 301.2(4). Where different construction methods and structural materials are used for various portions of a building, the applicable requirements of this section for each portion shall apply. Where loads for wall coverings, curtain walls, roof coverings, exterior windows, skylights, garage doors and exterior doors are not otherwise specified, the loads listed in Table 301.2(2) adjusted for height and exposure using Table 301.2(3) shall be used to determine design load performance requirements for wall coverings, curtain walls, roof coverings, exterior windows, skylights, garage doors and exterior doors. Asphalt shingles shall be designed for wind speeds in accordance with Section 905.2.6.

301.2.1.1 Design criteria. In regions where the basic wind speeds from Figure 301.2(4) equal or exceed 100 miles per hour (45 m/s) in hurricane-prone regions, or 110 miles per hour (49 m/s) elsewhere, the design of buildings shall be in accordance with one of the following methods. The elements of design not addressed by those documents in Items 1 through 4 shall be in accordance with this code.

1. American Forest and Paper Association (AF&PA) Wood Frame Construction Manual for One-and Two-Family Dwellings (WFCM); or

2. International Code Council (ICC) Standard for Residential Construction in High Wind Regions (ICC-600); or

3. Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (ASCE-7); or

4. American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI), Standard for Cold-Formed Steel Framing-Prescriptive Method For One-and Two-Family Dwellings (AISI S230).

5. Concrete construction shall be designed in accordance with the provisions of this code.

6. Structural insulated panel (SIP) walls shall be designed in accordance with the provisions of this code.

TABLE 301.2(1)

CLIMATIC AND GEOGRAPHIC DESIGN CRITERIA

GROUND SNOW LOAD

WIND DESIGN

SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORYf

SUBJECT TO DAMAGE FROM

WINTER DESIGN TEMPe

ICE BARRIER UNDERLAYMENT REQUIREDh

FLOOD HAZARDSg

AIR FREEZING INDEXi

MEAN ANNUAL TEMPj

Speedd (mph)

Topographic effectsk

Weather inga

Frost line depthb

Termitec

Refer to Figure 301.2(5)

90

  

A or B per Section 301.2.2.1

Severe

  

Moderate to Heavy

Refer to table in footnote.

Yes

  

Refer to Figure 403.3(2) or Table 403.3(2)

  

For SI: 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.

a. Weathering may require a higher strength concrete or grade of masonry than necessary to satisfy the structural requirements of this code. The grade of masonry units shall be determined from ASTM C 34, C 55, C 62, C 73, C 90, C 129, C 145, C 216 or C 652.

b. The jurisdiction shall fill in the frost line depth column with the minimum depth of footing below finish grade.

c. Indicates the need for protection depending on whether there has been a history of local subterranean termite damage.

d. Wind exposure category shall be determined on a site-specific basis in accordance with Section 301.2.1.4.

e. The outdoor design dry-bulb temperature shall be determined from the following table:

STATION

HEATING DEGREE DAYS (Yearly Total)

DESIGN TEMPERATURES

DEGREES NORTH LATITUDE

Akron-Canton

6,037

41°00'

Cincinnati

4,410

39°10'

Cleveland

6,351

41°20'

Columbus

5,660

41°00'

Dayton

5,622

39°50'

Mansfield

6,403

41°50'

Sandusky

5,796

41°30'

Toledo

6,494

41°40'

Youngstown

6,417

41°20'

from the tabulated temperatures shall be permitted to reflect local climates or local weather experience as documented by the building official.

f. The seismic design category shall be determined from Section 301.2.2.1.

g. The jurisdiction shall fill in this part of the table with (a) the date of the jurisdiction's entry into the National Flood Insurance Program (date of adoption of the first code or ordinance for management of flood hazard areas), (b) the date(s) of the Flood Insurance Study and (c) the panel numbers and dates of all currently effective FIRMs and FBFMs or other flood hazard map adopted by the authority having jurisdiction, as amended.

h. In accordance with Sections 905.2.7.1, 905.4.3.1, 905.5.3.1, 905.6.3.1, 905.7.3.1 and 905.8.3.1.

i. The air freezing index shall also be permitted to be determined from the 100-year (99%) value on the National Climatic Data Center data table "Air Freezing Index- USA Method (Base 32°)" at www.ncdc.noaa.gov/fpsf.html.

j. The jurisdiction shall fill in this part of the table with the mean annual temperature from the National Climatic Data Center data table "Air Freezing Index-USA Method (Base 32°F)" at www.ncdc.noaa.gov/fpsf.html.

k. In accordance with Section 301.2.1.4, where there is local historical data documenting structural damage to buildings due to topographic wind speed-up effects, the jurisdiction shall fill in this part of the table with "YES." Otherwise, the jurisdiction shall indicate "NO" in this part of the table.

TABLE 301.2(2)

COMPONENT AND CLADDING LOADS FOR A BUILDING WITH A MEAN ROOF HEIGHT OF 30 FEET LOCATED IN EXPOSURE B (psf)a, b, c, d, e

  

ZONE

EFFEC TIVE WIND AREA(feet2)

BASIC WIND SPEED (mph-3-second gust)

85

90

100

105

110

120

125

130

140

145

150

170

Roof > 0 to 10 degrees

1

10

10.0

- 13.0

10.0

- 14.6

10.0

- 18.0

10.0

- 19.8

10.0

- 21.8

10.5

- 25.9

11.4

- 28.1

12.4

- 30.4

14.3

- 35.3

15.4

- 37.8

16.5

- 40.5

21.1

- 52.0

1

20

10.0

- 12.7

10.0

- 14.2

10.0

- 17.5

10.0

- 19.3

10.0

- 21.2

10.0

- 25.2

10.7

- 27.4

11.6

- 29.6

13.4

- 34.4

14.4

- 36.9

15.4

- 39.4

19.8

- 50.7

1

50

10.0

- 12.2

10.0

- 13.7

10.0

- 16.9

10.0

- 18.7

10.0

- 20.5

10.0

- 24.4

10.0

- 26.4

10.6

- 28.6

12.3

- 33.2

13.1

- 35.6

14.1

- 38.1

18.1

- 48.9

1

100

10.0

- 11.9

10.0

- 13.3

10.0

- 18.5

10.0

- 18.2

10.0

- 19.9

10.0

- 23.7

10.0

- 25.7

10.0

- 27.8

11.4

- 32.3

12.2

- 34.6

13.0

- 37.0

16.7

- 47.6

2

10

10.0

- 21.8

10.0

- 24.4

10.0

- 30.2

10.0

- 33.3

10.0

- 36.5

10.5

- 43.5

11.4

- 47.2

12.4

- 51.0

14.3

- 59.2

15.4

- 63.5

16.5

- 67.9

21.1

- 87.2

2

20

10.0

- 19.5

10.0

- 21.8

10.0

- 27.0

10.0

- 29.7

10.0

- 32.6

10.0

- 38.8

10.7

- 42.1

11.6

- 45.6

13.4

- 52.9

14.4

- 56.7

15.4

- 60.7

19.8

- 78.0

2

50

10.0

- 16.4

10.0

- 18.4

10.0

- 22.7

10.0

- 25.1

10.0

- 27.5

10.0

- 32.7

10.0

- 35.5

10.6

- 38.4

12.3

- 44.5

13.1

- 47.8

14.1

- 51.1

18.1

- 65.7

2

100

10.0

- 14.1

10.0

- 15.8

10.0

- 19.5

10.0

- 21.5

10.0

- 23.6

10.0

- 28.1

10.0

- 30.5

10.0

- 33.0

11.4

- 38.2

12.2

- 41.0

13.0

- 43.9

16.7

- 56.4

3

10

10.0

- 32.8

10.0

- 36.8

10.0

- 45.4

10.0

- 50.1

10.0

- 55.0

10.5

- 65.4

11.4

- 71.0

12.4

- 76.8

14.3

- 89.0

15.4

- 95.5

16.5

- 102.2

21.1

- 131.3

3

20

10.0

- 27.2

10.0

- 30.5

10.0

- 37.6

10.0

- 41.5

10.0

- 45.5

10.0

- 54.2

10.7

- 58.8

11.6

- 63.6

13.4

- 73.8

14.4

- 79.1

15.4

- 84.7

19.8

- 108.7

3

50

10.0

- 19.7

10.0

- 22.1

10.0

- 27.3

10.0

- 30.1

10.0

- 33.1

10.0

- 39.3

10.0

- 42.7

10.6

- 46.2

12.3

- 53.5

13.1

- 57.4

14.1

- 61.5

18.1

- 78.9

3

100

10.0

- 14.1

10.0

- 15.8

10.0

- 19.5

10.0

- 21.5

10.0

- 23.6

10.0

- 28.1

10.0

- 30.5

10.0

- 33.0

11.4

- 38.2

12.2

- 41.0

13.0

- 43.9

16.7

- 56.4

Roof > 10 to 30 degrees

1

10

10.0

- 11.9

10.0

- 13.3

10.4

- 16.5

11.4

- 18.2

12.5

- 19.9

14.9

- 23.7

16.2

- 25.7

17.5

- 27.8

20.3

- 32.3

21.8

- 34.6

23.3

- 37.0

30.0

- 47.6

1

20

10.0

- 11.6

10.0

- 13.0

10.0

- 16.0

10.4

- 17.6

11.4

- 19.4

13.6

- 23.0

14.8

- 25.0

16.0

- 27.0

18.5

- 31.4

19.9

- 33.7

21.3

- 36.0

27.3

- 46.3

1

50

10.0

- 11.1

10.0

- 12.5

10.0

- 15.4

10.0

- 17.0

10.0

- 18.6

11.9

- 22.2

12.9

- 24.1

13.9

- 26.0

16.1

- 30.2

17.3

- 32.4

18.5

- 34.6

23.8

- 44.5

1

100

10.0

- 10.8

10.0

- 12.1

10.0

- 14.9

10.0

- 16.5

10.0

- 18.1

10.5

- 21.5

11.4

- 23.3

12.4

- 25.2

14.3

- 29.3

15.4

- 31.4

16.5

- 33.6

21.1

- 43.2

2

10

10.0

- 25.1

10.0

- 28.2

10.4

- 34.8

11.4

- 38.3

12.5

- 42.1

14.9

- 50.1

16.2

- 54.3

17.5

- 58.7

20.3

- 68.1

21.8

- 73.1

23.3

- 78.2

30.0

- 100.5

2

20

10.0

- 22.8

10.0

- 25.6

10.0

- 31.5

10.4

- 34.8

11.4

- 38.2

13.6

- 45.4

14.8

- 49.3

16.0

- 53.3

18.5

- 61.8

19.9

- 66.3

21.3

- 71.0

27.3

- 91.2

2

50

10.0

- 19.7

10.0

- 22.1

10.0

- 27.3

10.0

- 30.1

10.0

- 33.0

11.9

- 39.3

12.9

- 42.7

13.9

- 46.1

16.1

- 53.5

17.3

- 57.4

18.5

- 61.4

23.8

- 78.9

2

100

10.0

- 17.4

10.0

- 19.5

10.0

- 24.1

10.0

- 26.6

10.0

- 29.1

10.5

- 34.7

11.4

- 37.6

12.4

- 40.7

14.3

- 47.2

15.4

- 50.6

16.5

- 54.2

21.1

- 69.6

3

10

10.0

- 25.1

10.0

- 28.2

10.4

- 34.8

11.4

- 38.3

12.5

- 42.1

14.9

- 50.1

16.2

- 54.3

17.5

- 58.7

20.3

- 68.1

21.8

- 73.1

23.3

- 78.2

30.0

- 100.5

3

20

10.0

- 22.8

10.0

- 25.6

10.0

- 31.5

10.4

- 34.8

11.4

- 38.2

13.6

- 45.4

14.8

- 49.3

16.0

- 53.3

18.5

- 61.8

19.9

- 66.3

21.3

- 71.0

27.3

- 91.2

3

50

10.0

- 19.7

10.0

- 22.1

10.0

- 27.3

10.0

- 30.1

10.0

- 33.0

11.9

- 39.3

12.9

- 42.7

13.9

- 46.1

16.1

- 53.5

17.3

- 57.4

18.5

- 61.4

23.8

- 78.9

3

100

10.0

- 17.4

10.0

- 19.5

10.0

- 24.1

10.0

- 26.6

10.0

- 29.1

10.5

- 34.7

11.4

- 37.6

12.4

- 40.7

14.3

- 47.2

15.4

- 50.6

16.5

- 54.2

21.1

- 69.6

Roof > 30 to 45 degrees

1

10

11.9

- 13.0

13.3

- 14.6

16.5

- 18.0

18.2

- 19.8

19.9

- 21.8

23.7

- 25.9

25.7

- 28.1

27.8

- 30.4

32.3

- 35.3

34.6

- 37.8

37.0

- 40.5

47.6

- 52.0

1

20

11.6

- 12.3

13.0

- 13.8

16.0

- 17.1

17.6

- 18.8

19.4

- 20.7

23.0

- 24.6

25.0

- 26.7

27.0

- 28.9

31.4

- 33.5

33.7

- 35.9

36.0

- 38.4

46.3

- 49.3

1

50

11.1

- 11.5

12.5

- 12.8

15.4

- 15.9

17.0

- 17.5

18.6

- 19.2

22.2

- 22.8

24.1

- 24.8

26.0

- 25.8

30.2

- 31.1

32.4

- 33.3

34.6

- 35.7

44.5

- 45.8

1

100

10.8

- 10.8

12.1

- 12.1

14.9

- 14.9

16.5

- 16.5

18.1

- 18.1

21.5

- 21.5

23.3

- 23.3

25.2

- 25.2

29.3

- 29.3

31.4

- 31.4

33.6

- 33.6

43.2

- 43.2

2

10

11.9

- 15.2

13.3

- 17.0

16.5

- 21.0

18.2

- 23.2

19.9

- 25.5

23.7

- 30.3

25.7

- 32.9

27.8

- 35.6

32.3

- 41.2

34.6

- 44.2

37.0

- 47.3

47.6

- 60.8

2

20

11.6

- 14.5

13.0

- 16.3

16.0

- 20.1

17.6

- 22.2

19.4

- 24.3

23.0

- 29.0

25.0

- 31.4

27.0

- 34.0

31.4

- 39.4

33.7

- 42.3

36.0

- 45.3

46.3

- 58.1

2

50

11.1

- 13.7

12.5

- 15.3

15.4

- 18.9

17.0

- 20.8

18.6

- 22.9

22.2

- 27.2

24.1

- 29.5

26.0

- 32.0

30.2

- 37.1

32.4

- 39.8

34.6

- 42.5

44.5

- 54.6

2

100

10.8

- 13.0

12.1

- 14.6

14.9

- 18.0

16.5

- 19.8

18.1

- 21.8

21.5

- 25.9

23.3

- 28.1

25.2

- 30.4

29.3

- 35.3

31.4

- 37.8

33.6

- 40.5

43.2

- 52.0

3

10

11.9

- 15.2

13.3

- 17.0

16.5

- 21.0

18.2

- 23.2

19.9

- 25.5

23.7

- 30.3

25.7

- 32.9

27.8

- 35.6

32.3

- 41.2

34.6

- 44.2

37.0

- 47.3

47.6

- 60.8

3

20

11.6

- 14.5

13.0

- 16.3

16.0

- 20.1

17.6

- 22.2

19.4

- 24.3

23.0

- 29.0

25.0

- 31.4

27.0

- 34.0

31.4

- 39.4

33.7

- 42.3

36.0

- 45.3

46.3

- 58.1

3

50

11.1

- 13.7

12.5

- 15.3

15.4

- 18.9

17.0

- 20.8

18.6

- 22.9

22.2

- 27.2

24.1

- 29.5

26.0

- 32.0

30.2

- 37.1

32.4

- 39.8

34.6

- 42.5

44.5

- 54.5

3

100

10.8

- 13.0

12.1

- 14.6

14.9

- 18.0

16.5

- 19.8

18.1

- 21.8

21.5

- 25.9

23.3

- 28.1

25.2

- 30.4

29.3

- 35.3

31.4

- 37.8

33.6

- 40.5

43.2

- 52.0

Wall

4

10

13.0

- 14.1

14.6

- 15.8

18.0

- 19.5

19.8

- 21.5

21.8

- 23.6

25.9

- 28.1

28.1

- 30.5

30.4

- 33.0

35.3

- 38.2

37.8

- 41.0

40.5

- 43.9

52.0

- 56.4

4

20

12.4

- 13.5

13.9

- 15.1

17.2

- 18.7

18.9

- 20.6

20.8

- 22.6

24.7

- 26.9

26.8

- 29.2

29.0

- 31.6

33.7

- 36.7

36.1

- 39.3

38.7

- 42.1

49.6

- 54.1

4

50

11.6

- 12.7

13.0

- 14.3

16.1

- 17.6

17.8

- 19.4

19.5

- 21.3

23.2

- 25.4

25.2

- 27.5

27.2

- 29.8

31.6

- 34.6

33.9

- 37.1

36.2

- 39.7

46.6

- 51.0

4

100

11.1

- 12.2

12.4

- 13.6

15.3

- 16.8

16.9

- 18.5

18.5

- 20.4

22.0

- 24.2

23.9

- 26.3

25.9

- 28.4

30.0

- 33.0

32.2

- 35.4

34.4

- 37.8

44.2

- 48.6

5

10

13.0

- 17.4

14.6

- 19.5

18.0

- 24.1

19.8

- 26.6

21.8

- 29.1

25.9

- 34.7

28.1

- 37.6

30.4

- 40.7

35.3

- 47.2

37.8

- 50.6

40.5

- 54.2

52.0

- 69.6

5

20

12.4

- 16.2

13.9

- 18.2

17.2

- 22.5

18.9

- 24.8

20.8

- 27.2

24.7

- 32.4

26.8

- 35.1

29.0

- 38.0

33.7

- 44.0

36.1

- 47.2

38.7

- 50.5

49.6

- 64.9

5

50

11.6

- 14.7

13.0

- 16.5

16.1

- 20.3

17.8

- 22.4

19.5

- 24.6

23.2

- 29.3

25.2

- 31.8

27.2

- 34.3

31.6

- 39.8

33.9

- 42.7

36.2

- 45.7

46.6

- 58.7

5

100

11.1

- 13.5

12.4

- 15.1

15.3

- 18.7

16.9

- 20.6

18.5

- 22.6

22.0

- 26.9

23.9

- 29.2

25.9

- 31.6

30.0

- 36.7

32.2

- 39.3

34.4

- 42.1

44.2

- 54.1

2 For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m , 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa.

Notes:

a. The effective wind area shall be equal to the span length multiplied by an effective width. This width shall be permitted to be not be less than one-third the span length. For cladding fasteners, the effective wind area shall not be greater than the area that is tributary to an individual fastener.

b. For effective areas between those given above, the load may be interpolated; otherwise, use the load associated with the lower effective area.

c. Table values shall be adjusted for height and exposure by multiplying by the adjustment coefficient in Table 301.2(3).

d. See Figure 301.2(7) for location of zones.

e. Plus and minus signs signify pressures acting toward and away from the building surfaces.

TABLE 301.2(3)

HEIGHT AND EXPOSURE ADJUSTMENT COEFFICIENTS FOR TABLE 301.2(2)

MEAN ROOF HEIGHT

EXPOSURE

B

C

D

15

1.00

1.21

1.47

20

1.00

1.29

1.55

25

1.00

1.35

1.61

30

1.00

1.40

1.66

35

1.05

1.45

1.70

40

1.09

1.49

1.74

45

1.12

1.53

1.78

50

1.16

1.56

1.81

55

1.19

1.59

1.84

60

1.22

1.62

1.87

image: oh/admin/2014/4101$8-3-01_PH_FF_A_RU_20140414_1542-1.jpg

For SI: °C = [(°F)-32]/ 1.8.

FIGURE 301.2(1)

ISOLINES OF THE 97½ PERCENT WINTER (DECEMBER, JANUARY AND FEBRUARY)DESIGN TEMPERATURES (°F)

image: oh/admin/2014/4101$8-3-01_PH_FF_A_RU_20140414_1542-2.jpg

FIGURE 301.2(2)

SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES-SITE CLASS D

image: oh/admin/2014/4101$8-3-01_PH_FF_A_RU_20140414_1542-3.png

FIGURE 301.2(3)

WEATHERING PROBABILITY MAP FOR CONCRETE

image: oh/admin/2014/4101$8-3-01_PH_FF_A_RU_20140414_1542-4.jpg

FIGURE 301.2(4)

BASIC WIND SPEEDS FOR 50-YEAR MEAN RECURRENCE INTERVAL

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.

a. Values are nominal design 3-second gust wind speeds in miles per hour at 33 feet above ground for Exposure C category.

b. Linear interpolation between wind contours is permitted.

c. Islands and coastal areas outside the last contour shall use the last wind speed contour of the coastal area.

d. Mountainous terrain, gorges, ocean promontories and special wind regions shall be examined for unusual wind conditions.

e. Enlarged view of Eastern and Southern seaboards are on the following pages.

image: oh/admin/2014/4101$8-3-01_PH_FF_A_RU_20140414_1542-5.jpg

a. In CS areas, site-specific Case Studies are required to establish ground snow loads. Extreme local variations in the ground snow loads in areas preclude mapping at this scale.

b. Numbers in parentheses represent the upper elevation limits in feet for the ground snow load values presented below. Site-specific case studies are required to establish ground snow loads at elevations not covered.

To convert lb/sq ft to kN/m2, multiply by 0.0479.

To convert feet to meters, multiply by 0.3048.

FIGURE 301.2(5)

GROUND SNOW LOADS, Pg, FOR THE UNITED STATES (lb/ft2)

image: oh/admin/2014/4101$8-3-01_PH_FF_A_RU_20140414_1542-6.png

FIGURE 301.2(6)

TERMITE INFESTATION PROBABILITY MAP

image: oh/admin/2014/4101$8-3-01_PH_FF_A_RU_20140414_1542-7.jpg

FIGURE 301.2(7)

COMPONENT AND CLADDING PRESSURE ZONES

301.2.1.2 Protection of openings. Windows in buildings located in windborne debris regions shall have glazed openings protected from windborne debris. Glazed opening protection for windborne debris shall meet the requirements of the Large Missile Test of ASTM E 1996 and ASTM E 1886 referenced therein. Garage door glazed opening protection for windborne debris shall meet the requirements of an approved impact resisting standard or ANSI/DASMA 115.

Exception: Wood structural panels with a minimum thickness of 7/16 inch (11 mm) and a maximum span of 8 feet (2438 mm) shall be permitted for opening protection in one-and two-story buildings. Panels shall be precut so that they can be attached to the framing surrounding the opening containing the product with the glazed opening. Panels shall be predrilled as required for the anchorage method and shall be secured with the attachment hardware provided. Attachments shall be designed to resist the component and cladding loads determined in accordance with either Table 301.2(2) or ASCE 7, with the permanent corrosion-resistant attachment hardware provided and anchors permanently installed on the building. Attachment in accordance with Table 301.2.1.2 is permitted for buildings with a mean roof height of 33 feet (10 058 mm) or less where windspeeds do not exceed 130 miles per hour (58 m/s).

TABLE 301.2.1.2

WINDBORNE DEBRIS PROTECTION FASTENING SCHEDULE FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANELSa, b, c, d

FASTENER TYPE

FASTENER SPACING (inches)a,b

Panel span <=4 feet

4 feet < panel span <= 6 feet

6 feet < panel span<= 8 feet

No. 8 wood screw based anchor with 2-inch embedment length

16

10

8

No. 10 wood screw based anchor with 2-inch embedment length

16

12

9

¼-inch lag screw based anchor with 2-inch embedment length

16

16

16

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 4.448 N, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.

a. This table is based on 130 mph wind speeds and a 33-foot mean roof height.

b. Fasteners shall be installed at opposing ends of the wood structural panel. Fasteners shall be located a minimum of 1 inch from the edge of the panel.

c. Anchors shall penetrate through the exterior wall covering with an embedment length of 2 inches minimum into the building frame. Fasteners shall be located a minimum of 2½ inches from the edge of concrete block or concrete.

d. Where panels are attached to masonry or masonry/stucco, they shall be attached using vibration-resistant anchors having a minimum ultimate withdrawal capacity of 1500 pounds.

301.2.1.3 Wind speed conversion. When referenced documents are based on fastest mile wind speeds, the three-second gust wind velocities of Figure 301.2(4) shall be converted to fastest mile wind velocities using Table 301.2.1.3.

TABLE 301.2.1.3

EQUIVALENT BASIC WIND SPEEDSa

3-second gust

85

90

100

105

110

120

125

130

140

145

150

160

170

Fastest mile

70

75

80

85

90

100

105

110

120

125

130

140

150

For SI: 1 mile per hour = 1.609 km/h.

a. Linear interpolation is permitted.

301.2.1.4 Exposure category. For each wind direction considered, an exposure category that adequately reflects the characteristics of ground surface irregularities shall be determined for the site at which the building or structure is to be constructed. For a site located in the transition zone between categories, the category resulting in the largest wind forces shall apply. Account shall be taken of variations in ground surface roughness that arise from natural topography and vegetation as well as from constructed features. For any given wind direction, the exposure in which a specific building or other structure is sited shall be assessed as being one of the following categories:

1. Exposure A. Large city centers with at least 50 percent of the buildings having a height in excess of 70 feet (21 336 mm). Use of this exposure category shall be limited to those areas for which terrain representative of Exposure A prevails in the upwind direction for a distance of at least 0.5 mile ( 0.8 km) or 10 times the height of the building or other structure, whichever is greater. Possible channeling effects or increased velocity pressures due to the building or structure being located in the wake of adjacent buildings shall be taken into account.

2. Exposure B. Urban and suburban areas, wooded areas, or other terrain with numerous closely spaced obstructions having the size of single-family dwellings or larger. Exposure B shall be assumed unless the site meets the definition of another type exposure.

3. Exposure C. Open terrain with scattered obstructions, including surface undulations or other irregularities, having heights generally less than 30 feet (9144 mm) extending more than 1,500 feet (457 m) from the building site in any quadrant. This exposure shall also apply to any building located within Exposure B type terrain where the building is directly adjacent to open areas of Exposure C type terrain in any quadrant for a distance of more than 600 feet (183 m). This category includes flat open country, grasslands and shorelines in hurricane prone regions.

4. Exposure D. Flat, unobstructed areas exposed to wind flowing over open water (excluding shorelines in hurricane prone regions) for a distance of at least 1 mile ( 1.61 km). Shorelines in Exposure D include inland waterways, the Great Lakes, and coastal areas of California, Oregon, Washington and Alaska. This exposure shall apply only to those buildings and other structures exposed to the wind coming from over the water. Exposure D extends inland from the shoreline a distance of 1500 feet (457 m) or 10 times the height of the building or structure, whichever is greater

301.2.1.5Deleted.

301.2.1.5.1Deleted.

301.2.2 Seismic provisions. The seismic provisions of this code shall apply to buildings constructed in Seismic Design Categories C, D0, D1 and D2, as determined in accordance with this section.

Exception:Detached one-, two, and three-family dwellings located in Seismic Design Category C are exempt from the seismic requirements of this code.

301.2.2.1 Determination of seismic design category. Buildings shall be assigned a seismic design category in accordance with Figure 301.2(2).

301.2.2.1.1 Alternate determination of seismic design category. The Seismic Design Categories and corresponding Short Period Design Spectral Response Accelerations, SDS shown in Figure 301.2(2) are based on soil Site Class D, as defined in Section 1613.5.2 of the Ohio Building Code. If soil conditions are other than Site Class D, the Short Period Design Spectral Response Accelerations, SDS, for a site can be determined according to Section 1613.5 of the Ohio Building Code. The value of SDS determined according to Section 1613.5 of the Ohio Building Code is permitted to be used to set the seismic design category according to Table 301.2.2.1.1, and to interpolate between values in Tables 602.10.3(3), 603.9.2(1) and other seismic design requirements of this code.

TABLE 301.2.2.1.1

SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY DETERMINATION

CALCULATED SDS

SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY

SDS <= 0.17 g

A

0.17 g <SDS <= 0.33 g

B

0.33 g < SDS <= 0.50 g

C

0.50 g < SDS <= 0.67 g

D0

0.67 g < SDS <= 0.83 g

D1

0.83 g < SDS <= 1.17 g

D2

1.17 g < SDS

E

301.2.2.1.2 Alternative determination of Seismic Design Category E. Buildings located in Seismic Design Category E in accordance with Figure 301.2(2) are permitted to be reclassified as being in Seismic Design Category D2 provided one of the following is done:

1. A more detailed evaluation of the seismic design category is made in accordance with the provisions and maps of the Ohio Building Code. Buildings located in Seismic Design Category E per Table R301.2. 2.1.1, but located in Seismic Design Category D per the Ohio Building Code, may be designed using the Seismic Design Category D2 requirements of this code.

2. Buildings located in Seismic Design Category E that conform to the following additional restrictions are permitted to be constructed in accordance with the provisions for Seismic Design Category D2 of this code:

2.1. All exterior shear wall lines or braced wall panels are in one plane vertically from the foundation to the uppermost story.

2.2. Floors shall not cantilever past the exterior walls.

2.3. The building is within all of the requirements of Section 301.2.2.2.5 for being considered as regular.

301.2.2.2 Seismic Design Category C. Structures assigned to Seismic Design Category C shall conform to the requirements of this section.

301.2.2.2.1 Weights of materials. Average dead loads shall not exceed 15 pounds per square foot (720 Pa) for the combined roof and ceiling assemblies (on a horizontal projection) or 10 pounds per square foot (480 Pa) for floor assemblies, except as further limited by Section 301.2.2. Dead loads for walls above grade shall not exceed:

1. Fifteen pounds per square foot (720 Pa) for exterior light-frame wood walls.

2. Fourteen pounds per square foot (670 Pa) for exterior light-frame cold-formed steel walls.

3. Ten pounds per square foot (480 Pa) for interior light-frame wood walls.

4. Five pounds per square foot (240 Pa) for interior light-frame cold-formed steel walls.

5. Eighty pounds per square foot (3830 Pa) for 8-inch-thick (203 mm) masonry walls.

6. Eighty-five pounds per square foot (4070 Pa) for 6-inch-thick (152 mm) concrete walls.

7. Ten pounds per square foot (480 Pa) for SIP walls.

Exceptions:

1. Roof and ceiling dead loads not exceeding 25 pounds per square foot (1190 Pa) shall be permitted provided the wall bracing amounts in Chapter 6 are increased in accordance with Table 301.2.2.2.1.

2. Light-frame walls with stone or masonry veneer shall be permitted in accordance with the provisions of Sections 702.1 and 703.

3. Fireplaces and chimneys shall be permitted in accordance with Chapter 10.

TABLE 301.2.2.2.1

WALL BRACING ADJUSTMENT FACTORS BY ROOF COVERING DEAD LOADa

WALL SUPPORTING

ROOF/CEILING DEAD LOAD

15 psf or less

25 psf

Roof only

1.0

1.2

Roof plus one or two stories

1.0

1.1

For SI: 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa.

a. Linear interpolation shall be permitted.

301.2.2.2.2 Stone and masonry veneer. Anchored stone and masonry veneer shall comply with the requirements of Sections 702.1 and 703.

301.2.2.2.3 Masonry construction. Masonry construction shall comply with the requirements of Section 606.11.2.

301.2.2.2.4 Concrete construction. Detached one-, two and three-family dwellings with exterior above-grade concrete walls shall comply with the requirements of Section 611, PCA 100 or shall be designed in accordance with ACI 318. Townhouses with above-grade exterior concrete walls shall comply with the requirements of PCA 100 or shall be designed in accordance with ACI 318.

301.2.2.2.5 Irregular buildings. Prescriptive construction as regulated by this code shall not be used for irregular structures located in Seismic Design Categories C, D0, D1 and D2. Irregular portions of structures shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice to the extent the irregular features affect the performance of the remaining structural system. When the forces associated with the irregularity are resisted by a structural system designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice, design of the remainder of the building shall be permitted using the provisions of this code. A building or portion of a building shall be considered to be irregular when one or more of the following conditions occur:

1. When exterior shear wall lines or braced wall panels are not in one plane vertically from the foundation to the uppermost story in which they are required.

Exception:For wood light-frame construction, floors with cantilevers or setbacks not exceeding four times the nominal depth of the wood floor joists are permitted to support braced wall panels that are out of plane with braced wall panels below provided that:

1. Floor joists are nominal 2 inches by 10 inches (51 mm by 254 mm) or larger and spaced not more than 16 inches (406 mm) on center.

2. The ratio of the back span to the cantilever is at least 2 to 1.

3. Floor joists at ends of braced wall panels are doubled.

4. For wood-frame construction, a continuous rim joist is connected to ends of all cantilever joists. When spliced, the rim joists shall be spliced using a galvanized metal tie not less than 0.058 inch ( 1.5 mm) (16 gage) and 1½ inches (38 mm) wide fastened with six 16d nails on each side of the splice or a block of the same size as the rim joist of sufficient length to fit securely between the joist space at which the splice occurs fastened with eight 16d nails on each side of the splice; and

5. Gravity loads carried at the end of cantilevered joists are limited to uniform wall and roof loads and the reactions from headers having a span of 8 feet (2438 mm) or less.

2. When a section of floor or roof is not laterally supported by shear walls or braced wall lines on all edges.

Exception:Portions of floors that do not support shear walls or braced wall panels above, or roofs, shall be permitted to extend no more than 6 feet (1829 mm) beyond a shear wall or braced wall line.

3. When the end of a braced wall panel occurs over an opening in the wall below and ends at a horizontal distance greater than 1 foot (305 mm) from the edge of the opening. This provision is applicable to shear walls and braced wall panels offset in plane and to braced wall panels offset out of plane as permitted by the exception to Item 1 above.

Exception:For wood light-frame wall construction, one end of a braced wall panel shall be permitted to extend more than 1 foot (305 mm) over an opening not more than 8 feet (2438 mm) wide in the wall below provided that the opening includes a header in accordance with the following:

1. The building width, loading condition and framing member species limitations of Table 502.5(1) shall apply; and

2. Not less than one 2 ×12 or two 2 ×10 for an opening not more than 4 feet (1219 mm) wide; or

3. Not less than two 2 ×12 or three 2 ×10 for an opening not more than 6 feet (1829 mm) wide; or

4. Not less than three 2 ×12 or four 2 ×10 for an opening not more than 8 feet (2438 mm) wide; and

5. The entire length of the braced wall panel does not occur over an opening in the wall below.

4. When an opening in a floor or roof exceeds the lesser of 12 feet (3658 mm) or 50 percent of the least floor or roof dimension.

5. When portions of a floor level are vertically offset.

Exceptions:

1. Framing supported directly by continuous foundations at the perimeter of the building.

2. For wood light-frame construction, floors shall be permitted to be vertically offset when the floor framing is lapped or tied together as required by Section 502.6.1.

6. When shear walls and braced wall lines do not occur in two perpendicular directions.

7. When stories above-grade partially or completely braced by wood wall framing in accordance with Section 602 or steel wall framing in accordance with Section 603 include masonry or concrete construction. When this irregularity applies, the entire story shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.

Exception:Fireplaces, chimneys and masonry veneer as permitted by this code.

301.2.2.3 Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2. Structures assigned to Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2 shall conform to the requirements for Seismic Design Category C and the additional requirements of this section.

301.2.2.3.1 Height limitations. Wood framed buildings shall be limited to three stories above grade or the limits given in Table 602.10.3(3). Cold-formed steel framed buildings shall be limited to less than or equal to three stories above grade in accordance with AISI S230. Mezzanines as defined in Section 202 shall not be considered as stories. Structural insulated panel buildings shall be limited to two stories above grade.

301.2.2.3.2 Stone and masonry veneer. Anchored stone and masonry veneer shall comply with the requirements of Sections 702.1 and 703.

301.2.2.3.3 Masonry construction. Masonry construction in Seismic Design Categories D0 and D1 shall comply with the requirements of Section 606.12.3. Masonry construction in Seismic Design Category D2 shall comply with the requirements of Section 606.12.4.

301.2.2.3.4 Concrete construction. Buildings with exterior above-grade concrete walls shall comply with PCA 100 or shall be designed in accordance with ACI 318.

301.2.2.3.5 Cold-formed steel framing in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2. In Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2 in addition to the requirements of this code, cold-formed steel framing shall comply with the requirements of AISI S230.

301.2.2.3.6 Masonry chimneys. Masonry chimneys shall be reinforced and anchored to the building in accordance with Sections 1003.3 and 1003.4.

301.2.2.3.7 Anchorage of water heaters. Water heaters shall be anchored against movement and overturning in accordance with Section 1307.2.

301.2.2.4 Seismic Design Category E. Buildings in Seismic Design Category E shall be designed in accordance with the Ohio Building Code, except when the seismic design category is reclassified to a lower seismic design category in accordance with Section 301.2.2.1.

301.2.3 Snow loads. Wood framed construction, cold-formed steel framed construction and masonry and concrete construction, and structural insulated panel construction in regions with ground snow loads 70 pounds per square foot ( 3.35 kPa) or less, shall be in accordance with Chapters 5, 6 and 8. Buildings in regions with ground snow loads greater than 70 pounds per square foot ( 3.35 kPa) shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.

301.2.4 Floodplain construction. Buildings and structures constructed in whole or in part in flood hazard areas (including A or V Zones) as established in Table 301.2(1) shall be designed and constructed in accordance with Section 322.

Exception:Buildings and structures located in whole or in part in identified floodways shall be designed and constructed in accordance with ASCE 24.

301.2.4.1 Alternative provisions. As an alternative to the requirements in Section 322.3 for buildings and structures located in whole or in part in coastal high hazard areas (V Zones), ASCE 24 is permitted subject to the limitations of this code and the limitations therein.

301.3 Story height. Buildings constructed in accordance with these provisions shall be limited to story heights of not more than the following:

1. For wood wall framing, the laterally unsupported bearing wall stud height permitted by Table 602.3(5) plus a height of floor framing not to exceed 16 inches (406 mm).

Exception:For wood framed wall buildings with bracing in accordance with Tables 602.10.3(1) and 602.10.3(2), the wall stud clear height used to determine the maximum permitted story height may be increased to 12 feet (3658 mm) without requiring an engineered design for the building wind and seismic force resisting systems provided that the length of bracing required by Table 602.10.3(1) is increased by multiplying by a factor of 1.10 and the length of bracing required by Table 602.10.3(2) is increased by multiplying by a factor of 1.20. Wall studs are still subject to the requirements of this section.

2. For steel wall framing, a stud height of 10 feet (3048 mm), plus a height of floor framing not to exceed 16 inches (406 mm).

3. For masonry walls, a maximum bearing wall clear height of 12 feet (3658 mm) plus a height of floor framing not to exceed 16 inches (406 mm).

Exception:An additional 8 feet (2438 mm) is permitted for gable end walls.

4. For insulating concrete form walls, the maximum bearing wall height per story as permitted by Section 611 tables plus a height of floor framing not to exceed 16 inches (406 mm).

5. For structural insulated panel (SIP) walls, the maximum bearing wall height per story as permitted by Section 614 tables shall not exceed 10 feet (3048 mm) plus a height of floor framing not to exceed 16 inches (406 mm).

Individual walls or walls studs shall be permitted to exceed these limits as permitted by Chapter 6 provisions, provided story heights are not exceeded. Floor framing height shall be permitted to exceed these limits provided the story height does not exceed 11 feet 7 inches (3531 mm). An engineered design shall be provided for the wall or wall framing members when they exceed the limits of Chapter 6. Where the story height limits are exceeded, an engineered design shall be provided in accordance with the Ohio Building Code for the overall wind and seismic force resisting systems.

301.4 Dead load. The actual weights of materials and construction shall be used for determining dead load with consideration for the dead load of fixed service equipment.

301.5 Live load. The minimum uniformly distributed live load shall be as provided in Table 301.5.

TABLE 301.5

MINIMUM UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LIVE LOADS

(in pounds per square foot)

USE

LIVE LOAD

Attics without storageb

10

Attics with limited storageb,g

20

Habitable attics and attics served with fixed stairs

30

Balconies (exterior) and deckse

40

Fire escapes

40

Guardrails and handrailsd

200h

Guardrail in-fill componentsf

50h

Passenger vehicle garagesa

50a

Rooms other than sleeping room

40

Sleeping rooms

30

Stairs

40c

For SI: 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 square inch = 645 mm2, 1 pound = 4.45 N.

a. Elevated garage floors shall be capable of supporting a 2,000-pound load applied over a 20-square-inch area.

b. Attics without storage are those where the maximum clear height between joist and rafter is less than 42 inches, or where there are not two or more adjacent trusses with the same web configuration capable of containing a rectangle 42 inches high by 2 feet wide, or greater, located within the plane of the truss. For attics without storage, this live load need not be assumed to act concurrently with any other live load requirements.

c. Individual stair treads shall be designed for the uniformly distributed live load or a 300-pound concentrated load acting over an area of 4 square inches, whichever produces the greater stresses.

d. A single concentrated load applied in any direction at any point along the top.

e. See Section 502.2.2 for decks attached to exterior walls.

f. Guard in-fill components (all those except the handrail), balusters and panel fillers shall be designed to withstand a horizontally applied normal load of 50 pounds on an area equal to 1 square foot. This load need not be assumed to act concurrently with any other live load requirement.

g. For attics with limited storage and constructed with trusses, this live load need be applied only to those portions of the bottom chord where there are two or more adjacent trusses with the same web configuration capable of containing a rectangle 42 inches high or greater by 2 feet wide or greater, located within the plane of the truss. The rectangle shall fit between the top of the bottom chord and the bottom of any other truss member, provided that each of the following criteria is met.

1. The attic area is accessible by a pull-down stairway or framed opening in accordance with Section 807.1.

2. The truss has a bottom chord pitch less than 2:12.

3. Required insulation depth is less than the bottom chord member depth.

The bottom chords of trusses meeting the above criteria for limited storage shall be designed for the greater of the actual imposed dead load or 10 psf, uniformly distributed over the entire span.

h. Glazing used in handrail assemblies and guards shall be designed with a safety factor of 4. The safety factor shall be applied to each of the concentrated loads applied to the top of the rail, and to the load on the in-fill components. These loads shall be determined independent of one another, and loads are assumed not to occur with any other live load.

301.6 Roof load. The roof shall be designed for the live load indicated in Table 301.6 or the snow load indicated in Table 301.2(1), whichever is greater.

TABLE 301.6

MINIMUM ROOF LIVE LOADS IN POUNDS-FORCE

PER SQUARE FOOT OF HORIZONTAL PROJECTION

ROOF SLOPE

TRIBUTARY LOADED AREA IN SQUARE FEET FOR ANY STRUCTURAL MEMBER

0 to 200

201 to 600

Over 600

Flat or rise less than 4 inches per foot (1:3)

20

16

12

Rise 4 inches per foot (1:3) to less than 12 inches per foot (1:1)

16

14

12

Rise 12 inches per foot (1:1) and greater

12

12

12

For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 inch per foot = 83.3 mm/m.

301.7 Deflection. The allowable deflection of any structural member under the live load listed in Sections 301.5 and 301.6 shall not exceed the values in Table 301.7.

TABLE 301.7

ALLOWABLE DEFLECTION OF STRUCTURAL MEMBERSa, b, c, d, e

STRUCTURAL MEMBER

ALLOWABLE DEFLECTION

Rafters having slopes greater than 3:12 with no finished ceiling attached to rafters

L/180

Interior walls and partitions

H/180

Floors and plastered ceilings

L/360

All other structural members

L/240

Exterior walls with plaster or stucco finish

H/360

Exterior walls-wind loadsa with brittle finishes

H/240

Exterior walls-wind loadsa with flexible finishes

L/120d

Lintels supporting masonry veneer wallse

L/600

Note: L = span length, H = span height.

a. The wind load shall be permitted to be taken as 0.7 times the Component and Cladding loads for the purpose of the determining deflection limits herein.

b. For cantilever members, L shall be taken as twice the length of the cantilever.

c. For aluminum structural members or panels used in roofs or walls of sunroom additions or patio covers, not supporting edge of glass or sandwich panels, the total load deflection shall not exceed L/60. For continuous aluminum structural members supporting edge of glass, the total load deflection shall not exceed L/175 for each glass lite or L/60 for the entire length of the member, whichever is more stringent. For sandwich panels used in roofs or walls of sunroom additions or patio covers, the total load deflection shall not exceed L/120.

d. Deflection for exterior walls with interior gypsum board finish shall be limited to an allowable deflection of H/180.

e. Refer to Section 703.7.2.

301.8 Nominal sizes. For the purposes of this code, where dimensions of lumber are specified, they shall be deemed to be nominal dimensions unless specifically designated as actual dimensions.

SECTION 302

FIRE-RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION

302.1 Exterior walls. Construction, projections, openings and penetrations of exterior walls of dwellings and accessory buildings shall comply with Table 302.1.

Exceptions:

1. Walls, projections, openings or penetrations in walls perpendicular to the line used to determine the fire separation distance.

2. Walls of dwellings and accessory structures located on the same lot.

3. Detached tool sheds and storage sheds, playhouses and similar structures exempted from approval by Section 102.10 are not required to provide wall protection based on location on the lot. Projections beyond the exterior wall shall not extend over the lot line.

4. Detached garages accessory to a dwelling located within 2 feet (610 mm) of a lot line are permitted to have roof eave projections not exceeding 4 inches (102 mm).

5. Foundation vents installed in compliance with this code are permitted.

Where referenced in this code, an unoccupied space on an adjoining property may be included in the required fire separation distance, provided that the adjoining property is dedicated or deeded so as to preclude, for the life of the structure, the erection of any building or structure on such space (see section 3781.02 of the Revised Code).

302.2 Residential structures with more than two dwelling units. In structures with more than two dwelling units, each grouping of two dwelling units shall be separated from an adjacent dwelling unit or an adjacent grouping of two dwelling units by two wall assemblies, each having a fire resistance rating of one hour when tested in accordance with ASTM E119 or UL 263 and/or a floor ceiling assembly having a fire resistance rating of two hours when tested in accordance with ASTM E119 or UL 263 .

Alternatively, each grouping of two dwelling units shall be separated from an adjacent dwelling unit or an adjacent grouping of two dwelling units by a common wall assembly having a fire resistance rating of not less than two hours when tested in accordance with ASTM E119 or UL 263 and/or a floor ceiling assembly having a fire resistance rating of two hours when tested in accordance with ASTM E119 or UL 263. This option is only permissible if the common wall does not contain plumbing or mechanical equipment, ducts or vents in the cavity of the common wall. The common wall shall be rated for fire exposure from both sides and shall extend to and be tight against exterior walls and the underside of the roof sheathing. Penetrations of electrical outlet boxes shall be in accordance with Section 302.4.

Additionally, within any grouping of two dwelling units, separated as indicated above, the individual dwelling units shall be separated vertically and horizontally from adjacent dwelling units by wall and/or floor assemblies having a fire resistance rating of not less than one hour when tested in accordance with ASTM E119 or UL 263 .

When assemblies are required to be fire-resistance-rated, the supporting construction of such assemblies shall have an equal or greater fire-resistive rating.

302.2.1 Continuity. The fire-resistance-rated wall or assembly separating townhouses shall be continuous from the foundation to the underside of the roof sheathing, deck or slab. The fire-resistance rating shall extend the full length of the wall or assembly, including wall extensions through and separating attached enclosed accessory structures.

302.2.2 Parapets. Parapets constructed in accordance with Section 302.2.3 shall be constructed for townhouses as an extension of exterior walls or common walls in accordance with the following:

1. Where roof surfaces adjacent to the wall or walls are at the same elevation, the parapet shall extend not less than 30 inches (762 mm) above the roof surfaces.

2. Where roof surfaces adjacent to the wall or walls are at different elevations and the higher roof is not more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the lower roof, the parapet shall extend not less than 30 inches (762 mm) above the lower roof surface.

Exception: A parapet is not required in the two cases above when the roof is covered with a minimum class C roof covering, and the roof decking or sheathing is of noncombustible materials or approved fire-retardant-treated wood for a distance of 4 feet (1219 mm) on each side of the wall or walls, or one layer of 5/8-inch ( 15.9 mm) Type X gypsum board is installed directly beneath the roof decking or sheathing, supported by a minimum of nominal 2-inch (51 mm) ledgers attached to the sides of the roof framing members, for a minimum distance of 4 feet (1219 mm) on each side of the wall or walls.

3. A parapet is not required where roof surfaces adjacent to the wall or walls are at different elevations and the higher roof is more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the lower roof. The common wall construction from the lower roof to the underside of the higher roof deck shall have not less than a 1-hour fire-resistance rating. The wall shall be rated for exposure from both sides.

TABLE 302.1 EXTERIOR WALLS

EXTERIOR WALL ELEMENT

MINIMUM FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING

MINIMUM FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE

Walls

(Fire-resistance rated)

1 hour-tested in accordance with ASTM E 119 or UL 263 with exposure from both sides

< 5 feet

(Not fire-resistance rated)

0 hours

>=5 feet

Projections

(Fire-resistance rated)

1 hour on the underside

>=2 feet to 5 feet

(Not fire-resistance rated)

0 hours

5 feet

Openings in walls

Not allowed

N/A

< 3 feet

25% maximum of wall area

0 hours

3 feet

Unlimited

0 hours

5 feet

Penetrations

All

Comply with Section 302.4

< 5 feet

None required

5 feet

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

N/A = Not Applicable.

302.2.3 Parapet construction. Parapets shall have the same fire-resistance rating as that required for the supporting wall or walls. On any side adjacent to a roof surface, the parapet shall have noncombustible faces for the uppermost 18 inches (457 mm), to include counterflashing and coping materials. Where the roof slopes toward a parapet at slopes greater than 2 units vertical in 12 units horizontal ( 16.7 -percent slope), the parapet shall extend to the same height as any portion of the roof within a distance of 3 feet (914 mm), but in no case shall the height be less than 30 inches (762 mm).

302.2.4 Structural independence. Each individual dwelling unit shall be structurally independent.

Exceptions:

1. Foundations supporting exterior walls or common walls.

2. Structural roof and wall sheathing from each unit may fasten to the common wall framing.

3. Nonstructural wall and roof coverings.

4. Flashing at termination of roof covering over common wall.

5. Dwelling units separated by a common 2-hour fire-resistance-rated wall as provided in Section 302.2 .

6. Dwelling units stacked vertically.

302.3 Two-family dwellings. Dwelling units in two-family dwellings shall be separated from each other by wall and/or floor assemblies having not less than a 1-hour fire-resistance rating when tested in accordance with ASTM E 119 or UL 263. Fire-resistance-rated floor-ceiling and wall assemblies shall extend to and be tight against the exterior wall, and wall assemblies shall extend from the foundation to the underside of the roof sheathing.

Exception:

A fire-resistance rating of ½ hour shall be permitted in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with NFPA 13.

302.3.1 Supporting construction. When floor assemblies are required to be fire-resistance rated, the supporting construction of such assemblies shall have an equal or greater fire-resistance rating.

302.4 Dwelling unit rated penetrations. Penetrations of wall or floor/ceiling assemblies required to be fire-resistance rated in accordance with Section 302.2 or 302.3 shall be protected in accordance with this section.

302.4.1 Through penetrations. Through penetrations of fire-resistance-rated wall or floor assemblies shall comply with Section 302.4. 1.1 or 302.4.1.2.

Exception:Where the penetrating items are steel, ferrous or copper pipes, tubes or conduits, the annular space shall be protected as follows:

1. In concrete or masonry wall or floor assemblies, concrete, grout or mortar shall be permitted where installed to the full thickness of the wall or floor assembly or the thickness required to maintain the fire-resistance rating, provided:

1.1 The nominal diameter of the penetrating item is a maximum of 6 inches (152 mm); and

1.2 The area of the opening through the wall does not exceed 144 square inches (92 900 mm2).

2 The material used to fill the annular space shall prevent the passage of flame and hot gases sufficient to ignite cotton waste where subjected to ASTM E 119 or UL 263 time temperature fire conditions under a minimum positive pressure differential of 0.01 inch of water (3 Pa) at the location of the penetration for the time period equivalent to the fire resistance rating of the construction penetrated.

302.4.1.1 Fire-resistance-rated assembly. Penetrations shall be installed as tested in the approved fire-resistance-rated assembly.

302.4.1.2 Penetration firestop system. Penetrations shall be protected by an approved penetration firestop system installed as tested in accordance with ASTM E 814 or UL 1479, with a minimum positive pressure differential of 0.01 inch of water (3 Pa) and shall have an F rating of not less than the required fire-resistance rating of the wall or floor/ceiling assembly penetrated.

302.4.2 Membrane penetrations. Membrane penetrations shall comply with Section 302.4.1. Where walls are required to have a fire-resistance rating, recessed fixtures shall be installed so that the required fire-resistance rating will not be reduced.

Exceptions:

1. Membrane penetrations of maximum 2-hour fire-resistance-rated walls and partitions by steel electrical boxes that do not exceed 16 square inches ( 0.0103 m2) in area provided the aggregate area of the openings through the membrane does not exceed 100 square inches ( 0.0645 m2) in any 100 square feet ( 9.29 m)2 of wall area. The annular space between the wall membrane and the box shall not exceed 1/8 inch ( 3.1 mm). Such boxes on opposite sides of the wall shall be separated by one of the following:

1.1. By a horizontal distance of not less than 24 inches (610 mm) where the wall or partition is constructed with individual noncommunicating stud cavities;

1.2. By a horizontal distance of not less than the depth of the wall cavity when the wall cavity is filled with cellulose loose-fill, rockwool or slag mineral wool insulation;

1.3. By solid fire blocking in accordance with Section 302.11 ;

1.4. By protecting both boxes with listed putty pads; or

1.5. By other listed materials and methods.

2. Membrane penetrations by listed electrical boxes of any materials provided the boxes have been tested for use in fire-resistance-rated assemblies and are installed in accordance with the instructions included in the listing. The annular space between the wall membrane and the box shall not exceed 1/8 inch ( 3.1 mm) unless listed otherwise. Such boxes on opposite sides of the wall shall be separated by one of the following:

2.1. By the horizontal distance specified in the listing of the electrical boxes;

2.2. By solid fireblocking in accordance with Section 302.11 ;

2.3. By protecting both boxes with listed putty pads; or

2.4. By other listed materials and methods.

3. The annular space created by the penetration of a fire sprinkler provided it is covered by a metal escutcheon plate.

302.5 Dwelling/garage opening/penetration protection. Openings and penetrations through the walls or ceilings separating the dwelling from the garage shall be in accordance with Sections 302.5.1 through 302.5.3.

302.5.1 Opening protection. Openings from a private garage directly into a room used for sleeping purposes shall not be permitted. Other openings between the garage and residence shall be equipped with solid wood doors not less than 13/8 inches (35 mm) in thickness, solid or honeycomb core steel doors not less than 13/8 inches (35 mm) thick, or 20-minute fire-rated doors.

302.5.2 Duct penetration. Ducts in the garage and ducts penetrating the walls or ceilings separating the dwelling from the garage shall be constructed of a minimum No. 26 gage ( 0.48 mm) sheet steel or other approved material and shall have no openings into the garage.

302.5.3 Other penetrations. Penetrations through the separation required in Section 302.6 shall be protected as required by Section 302.11 , Item 4.

302.6 Dwelling/garage fire separation. The garage shall be separated as required by Table 302.6. Openings in garage walls shall comply with Section 302.5. This provision does not apply to garage walls that are perpendicular to the adjacent dwelling unit wall.

TABLE 302.6

DWELLING/GARAGE SEPARATION1.

SEPARATION

MATERIAL

From the residence and attics

Not less than ½-inch gypsum board or equivalent applied to the garage side

From all habitable rooms above the garage

Not less than 5/8-inch Type X gypsum board or equivalent

Structure(s) supporting floor/ceiling assemblies used for separation required by this section

Not less than ½-inch gypsum board or equivalent

Garages located less than 3 feet from a dwelling unit on the same lot

Not less than ½-inch gypsum board or equivalent applied to the interior side of exterior walls that are within this area

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

1. To determine fire resistance equivalents, refer to section 302.14

302.7 Under-stair protection. Enclosed accessible space under stairs shall have walls, under-stair surface and any soffits protected on the enclosed side with ½-inch ( 12.7 mm) gypsum board.

302.8 Foam plastics. For requirements for foam plastics see Section 316.

302.9 Flame spread index and smoke-developed index for wall and ceiling finishes. Flame spread and smoke index for wall and ceiling finishes shall be in accordance with Sections 302.9.1 through 302.9.4.

302.9.1 Flame spread index. Wall and ceiling finishes shall have a flame spread index of not greater than 200.

Exception: Flame spread index requirements for finishes shall not apply to trim defined as picture molds, chair rails, baseboards and handrails; to doors and windows or their frames; or to materials that are less than 1/28 inch ( 0.91 mm) in thickness cemented to the surface of walls or ceilings if these materials exhibit flame spread index values no greater than those of paper of this thickness cemented to a noncombustible backing.

302.9.2 Smoke-developed index. Wall and ceiling finishes shall have a smoke-developed index of not greater than 450.

302.9.3 Testing. Tests shall be made in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723.

302.9.4 Alternate test method. As an alternate to having a flame-spread index of not greater than 200 and a smoke developed index of not greater than 450 when tested in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723, wall and ceiling finishes, other than textiles, shall be permitted to be tested in accordance with NFPA 286. Materials tested in accordance with NFPA 286 shall meet the following criteria:

During the 40 kW exposure, the interior finish shall comply with Item 1. During the 160 kW exposure, the interior finish shall comply with Item 2. During the entire test, the interior finish shall comply with Item 3.

1. During the 40 kW exposure, flames shall not spread to the ceiling.

2. During the 160 kW exposure, the interior finish shall comply with the following:

2.1 Flame shall not spread to the outer extremity of the sample on any wall or ceiling.

2.2 Flashover, as defined in NFPA 286, shall not occur.

3 The total smoke released throughout the NFPA 286 test shall not exceed 1,000 m2.

302.10 Flame spread index and smoke developed index for insulation. Flame spread and smoke developed index for insulation shall be in accordance with Sections 302.10.1 through 302.10.5.

302.10.1 Insulation. Insulation materials, including facings, such as vapor retarders and vapor-permeable membranes installed within floor-ceiling assemblies, roof-ceiling assemblies, wall assemblies, crawl spaces and attics shall have a flame spread index not to exceed 25 with an accompanying smoke-developed index not to exceed 450 when tested in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723.

Exceptions:

1. When such materials are installed in concealed spaces, the flame spread index and smoke-developed index limitations do not apply to the facings, provided that the facing is installed in substantial contact with the unexposed surface of the ceiling, floor or wall finish.

2. Cellulose loose-fill insulation, which is not spray applied, complying with the requirements of Section 302.10.3, shall only be required to meet the smoke-developed index of not more than 450.

302.10.2 Loose-fill insulation. Loose-fill insulation materials that cannot be mounted in the ASTM E 84 or UL 723 apparatus without a screen or artificial supports shall comply with the flame spread and smoke-developed limits of Section 302.10.1 when tested in accordance with CAN/ULC S 102.2.

Exception:Cellulose loose-fill insulation shall not be required to be tested in accordance with CAN/ULC S 102.2, provided such insulation complies with the requirements of Section 302.10.1 and Section 302.10.3.

302.10.3 Cellulose loose-fill insulation. Cellulose loose-fill insulation shall comply with CPSC 16 CFR, Parts 1209 and 1404. Each package of such insulating material shall be clearly labeled in accordance with CPSC 16 CFR, Parts 1209 and 1404.

302.10.4 Exposed attic insulation. All exposed insulation materials installed on attic floors shall have a critical radiant flux not less than 0.12 watt per square centimeter.

302.10.5 Testing. Tests for critical radiant flux shall be made in accordance with ASTM E 970.

302.11 Fireblocking. In combustible construction, fireblocking shall be provided to cut off all concealed draft openings (both vertical and horizontal) and to form an effective fire barrier between stories, and between a top story and the roof space.

Fireblocking shall be provided in wood-frame construction in the following locations:

1. In concealed spaces of stud walls and partitions, including furred spaces and parallel rows of studs or staggered studs, as follows:

1.1 Vertically at the ceiling and floor levels.

1.2 Horizontally at intervals not exceeding 10 feet (3048 mm).

2 At all interconnections between concealed vertical and horizontal spaces such as occur at soffits, drop ceilings and cove ceilings.

3 In concealed spaces between stair stringers at the top and bottom of the run. Enclosed spaces under stairs shall comply with Section 302.7.

4 At openings around vents, pipes, ducts, cables and wires at ceiling and floor level, with an approved material to resist the free passage of flame and products of combustion. The material filling this annular space shall not be required to meet the ASTM E 136 requirements.

5 For the fireblocking of chimneys and fireplaces, see Section 1003.19.

6 In buildings or structures with more than one dwelling, fireblocking of cornices is required at the line of dwelling unit separation.

302.11.1 Fireblocking materials. Except as provided in Section 302.11 , Item 4, fireblocking shall consist of the following materials:

1. Two-inch (51 mm) nominal lumber.

2. Two thicknesses of 1-inch ( 25.4 mm) nominal lumber with broken lap joints.

3. One thickness of 23/32-inch ( 18.3 mm) wood structural panels with joints backed by 23/32-inch ( 18.3 mm) wood structural panels.

4. One thickness of ¾-inch ( 19.1 mm) particleboard with joints backed by ¾-inch ( 19.1 mm) particleboard.

5. One-half-inch ( 12.7 mm) gypsum board.

6. One-quarter-inch ( 6.4 mm) cement-based millboard.

7. Batts or blankets of mineral wool or glass fiber or other approved materials installed in such a manner as to be securely retained in place.

302.11.1.1 Batts or blankets of mineral or glass fiber. Batts or blankets of mineral or glass fiber or other approved nonrigid materials shall be permitted for compliance with the 10-foot (3048 mm) horizontal fireblocking in walls constructed using parallel rows of studs or staggered studs.

302.11.1.2 Unfaced fiberglass. Unfaced fiberglass batt insulation used as fireblocking shall fill the entire cross section of the wall cavity to a minimum height of 16 inches (406 mm) measured vertically. When piping, conduit or similar obstructions are encountered, the insulation shall be packed tightly around the obstruction.

302.11.1.3 Loose-fill insulation material. Loose-fill insulation material shall not be used as a fireblock unless specifically tested in the form and manner intended for use to demonstrate its ability to remain in place and to retard the spread of fire and hot gases.

302.11.2 Fireblocking integrity. The integrity of all fireblocks shall be maintained.

302.12 Draftstopping. In combustible construction where there is usable space both above and below the concealed space of a floor/ceiling assembly, draftstops shall be installed so that the area of the concealed space does not exceed 1,000 square feet ( 92.9 m2). Draftstopping shall divide the concealed space into approximately equal areas. Where the assembly is enclosed by a floor membrane above and a ceiling membrane below, draftstopping shall be provided in floor/ceiling assemblies under the following circumstances:

1. Ceiling is suspended under the floor framing.

2. Floor framing is constructed of truss-type open-web or perforated members.

302.12.1 Materials. Draftstopping materials shall not be less than ½-inch ( 12.7 mm) gypsum board, 3/8-inch ( 9.5 mm) wood structural panels or other approved materials adequately supported. Draftstopping shall be installed parallel to the floor framing members unless otherwise approved by the building official. The integrity of the draftstops shall be maintained.

302.13 Combustible insulation clearance. Combustible insulation shall be separated a minimum of 3 inches (76 mm) from recessed luminaires, fan motors and other heat-producing devices.

Exception:Where heat-producing devices are listed for lesser clearances, combustible insulation complying with the listing requirements shall be separated in accordance with the conditions stipulated in the listing.

Recessed luminaires installed in the building thermal envelope shall meet the requirements of Section 1102.4.5.

302.14 Fire resistance determination for assemblies and materials.

When this chapter requires a fire resistive assembly or component, and there is no available evidence matching the assembly or component to a rated assembly or component tested in accordance with ASTM E 119 or UL 263, the fire resistance rating of the assembly or component can be evaluated by using section 721 in the "Ohio Building Code" or "Resource A, Guidelines on Fire Ratings of Archaic Materials and Assemblies in the International Existing Buildings Code."

When this code requires an assembly or component to serve in a fire resistive manner but the assembly or component is not required to be fire resistance rated, equivalent fire resistive values can be derived from section 721 in the "Ohio Building Code" or "Resource A, Guidelines on Fire Ratings of Archaic Materials and Assemblies in the International Existing Building Code."

SECTION 303

LIGHT, VENTILATION AND HEATING

303.1 Habitable rooms. All habitable rooms shall have an aggregate glazing area of not less than 8 percent of the floor area of such rooms. Natural ventilation shall be through windows, doors, louvers or other approved openings to the outdoor air. Such openings shall be provided with ready access or shall otherwise be readily controllable by the building occupants.

The minimum openable area to the outdoors shall be 4 percent of the floor area being ventilated.

Exceptions:

1. The glazed areas need not be openable where the opening is not required by Section 310 and an approved mechanical ventilation system capable of producing 0.35 air change per hour in the room is installed or a whole-house mechanical ventilation system is installed capable of supplying outdoor ventilation air of 15 cubic feet per minute (cfm) (78 L/s) per occupant computed on the basis of two occupants for the first bedroom and one occupant for each additional bedroom.

2. The glazed areas need not be installed in rooms where Exception 1 above is satisfied and artificial light is provided capable of producing an average illumination of 6 footcandles (65 lux) over the area of the room at a height of 30 inches (762 mm) above the floor level.

3. Use of sunroom additions and patio covers, as defined in Section 202, shall be permitted for natural ventilation if in excess of 40 percent of the exterior sunroom walls are open, or are enclosed only by insect screening.

303.2 Adjoining rooms. For the purpose of determining light and ventilation requirements, any room shall be considered as a portion of an adjoining room when at least one-half of the area of the common wall is open and unobstructed and provides an opening of not less than one-tenth of the floor area of the interior room but not less than 25 square feet ( 2.3 m2).

Exception:Openings required for light and/or ventilation shall be permitted to open into a thermally isolated sunroom addition or patio cover, provided that there is an openable area between the adjoining room and the sunroom addition or patio cover of not less than one-tenth of the floor area of the interior room but not less than 20 square feet (2 m2). The minimum openable area to the outdoors shall be based upon the total floor area being ventilated.

303.3 Bathrooms. Bathrooms, water closet compartments and other similar rooms shall be provided with aggregate glazing area in windows of not less than 3 square feet ( 0.3 m2), one-half of which must be openable.

Exception:The glazed areas shall not be required where artificial light and a mechanical ventilation system are provided. The minimum ventilation rates shall be 50 cubic feet per minute (24 L/s) for intermittent ventilation or 20 cubic feet per minute (10 L/s) for continuous ventilation. Ventilation air from the space shall be exhausted directly to the outside.

303.4 Opening location. Outdoor intake and exhaust openings shall be located in accordance with Sections 303.4.1 and 303.4.2.

303.4.1 Intake openings. Mechanical and gravity outdoor air intake openings shall be located a minimum of 10 feet (3048 mm) from any hazardous or noxious contaminant, such as vents, chimneys, plumbing vents, streets, alleys, parking lots and loading docks, except as otherwise specified in this code. Where a source of contaminant is located within 10 feet (3048 mm) of an intake opening, such opening shall be located a minimum of 2 feet (610 mm) below the contaminant source.

For the purpose of this section, the exhaust from dwelling unit toilet rooms, bathrooms and kitchens shall not be considered as hazardous or noxious.

303.4.2 Exhaust openings. Exhaust air shall not be directed onto walkways.

303.5 Outside opening protection. Air exhaust and intake openings that terminate outdoors shall be protected with corrosion-resistant screens, louvers or grilles having a minimum opening size of ¼ inch (6 mm) and a maximum opening size of ½ inch (13 mm), in any dimension. Openings shall be protected against local weather conditions. Outdoor air exhaust and intake openings shall meet the provisions for exterior wall opening protectives in accordance with this code.

303.6 Stairway illumination. All interior and exterior stairways shall be provided with a means to illuminate the stairs, including the landings and treads. Interior stairways shall be provided with an artificial light source located in the immediate vicinity of each landing of the stairway. For interior stairs the artificial light sources shall be capable of illuminating treads and landings to levels not less than 1 foot-candle (11 lux) measured at the center of treads and landings. Exterior stairways shall be provided with an artificial light source located in the immediate vicinity of the top landing of the stairway. Exterior stairways providing access to a basement from the outside grade level shall be provided with an artificial light source located in the immediate vicinity of the bottom landing of the stairway.

Exception:An artificial light source is not required at the top and bottom landing, provided an artificial light source is located directly over each stairway section.

303.6.1 Light activation. Where lighting outlets are installed in interior stairways, there shall be a wall switch at each floor level to control the lighting outlet where the stairway has six or more risers. The illumination of exterior stairways shall be controlled from inside the dwelling unit.

Exception:Lights that are continuously illuminated or automatically controlled.

303.7 Required glazed openings. Required glazed openings shall open directly onto a street or public alley, or a yard or court located on the same lot as the building.

Exceptions:

1. Required glazed openings may face into a roofed porch where the porch abuts a street, yard or court and the longer side of the porch is at least 65 percent unobstructed and the ceiling height is not less than 7 feet (2134 mm).

2. Eave projections shall not be considered as obstructing the clear open space of a yard or court.

3. Required glazed openings may face into the area under a deck, balcony, bay or floor cantilever provided a clear vertical space at least 36 inches (914 mm) in height is provided.

303.7.1 Sunroom additions. Required glazed openings shall be permitted to open into sunroom additions or patio covers that abut a street, yard or court if in excess of 40 percent of the exterior sunroom walls are open, or are enclosed only by insect screening, and the ceiling height of the sun-room is not less than 7 feet (2134 mm).

303.8 Required heating. When the winter design temperature in Table 301.2(1) is below 60°F (16°C), every dwelling unit shall be provided with heating facilities capable of maintaining a minimum room temperature of 68°F (20°C) at a point 3 feet (914 mm) above the floor and 2 feet (610 mm) from exterior walls in all habitable rooms at the design temperature. The installation of one or more portable space heaters shall not be used to achieve compliance with this section.

SECTION 304

MINIMUM ROOM AREAS

304.1 Minimum area. Every dwelling unit shall have at least one habitable room that shall have not less than 120 square feet (11 m2) of gross floor area.

304.2 Other rooms. Other habitable rooms shall have a floor area of not less than 70 square feet ( 6.5 m2).

Exception:Kitchens.

304.3 Minimum dimensions. Habitable rooms shall not be less than 7 feet (2134 mm) in any horizontal dimension.

Exception:Kitchens.

304.4 Height effect on room area. Portions of a room with a sloping ceiling measuring less than 5 feet (1524 mm) or a furred ceiling measuring less than 7 feet (2134 mm) from the finished floor to the finished ceiling shall not be considered as contributing to the minimum required habitable area for that room.

SECTION 305

CEILING HEIGHT

305.1 Minimum height. Habitable space, hallways, bathrooms, toilet rooms, laundry rooms and portions of basements containing these spaces shall have a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet (2134 mm).

Exceptions:

1. For rooms with sloped ceilings, at least 50 percent of the required floor area of the room must have a ceiling height of at least 7 feet (2134 mm) and no portion of the required floor area may have a ceiling height of less than 5 feet (1524 mm).

2. Bathrooms shall have a minimum ceiling height of 6 feet 8 inches (2032 mm) at the center of the front clearance area for fixtures as shown in Figure 307.1. The ceiling height above fixtures shall be such that the fixture is capable of being used for its intended purpose. A shower or tub equipped with a showerhead shall have a minimum ceiling height of 6 feet 8 inches (2032 mm) above a minimum area 30 inches (762 mm) by 30 inches (762 mm) at the showerhead.

305.1.1 Basements. Portions of basements that do not contain habitable space, hallways, bathrooms, toilet rooms and laundry rooms shall have a ceiling height of not less than 6 feet 8 inches (2032 mm).

Exceptions:

1. Beams, girders, ducts or other obstructions may project to within 6 feet 4 inches (1931 mm) of the finished floor.

2. Habitable spaces created in existing basements shall be permitted to have ceiling heights of not less than 6 feet 8 inches (2032 mm). Obstructions may project to within 6 feet, 4 inches of the basement floor.

SECTION 306

SANITATION

306.1 Toilet facilities. Every dwelling unit shall be provided with a water closet, lavatory, and a bathtub or shower.

306.2 Kitchen. Each dwelling unit shall be provided with a kitchen area and every kitchen area shall be provided with a sink.

306.3 Sewage disposal. All plumbing fixtures shall be connected to a sanitary sewer or to an approved private sewage disposal system.

306.4 Water supply to fixtures. All plumbing fixtures shall be connected to an approved water supply. Kitchen sinks, lavatories, bathtubs, showers, bidets, laundry tubs and washing machine outlets shall be provided with hot and cold water.

SECTION 307

TOILET, BATH AND SHOWER SPACES

307.1 Space required. Fixtures shall be spaced in accordance with Figure 307.1, and in accordance with the requirements of the plumbing code.

image: oh/admin/2014/4101$8-3-01_PH_FF_A_RU_20140414_1542-8.jpg

FIGURE 307.1

MINIMUM FIXTURE CLEARANCES

307.2 Bathtub and shower spaces. Bathtub and shower floors and walls above bathtubs with installed shower heads and in shower compartments shall be finished with a nonabsorbent surface. Such wall surfaces shall extend to a height of not less than 6 feet (1829 mm) above the floor.

SECTION 308

GLAZING

308.1 Identification. Except as indicated in Section 308.1.1 each pane of glazing installed in hazardous locations as defined in Section 308.4 shall be provided with a manufacturer's designation specifying who applied the designation, designating the type of glass and the safety glazing standard with which it complies, which is visible in the final installation. The designation shall be acid etched, sandblasted, ceramic-fired, laser etched, embossed, or be of a type which once applied cannot be removed without being destroyed. A label shall be permitted in lieu of the manufacturer's designation.

Exceptions:

1. For other than tempered glass, manufacturer's designations are not required provided the building official approves the use of a certificate, affidavit or other evidence confirming compliance with this code.

2. Tempered spandrel glass is permitted to be identified by the manufacturer with a removable paper designation.

308.1.1 Identification of multiple assemblies. Multipane assemblies having individual panes not exceeding 1 square foot ( 0.09 m2) in exposed area shall have at least one pane in the assembly identified in accordance with Section 308.1. All other panes in the assembly shall be labeled "CPSC 16 CFR 1201" or "ANSI Z 97.1 " as appropriate.

308.2 Louvered windows or jalousies. Regular, float, wired or patterned glass in jalousies and louvered windows shall be no thinner than nominal 3/16 inch (5 mm) and no longer than 48 inches (1219 mm). Exposed glass edges shall be smooth.

308.2.1 Wired glass prohibited. Wired glass with wire exposed on longitudinal edges shall not be used in jalousies or louvered windows.

308.3 Human impact loads. Individual glazed areas, including glass mirrors in hazardous locations such as those indicated as defined in Section 308.4, shall pass the test requirements of Section 308.3.1.

Exceptions:

1. Louvered windows and jalousies shall comply with Section 308.2.

2. Mirrors and other glass panels mounted or hung on a surface that provides a continuous backing support.

3. Glass unit masonry complying with Section 610.

308.3.1 Impact test. Where required by other sections of the code, glazing shall be tested in accordance with CPSC 16 CFR 1201. Glazing shall comply with the test criteria for Category I or II as indicated in Table 308.3.1(1).

Exception:Glazing not in doors or enclosures for hot tubs, whirlpools, saunas, steam rooms, bathtubs and showers shall be permitted to be tested in accordance with ANSI Z 97.1. Glazing shall comply with the test criteria for Class A or B as indicated in Table 308.3.1(2).

TABLE 308.3.1(1)

MINIMUM CATEGORY CLASSIFICATION OF GLAZING USING CPSC 16 CFR 1201

EXPOSED SURFACE AREA OF ONE SIDE OF ONE LITE

GLAZING IN STORM OR COMBINATION DOORS (Category Class)

GLAZING IN DOORS (Category Class)

GLAZED PANELS REGULATED BY ITEM 3 OF SECTION 308.4 (Category Class)

GLAZED PANELS REGULATED BY ITEM 2 OF SECTION 308.4 (Category Class)

GLAZING IN DOORS AND ENCLOSURES REGULATED BY ITEM 5 OF SECTION 308.4 (Category Class)

SLIDING GLASS DOORS PATIO TYPE (Category Class)

9 square feet or less

I

I

NR

I

II

II

More than 9 square feet

II

II

II

II

II

II

For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.

NR means "No Requirement."

TABLE 308.3.1(2)

MINIMUM CATEGORY CLASSIFICATION OF GLAZING USING ANSI Z 97.1

EXPOSED SURFACE AREA OF ONE SIDE OF ONE LITE

GLAZED PANELS REGULATED BY ITEM 3 OF SECTION 308.4(Category Class)

GLAZED PANELS REGULATED BY ITEM 2 OF SECTION 308.4 (Category Class)

DOORS AND ENCLOSURES REGULATED BY ITEM 5 OF SECTION 308.4a(Category Class)

9 square feet or less

No requirement

B

A

More than 9 square feet

A

A

A

For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.

a. Use is permitted only by the exception to Section 308.3.1.

308.4 Hazardous locations. The following shall be considered specific hazardous locations for the purposes of glazing:

1. Glazing in all fixed and operable panels of swinging, sliding and bifold doors.

Exceptions:

1. Glazed openings of a size through which a 3-inch diameter (76 mm) sphere is unable to pass.

2. Decorative glazing.

2. Glazing in an individual fixed or operable panel adjacent to a door where the nearest vertical edge is within a 24-inch (610 mm) arc of the door in a closed position and whose bottom edge is less than 60 inches (1524 mm) above the floor or walking surface.

Exceptions:

1. Decorative glazing.

2. When there is an intervening wall or other permanent barrier between the door and the glazing.

3. Glazing in walls on the latch side of and perpendicular to the plane of the door in a closed position.

4. Glazing adjacent to a door where access through the door is to a closet or storage area 3 feet (914 mm) or less in depth.

5. Glazing that is adjacent to the fixed panel of patio doors.

3. Glazing in an individual fixed or operable panel that meets all of the following conditions:

3.1 The exposed area of an individual pane is larger than 9 square feet ( 0.836 m2); and

3.2 The bottom edge of the glazing is less than 18 inches (457 mm) above the floor; and

3.3 The top edge of the glazing is more than 36 inches (914 mm) above the floor; and

3.4 One or more walking surfaces are within 36 inches (914 mm), measured horizontally and in a straight line, of the glazing.

Exceptions:

1. Decorative glazing.

2. When a horizontal rail is installed on the accessible side(s) of the glazing 34 to 38 inches (864 to 965) above the walking surface. The rail shall be capable of withstanding a horizontal load of 50 pounds per linear foot (730 N/m) without contacting the glass and be a minimum of 1½ inches (38 mm) in cross sectional height.

3. Outboard panes in insulating glass units and other multiple glazed panels when the bottom edge of the glass is 25 feet (7620 mm) or more above grade, a roof, walking surfaces or other horizontal [within 45 degrees ( 0.79 rad) of horizontal] surface adjacent to the glass exterior.

4. All glazing in railings regardless of area or height above a walking surface. Included are structural baluster panels and nonstructural infill panels.

5. Glazing in enclosures for or walls facing hot tubs, whirlpools, saunas, steam rooms, bathtubs and showers where the bottom exposed edge of the glazing is less than 60 inches (1524 mm) measured vertically above any standing or walking surface.

Exception:Glazing that is more than 60 inches (1524 mm), measured horizontally and in a straight line, from the waters edge of a hot tub, whirlpool or bathtub.

6. Glazing in walls and fences adjacent to indoor and outdoor swimming pools, hot tubs and spas where the bottom edge of the glazing is less than 60 inches (1524 mm) above a walking surface and within 60 inches (1524 mm), measured horizontally and in a straight line, of the water's edge. This shall apply to single glazing and all panes in multiple glazing.

7. Glazing adjacent to stairways, landings and ramps within 36 inches (914 mm) horizontally of a walking surface when the exposed surface of the glazing is less than 60 inches (1524 mm) above the plane of the adjacent walking surface.

Exceptions:

1. When a rail is installed on the accessible side(s) of the glazing 34 to 38 inches (864 to 965 mm) above the walking surface. The rail shall be capable of withstanding a horizontal load of 50 pounds per linear foot (730 N/m) without contacting the glass and be a minimum of 1½ inches (38 mm) in cross sectional height.

2. The side of the stairway has a guardrail or handrail, including balusters or in-fill panels, complying with Sections 311.7.7 and 312 and the plane of the glazing is more than 18 inches (457 mm) from the railing; or

3. When a solid wall or panel extends from the plane of the adjacent walking surface to 34 inches (863 mm) to 36 inches (914 mm) above the walking surface and the construction at the top of that wall or panel is capable of withstanding the same horizontal load as a guard.

8. Glazing adjacent to stairways within 60 inches (1524 mm) horizontally of the bottom tread of a stairway in any direction when the exposed surface of the glazing is less than 60 inches (1524 mm) above the nose of the tread.

Exceptions:

1. The side of the stairway has a guardrail or handrail, including balusters or in-fill panels, complying with Sections 311.7.7 and 312 and the plane of the glass is more than 18 inches (457 mm) from the railing; or

2. When a solid wall or panel extends from the plane of the adjacent walking surface to 34 inches (864 mm) to 36 inches (914 mm) above the walking surface and the construction at the top of that wall or panel is capable of withstanding the same horizontal load as a guard.

308.5 Site built windows. Site built windows shall comply with Section 2404 of the Ohio Building Code.

308.6 Skylights and sloped glazing. Skylights and sloped glazing shall comply with the following sections.

308.6.1 Definitions.

SKYLIGHTS AND SLOPED GLAZING. Glass or other transparent or translucent glazing material installed at a slope of 15 degrees ( 0.26 rad) or more from vertical. Glazing materials in skylights, including unit skylights, solariums, sunrooms, roofs and sloped walls are included in this definition.

UNIT SKYLIGHT. A factory assembled, glazed fenestration unit, containing one panel of glazing material, that allows for natural daylighting through an opening in the roof assembly while preserving the weather-resistant barrier of the roof.

308.6.2 Permitted materials. The following types of glazing may be used:

1. Laminated glass with a minimum 0.015 -inch ( 0.38 mm) polyvinyl butyral interlayer for glass panes 16 square feet ( 1.5 m2) or less in area located such that the ighest point of the glass is not more than 12 feet (3658 mm) above a walking surface or other accessible area; for higher or larger sizes, the minimum interlayer thickness shall be 0.030 inch ( 0.76 mm).

2. Fully tempered glass.

3. Heat-strengthened glass.

4. Wired glass.

5. Approved rigid plastics.

308.6.3 Screens, general. For fully tempered or heat-strengthened glass, a retaining screen meeting the requirements of Section 308.6.7 shall be installed below the glass, except for fully tempered glass that meets either condition listed in Section 308.6.5.

308.6.4 Screens with multiple glazing. When the inboard pane is fully tempered, heat-strengthened or wired glass, a retaining screen meeting the requirements of Section 308.6.7 shall be installed below the glass, except for either condition listed in Section 308.6.5. All other panes in the multiple glazing may be of any type listed in Section 308.6.2.

308.6.5 Screens not required. Screens shall not be required when fully tempered glass is used as single glazing or the inboard pane in multiple glazing and either of the following conditions are met:

1. Glass area 16 square feet ( 1.49 m2) or less. Highest point of glass not more than 12 feet (3658 mm) above a walking surface or other accessible area, nominal glass thickness not more than 3/16 inch ( 4.8 mm), and (for multiple glazing only) the other pane or panes fully tempered, laminated or wired glass.

2. Glass area greater than 16 square feet ( 1.49 m2). Glass sloped 30 degrees ( 0.52 rad) or less from vertical, and highest point of glass not more than 10 feet (3048 mm) above a walking surface or other accessible area.

308.6.6 Glass in greenhouses. Any glazing material is permitted to be installed without screening in the sloped areas of greenhouses, provided the greenhouse height at the ridge does not exceed 20 feet (6096 mm) above grade.

308.6.7 Screen characteristics. The screen and its fastenings shall be capable of supporting twice the weight of the glazing, be firmly and substantially fastened to the framing members, and have a mesh opening of no more than 1 inch by 1 inch (25 mm by 25 mm).

308.6.8 Curbs for skylights. All unit skylights installed in a roof with a pitch flatter than three units vertical in 12 units horizontal (25-percent slope) shall be mounted on a curb extending at least 4 inches (102 mm) above the plane of the roof unless otherwise specified in the manufacturer's installation instructions.

308.6.9 Testing and labeling. Unit skylights shall be tested by an approved independent laboratory, and bear a label identifying manufacturer, performance grade rating and approved inspection agency to indicate compliance with the requirements of AAMA/WDMA/CSA 101/I.S.2/A440.

SECTION 309

GARAGES AND CARPORTS

309.1 Floor surface. Garage floor surfaces shall be of approved noncombustible material.

The area of floor used for parking of automobiles or other vehicles shall be sloped to facilitate the movement of liquids to a drain or toward the main vehicle entry doorway.

309.2 Carports. Carports shall be open on at least two sides. Carport floor surfaces shall be of approved noncombustible material. Carports not open on at least two sides shall be considered a garage and shall comply with the provisions of this section for garages.

Exception:Asphalt surfaces shall be permitted at ground level in carports.

The area of floor used for parking of automobiles or other vehicles shall be sloped to facilitate the movement of liquids to a drain or toward the main vehicle entry doorway.

309.3 Flood hazard areas. For buildings located in flood hazard areas as established by Table 301.2(1), garage floors shall be:

1. Elevated to or above the design flood elevation as determined in Section 322; or

2. Located below the design flood elevation provided they are at or above grade on at least one side, are used solely for parking, building access or storage, meet the requirements of Section 322 and are otherwise constructed in accordance with this code.

309.4 Automatic garage door openers. Automatic garage door openers, if provided, shall be listed in accordance with UL 325.

SECTION 310

EMERGENCY ESCAPE AND RESCUE OPENINGS

310.1 Emergency escape and rescue required. Every sleeping room shall have at least one operable emergency escape and rescue opening. Where emergency escape and rescue openings are provided they shall have a sill height of not more than 44 inches (1118 mm) above the floor. Where a door opening having a threshold below the adjacent ground elevation serves as an emergency escape and rescue opening and is provided with a bulkhead enclosure, the bulkhead enclosure shall comply with Section 310.3. The net clear opening dimensions required by this section shall be obtained by the normal operation of the emergency escape and rescue opening from the inside. Emergency escape and rescue openings with a finished sill height below the adjacent ground elevation shall be provided with a window well in accordance with Section 310.2.

310.1.1 Minimum opening area. All emergency escape and rescue openings shall have a minimum net clear opening of 5.7 square feet ( 0.530 m2).

Exception:Grade floor openings shall have a minimum net clear opening of 5 square feet ( 0.465 m2).

310.1.2 Minimum opening height. The minimum net clear opening height shall be 24 inches (610 mm).

310.1.3 Minimum opening width. The minimum net clear opening width shall be 20 inches (508 mm).

310.1.4 Operational constraints. Emergency escape and rescue openings shall be operational from the inside of the room without the use of keys, tools or special knowledge.

310.1.5. Replacement windows. Replacement windows installed in accordance with Section 113.6.1 shall not be required to comply with sections 310.1.1 through 310.1.3.

310.2 Window wells. The minimum horizontal area of the window well shall be 9 square feet ( 0.9 m2), with a minimum horizontal projection and width of 36 inches (914 mm). The area of the window well shall allow the emergency escape and rescue opening to be fully opened.

Exception:The ladder or steps required by Section 310.2.1 shall be permitted to encroach a maximum of 6 inches (152 mm) into the required dimensions of the window well.

310.2.1 Ladder and steps. Window wells with a vertical depth greater than 44 inches (1118 mm) shall be equipped with a permanently affixed ladder or steps usable with the window in the fully open position. Ladders or steps required by this section shall not be required to comply with Sections 311.7 and 311.8. Ladders or rungs shall have an inside width of at least 12 inches (305 mm), shall project at least 3 inches (76 mm) from the wall and shall be spaced not more than 18 inches (457 mm) on center vertically for the full height of the window well.

310.3 Bulkhead enclosures. Bulkhead enclosures shall provide direct access to the basement. The bulkhead enclosure with the door panels in the fully open position shall provide the minimum net clear opening required by Section 310.1.1. Bulkhead enclosures shall also comply with Section 2 311.7.9.2.

310.4 Bars, grilles, covers and screens. Bars, grilles, covers, screens or similar devices are permitted to be placed over emergency escape and rescue openings, bulkhead enclosures, or window wells that serve such openings, provided the minimum net clear opening size complies with Sections 310.1.1 to 310.1.3, and such devices shall be releasable or removable from the inside without the use of a key, tool, special knowledge or force greater than that which is required for normal operation of the escape and rescue opening.

310.5 Emergency escape windows under decks and porches. Emergency escape windows are allowed to be installed under decks and porches provided the location of the deck allows the emergency escape window to be fully opened and provides a path not less than 36 inches (914 mm) in height to a yard or court.

SECTION 311

MEANS OF EGRESS

311.1 Means of egress. All dwellings shall be provided with a means of egress as provided in this section. The means of egress shall provide a continuous and unobstructed path of vertical and horizontal egress travel from all portions of the dwelling to the exterior of the dwelling at the required egress door without requiring travel through a garage.

311.2 Egress door. At least one egress door shall be provided for each dwelling unit. The egress door shall be side-hinged, and shall provide a minimum clear width of 32 inches (813 mm) when measured between the face of the door and the stop, with the door open 90 degrees ( 1.57 rad). The minimum clear height of the door opening shall not be less than 78 inches (1981 mm) in height measured from the top of the threshold to the bottom of the stop. Other doors shall not be required to comply with these minimum dimensions. Egress doors shall be readily openable from inside the dwelling without the use of a key or special knowledge or effort.

311.2.1 Garage access doors. Garages shall be served by at least one side-hinged door not less than 2 feet 6 inches (760 mm) in width and 6 feet 8 inches (2032 mm) in height. Such door located between a dwelling and an attached garage shall be acceptable for meeting this requirement.

311.3 Floors and landings at exterior doors. There shall be a landing or floor on each side of each exterior door. The width of each landing shall not be less than the door served. Every landing shall have a minimum dimension of 36 inches (914 mm) measured in the direction of travel. Exterior landings shall be permitted to have a slope not to exceed ¼ unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (2-percent).

Exception:Exterior balconies less than 60 square feet ( 5.6 m2) and only accessible from a door are permitted to have a landing less than 36 inches (914 mm) measured in the direction of travel.

311.3.1 Floor elevations at the required egress doors. Landings or floors at the required egress door shall not be more than 1½ inches (38 mm) lower than the top of the threshold.

Exception:The exterior landing or floor shall not be more than 8 ¼ inches (196 mm) below the top of the threshold provided the door does not swing over the landing or floor.

When exterior landings or floors serving the required egress door are not at grade, they shall be provided with access to grade by means of a ramp in accordance with Section 311.8 or a stairway in accordance with Section 311.7.

311.3.2 Floor elevations for other exterior doors. Doors other than the required egress door shall be provided with landings or floors not more than 8 ¼ inches (196 mm) below the top of the threshold.

Exception:A landing is not required where a stairway of two or fewer risers is located on the exterior side of the door, provided the door does not swing over the stairway.

311.3.3 Storm and screen doors. Storm and screen doors shall be permitted to swing over all exterior stairs and landings.

311.4 Vertical egress. Egress from finished levels including attics and basements not provided with an egress door in accordance with Section 311.2 shall be by a ramp in accordance with Section 311.8 or a stairway in accordance with Section 311.7.

311.5 Construction.

311.5.1 Attachment. Exterior landings, decks, balconies, stairs and similar facilities shall be positively anchored to the primary structure to resist both vertical and lateral forces or shall be designed to be self-supporting. Attachment shall not be accomplished by use of toenails or nails subject to withdrawal.

311.6 Hallways. The minimum width of a hallway shall be not less than 3 feet (914 mm).

311.7 Stairways.

311.7.1 Width. Stairways shall not be less than 36 inches (914 mm) in clear width at all points above the permitted handrail height and below the required headroom height. Handrails shall not project more than 4.5 inches (114 mm) on either side of the stairway and the minimum clear width of the stairway at and below the handrail height, including treads and landings, shall not be less than 31½ inches (787 mm) where a handrail is installed on one side and 27 inches (698 mm) where handrails are provided on both sides.

Exception:The width of spiral stairways shall be in accordance with Section 311.7.9.1.

311.7.2 Headroom. The minimum headroom in all parts of the stairway shall not be less than 6 feet 8 inches (2032 mm) measured vertically from the sloped line adjoining the tread nosing or from the floor surface of the landing or platform on that portion of the stairway.

Exception:Where the nosings of treads at the side of a flight extend under the edge of a floor opening through which the stair passes, the floor opening shall be allowed to project horizontally into the required headroom a maximum of 4¾ inches (121 mm).

311.7.3 Walkline. The walkline across winder treads shall be concentric to the curved direction of travel through the turn and located 12 inches (305 mm) from the side where the winders are narrower. The 12-inch (305 mm) dimension shall be measured from the widest point of the clear stair width at the walking surface of the winder. If winders are adjacent within the flight, the point of the widest clear stair width of the adjacent winders shall be used.

311.7.4 Stair treads and risers. Stair treads and risers shall meet the requirements of this section. For the purposes of this section all dimensions and dimensioned surfaces shall be exclusive of carpets, rugs or runners.

311.7.4.1 Riser height. The maximum riser height shall be 8 ¼ inches (196 mm). The riser shall be measured vertically between leading edges of the adjacent treads. The greatest riser height within any flight of stairs shall not exceed the smallest by more than 3/8 inch ( 9.5 mm).

311.7.4.2 Tread depth. The minimum tread depth shall be 9 inches (254 mm). The tread depth shall be measured horizontally between the vertical planes of the foremost projection of adjacent treads and at a right angle to the tread's leading edge. The greatest tread depth within any flight of stairs shall not exceed the smallest by more than 3/8 inch ( 9.5 mm). Consistently shaped winders at the walkline shall be allowed within the same flight of stairs as rectangular treads and do not have to be within 3/8 inch ( 9.5 mm) of the rectangular tread depth.

Winder treads shall have a minimum tread depth of 9 inches (254 mm) measured between the vertical planes of the foremost projection of adjacent treads at the intersections with the walkline. Winder treads shall have a minimum tread depth of 6 inches (152 mm) at any point within the clear width of the stair. Within any flight of stairs, the largest winder tread depth at the walkline shall not exceed the smallest winder tread by more than 3/8 inch ( 9.5 mm).

311.7.4.3 Profile. The radius of curvature at the nosing shall be no greater than 9/16 inch (14 mm). A nosing not less than ¾ inch (19 mm) but not more than 1¼ inches (32 mm) shall be provided on stairways with solid risers. The greatest nosing projection shall not exceed the smallest nosing projection by more than 3/8 inch ( 9.5 mm) between two stories, including the nosing at the level of floors and landings. Beveling of nosings shall not exceed ½ inch ( 12.7 mm). Risers shall be vertical or sloped under the tread above from the underside of the nosing above at an angle not more than 30 degrees ( 0.51 rad) from the vertical. Open risers are permitted, provided that the opening between treads does not permit the passage of a 4-inch diameter (102 mm) sphere.

Exceptions:

1. A nosing is not required where the tread depth is a minimum of 11 inches (279 mm).

2. The opening between adjacent treads is not limited on stairs with a total rise of 30 inches (762 mm) or less.

311.7.4.4 Exterior wood/plastic composite stair treads. Wood/plastic composite stair treads shall comply with the provisions of Section 317.4.

311.7.5 Landings for stairways. There shall be a floor or landing at the top and bottom of each stairway. A flight of stairs shall not have a vertical rise larger than 12 feet (3658 mm) between floor levels or landings. The width of each landing shall not be less than the width of the stairway served. Every landing shall have a minimum dimension of 36 inches (914 mm) measured in the direction of travel.

Exception:A floor or landing is not required at the top of an interior flight of stairs, including stairs in an enclosed garage, provided a door does not swing over the stairs.

311.7.6 Stairway walking surface. The walking surface of treads and landings of stairways shall be sloped no steeper than one unit vertical in 48 inches horizontal (2-percent slope).

311.7.7 Handrails. Handrails shall be provided on at least one side of each continuous run of treads or flight with four or more risers.

311.7.7.1 Height. Handrail height, measured vertically from the sloped plane adjoining the tread nosing, or finish surface of ramp slope, shall be not less than 34 inches (864 mm) and not more than 38 inches (965 mm).

Exceptions:

1. The use of a volute, turnout or starting easing shall be allowed over the lowest tread.

2. When handrail fittings or bendings are used to provide continuous transition between flights, the transition from handrail to guardrail, or used at the start of a flight, the handrail height at the fittings or bendings shall be permitted to exceed the maximum height.

311.7.7.2 Continuity. Handrails for stairways shall be continuous for the full length of the flight, from a point directly above the top riser of the flight to a point directly above the lowest riser of the flight. Handrail ends shall be returned or shall terminate in newel posts or safety terminals. Handrails adjacent to a wall shall have a space of not less than 1½ inch (38 mm) between the wall and the handrails.

Exceptions:

1. Handrails shall be permitted to be interrupted by a newel post at the turn.

2. The use of a volute, turnout, starting easing or starting newel shall be allowed over the lowest tread.

3. Two or more separate rails shall be considered continuous if the termination of the rails occurs over a single tread and positioned within 4 inches of each other. If the transition occurs between a wall mounted handrail and handrail/guardrail combination, the wall mounted handrail shall return into the wall.

311.7.7.3 Grip-size. All required handrails shall be of one of the following types or provide equivalent graspability.

1. Type I. Handrails with a circular cross section shall have an outside diameter of at least 1¼ inches (32 mm) and not greater than 2 inches (51 mm). If the handrail is not circular, it shall have a perimeter dimension of at least 4 inches (102 mm) and not greater than 6¼ inches (160 mm) with a maximum cross section of dimension of 2¼ inches (57 mm). Edges shall have a minimum radius of 0.01 inch ( 0.25 mm).

2. Type II. Handrails with a perimeter greater than 6¼ inches (160 mm) shall have a graspable finger recess area on both sides of the profile. The finger recess shall begin within a distance of ¾ inch (19 mm) measured vertically from the tallest portion of the profile and achieve a depth of at least 5/16 inch (8 mm) within 7/8 inch (22 mm) below the widest portion of the profile. This required depth shall continue for at least 3/8 inch (10 mm) to a level that is not less than 1¾ inches (45 mm) below the tallest portion of the profile. The minimum width of the handrail above the recess shall be 1¼ inches (32 mm) to a maximum of 2¾ inches (70 mm). Edges shall have a minimum radius of 0.01 inch ( 0.25 mm).

311.7.7.4 Exterior wood/plastic composite handrails. Wood/plastic composite handrails shall comply with the provisions of Section 317.4.

311.7.8 Illumination. All stairs shall be provided with illumination in accordance with Section 303.6.

311.7.9 Special stairways. Spiral stairways and bulkhead enclosure stairways shall comply with all requirements of Section 311.7 except as specified below.

311.7.9.1 Spiral stairways. Spiral stairways are permitted, provided the minimum clear width at and below the handrail shall be 26 inches (660 mm) with each tread having a 7½-inch (190 mm) minimum tread depth at 12 inches (914 mm) from the narrower edge. All treads shall be identical, and the rise shall be no more than 9½ inches (241 mm). A minimum headroom of 6 feet 6 inches (1982 mm) shall be provided.

311.7.9.2 Bulkhead enclosure stairways. Stairways serving bulkhead enclosures, not part of the required building egress, providing access from the outside grade level to the basement shall be exempt from the requirements of Sections 311.3 and 311.7 where the maximum height from the basement finished floor level to grade adjacent to the stairway does not exceed 8 feet (2438 mm) and the grade level opening to the stairway is covered by a bulkhead enclosure with hinged doors or other approved means.

311.8 Ramps.

311.8.1 Maximum slope. Ramps shall have a maximum slope of 1 unit vertical in 8 units horizontal ( 12.5 percent slope).

311.8.2 Landings required. A minimum 3-foot-by-3-foot (914 mm by 914 mm) landing shall be provided:

1. At the top and bottom of ramps.

2. Where doors open onto ramps.

3. Where ramps change direction.

311.8.3 Handrails required. Handrails shall be provided on at least one side of all ramps exceeding a slope of one unit vertical in 12 units horizontal ( 8.33 -percent slope).

311.8.3.1 Height. Handrail height, measured above the finished surface of the ramp slope, shall be not less than 34 inches (864 mm) and not more than 38 inches (965 mm).

311.8.3.2 Grip size. Handrails on ramps shall comply with Section 311.7.7.3.

311.8.3.3 Continuity. Handrails where required on ramps shall be continuous for the full length of the ramp. Handrail ends shall be returned or shall terminate in newel posts or safety terminals. Handrails adjacent to a wall shall have a space of not less than 1½ inches (38 mm) between the wall and the handrails.

SECTION 312

GUARDS

312.1 Where required. Guards shall be located along open-sided walking surfaces, including stairs, ramps and landings, that are located more than 30 inches (762 mm) measured vertically to the floor or grade below at any point within 36 inches (914 mm) horizontally to the edge of the open side. Insect screening shall not be considered as a guard.

Exception:Guards are not required where a protective bar is installed 34 inches to 38 inches (864 mm to 965 mm) above the porch or deck on the interior side of the screening. The protective bar shall be capable of resisting a horizontal load of 50 pounds per lineal foot (730 N/m) without contacting the screen and be a minimum of 1½ inches (38 mm) in height.

312.2 Height. Required guards at open-sided walking surfaces, including stairs, porches, balconies or landings, shall be not less than 36 inches (914 mm) high measured vertically above the adjacent walking surface, adjacent fixed seating or the line connecting the leading edges of the treads.

Exceptions:

1. Guards on the open sides of stairs shall have a height not less than 34 inches (864 mm) measured vertically from a line connecting the leading edges of the treads.

2. Where the top of the guard also serves as a handrail on the open sides of stairs, the top of the guard shall not be not less than 34 inches (864 mm) and not more than 38 inches (965 mm) measured vertically from a line connecting the leading edges of the treads.

312.3 Opening limitations. Required guards shall not have openings from the walking surface to the required guard height which allow passage of a sphere 4 inches (102 mm) in diameter.

Exceptions:

1. The triangular openings at the open side of a stair, formed by the riser, tread and bottom rail of a guard, shall not allow passage of a sphere 6 inches (153 mm) in diameter.

2. Guards on the open sides of stairs shall not have openings which allow passage of a sphere 43/8 inches (111 mm) in diameter.

312.4 Exterior woodplastic composite guards. Woodplastic composite guards shall comply with the provisions of Section 317.4.

SECTION 313

AUTOMATIC FIRE SPRINKLER SYSTEMS

313.1 Townhouse automatic fire sprinkler systems. An automatic residential fire sprinkler system is not required to be installed in townhouses or other R-3 occupancy designs using this code.

313.1.1 Design and installation for non-required systems. When a non-required automatic residential fire sprinkler system is intended to be installed within a townhouse or a dwelling in another R-3 occupancy using this code, the system shall be designed and installed in accordance with Section 2904, NFPA 13, NFPA 13R or NFPA 13D as referenced in Chapter 44 of this code.

313.2 One-, two- and three-family dwellings automatic fire systems. An automatic residential fire sprinkler system is not required to be installed in one-, two-, or three-family dwellings.

313.2.1 Design and installation for non-required systems. When an automatic residential fire sprinkler systems is intended to be installed, it shall be designed and installed in accordance with Section 2904, NFPA 13, NFPA 13R or NFPA 13D as referenced in Chapter 44 of this code.

313.3 Design and installation of non-required fire sprinkler systems. Any full or partial fire sprinkler system not required by this code shall be permitted to be installed for partial or complete protection provided that such system meets the requirements of this code to the extent of the intended installation.

SECTION 314

SMOKE ALARMS

314.1 Smoke detection and notification. All smoke alarms shall be listed in accordance with UL 217 and installed in accordance with the provisions of this code and the household fire warning equipment provisions of NFPA 72.

314.2 Smoke detection systems. Household fire alarm systems installed in accordance with NFPA 72 that include smoke alarms, or a combination of smoke detector and audible notification device installed as required by this section for smoke alarms, shall be permitted. The household fire alarm system shall provide the same level of smoke detection and alarm as required by this section for smoke alarms. Where a household fire warning system is installed using a combination of smoke detector and audible notification device(s), it shall become a permanent fixture of the occupancy and owned by the homeowner. The system shall be maintained in accordance with NFPA 72.

Exception:Where smoke alarms are provided meeting the requirements of Section 314.4.

314.3 Location. Smoke alarms shall be installed in the following locations:

1. In each sleeping room.

2. Outside each separate sleeping area, such as in the corridors in the immediate vicinity of the sleeping rooms.

3. On each additional story of the dwelling, including basements and habitable attics but not including crawl spaces and uninhabitable attics. In dwellings or dwelling units with split levels and without an intervening door between the adjacent levels, a smoke alarm installed on the upper level shall suffice for the adjacent lower level provided that the lower level is less than one full story below the upper level.

314.3.1 New dwelling units. In new dwelling units, smoke alarms are required to be installed in the locations described in Section 314.3.

314.3.2 Existing dwelling units.Smoke alarms shall be provided in existing buildings as follows:

1. When alterations or repairs requiring an approval are made to the spaces described in item 1 or 2 of Section 314.3, smoke alarms shall be provided in those spaces as required for a new dwelling.

2. When one or more sleeping rooms are added or created in existing dwellings, the new sleeping rooms and the immediate vicinity outside each sleeping room shall be equipped with smoke alarms as required for new dwellings.

314.4 Power source. Required smoke alarms shall receive their primary power from the building wiring when such wiring is served from a commercial source for the following conditions:

1. In new dwelling units.

2. In existing dwelling units where there is an attic, crawl space, or basement available which could provide access for hard-wiring.

3. In existing dwelling units where the existing interior finishes are removed, exposing the structure.

Exceptions:

1. Smoke alarms shall be permitted to be battery operated when installed in buildings without commercial power.

2. Hard-wiring of new smoke alarms installedin existing finished areas shall not be required where there is not access to an attic, crawl space, or basement, as described above, and where the removal of interior wall or ceiling finishes exposing the structure is not otherwise proposed. Listed conventional battery operated smoke alarms or listed battery operated low-power radio (wireless) alarms are permitted to be installed in these existing finished areas.

314.5 Interconnection. Where more than one smoke alarm is required to be installed within an individual dwelling unit in accordance with Section 314.3, the alarm devices shall be interconnected in such a manner that the actuation of one alarm will activate all of the alarms in the individual dwelling unit. Physical interconnection of smoke alarms shall not be required where listed low-power radio (wireless) alarms are installed and all alarms sound upon activation of one alarm.

Exception: Interconnection of smoke alarms in existing areas shall not be required where alterations or repairs do not result in removal of interior wall or ceiling finishes exposing the structure, unless there is an attic, crawl space or basement available which could provide access for interconnection without the removal of interior finishes.

SECTION 315

CARBON MONOXIDE ALARMS

315.1 When required. Carbon monoxide alarms are required to be installed only in new and existing dwelling units having fuel-fired appliances or having attached garages and only when any of the conditions described in this section apply.

315.1.1 New dwelling units. In new dwelling units, carbon monoxide alarms are required to be installed in the locations described in Section 315.2.

315.1.2 Existing dwelling units.In existing dwelling units, where an application for approval is required for work involving any of the following areas or systems within that dwelling unit, carbon monoxide alarms are required to be installed in the locations described in Section 315.2.

1.The addition or creation of a new sleeping room;

2.An alteration of a sleeping room;

3.An alteration in the immediate vicinity outside of a sleeping room;

4.An addition of, or an alteration to, an attached garage;

5.An addition, alteration, repair or replacement of a fuel-fired appliance.

315.2 Where required. In new dwelling units and in existing dwelling units meeting any of the conditions described in Section 315.1.2, an approved carbon monoxide alarm shall be installed outside of each separate sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of the sleeping rooms in those dwelling units.

315.3 Alarm requirements. Single station carbon monoxide alarms shall be listed as complying with UL 2034 and shall be installed in accordance with this code and the manufacturer's installation instructions.

SECTION 316

FOAM PLASTIC

316.1 General. The provisions of this section shall govern the materials, design, application, construction and installation of foam plastic materials.

316.2 Labeling and identification. Packages and containers of foam plastic insulation and foam plastic insulation components delivered to the job site shall bear the label of an approved agency showing the manufacturer's name, the product listing, product identification and information sufficient to determine that the end use will comply with the requirements.

316.3 Surface burning characteristics. Unless otherwise allowed in Section 316.5 or 316.6, all foam plastic or foam plastic cores used as a component in manufactured assemblies used in building construction shall have a flame spread index of not more than 75 and shall have a smoke-developed index of not more than 450 when tested in the maximum thickness intended for use in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723. Loose-fill type foam plastic insulation shall be tested as board stock for the flame spread index and smoke-developed index.

Exception:Foam plastic insulation more than 4 inches (102 mm) thick shall have a maximum flame spread index of 75 and a smoke-developed index of 450 where tested at a minimum thickness of 4 inches (102 mm), provided the end use is approved in accordance with Section 316.6 using the thickness and density intended for use.

316.4 Thermal barrier. Unless otherwise allowed in Section 316.5 or Section 316.6, foam plastic shall be separated from the interior of a building by an approved thermal barrier of minimum ½ inch ( 12.7 mm) gypsum wallboard or an approved finish material equivalent to a thermal barrier material that will limit the average temperature rise of the unexposed surface to no more than 250°F (139°C) after 15 minutes of fire exposure complying with the ASTM E 119 or UL 263 standard time temperature curve. The thermal barrier shall be installed in such a manner that it will remain in place for 15 minutes based on NFPA 286 with the acceptance criteria of Section 302.9.4, FM 4880, UL 1040 or UL 1715.

316.5 Specific requirements. The following requirements shall apply to these uses of foam plastic unless specifically approved in accordance with Section 316.6 or by other sections of the code or the requirements of Sections 316.2 through 316.4 have been met.

316.5.1 Masonry or concrete construction. The thermal barrier specified in Section 316.4 is not required in a masonry or concrete wall, floor or roof when the foam plastic insulation is separated from the interior of the building by a minimum 1-inch (25 mm) thickness of masonry or concrete.

316.5.2 Roofing. The thermal barrier specified in Section 316.4 is not required when the foam plastic in a roof assembly or under a roof covering is installed in accordance with the code and the manufacturer's installation instructions and is separated from the interior of the building by tongue-and-groove wood planks or wood structural panel sheathing in accordance with Section 803, not less than 15/32 inch ( 11.9 mm) thick bonded with exterior glue and identified as Exposure 1, with edges supported by blocking or tongue-and-groove joints or an equivalent material. The smoke-developed index for roof applications shall not be limited.

316.5.3 Attics. The thermal barrier specified in Section 316.4 is not required where all of the following apply:

1. Attic access is required by Section 807.1.

2. The space is entered only for purposes of maintenance.

3. The foam plastic insulation is protected against ignition using one of the following ignition barrier materials:

3.1. 1½-inch-thick (38 mm) mineral fiber insulation;

3.2.¼-inch-thick ( 6.4 mm) wood structural panels;

3.3.3/8-inch ( 9.5 mm) particleboard;

3.4.¼-inch ( 6.4 mm) hardboard;

3.5.3/8-inch ( 9.5 mm) gypsum board; or

3.6. Corrosion-resistant steel having a base metal thickness of 0.016 inch ( 0.406 mm).

The above ignition barrier is not required where the foam plastic insulation has been tested in accordance with Section 316.6.

316.5.4 Crawl spaces. The thermal barrier specified in Section 316.4 is not required where all of the following apply:

1. Crawlspace access is required by Section 408.4

2. Entry is made only for purposes of repairs or maintenance.

3. The foam plastic insulation is protected against ignition using one of the following ignition barrier materials:

3.1. 1½-inch-thick (38 mm) mineral fiber insulation;

3.2.¼-inch-thick ( 6.4 mm) wood structural panels;

3.3.3/8-inch ( 9.5 mm) particleboard;

3.4.¼-inch ( 6.4 mm) hardboard;

3.5.3/8-inch ( 9.5 mm) gypsum board; or

3.6. Corrosion-resistant steel having a base metal thickness of 0.016 inch ( 0.406 mm).

The above ignition barrier is not required where the foam plastic insulation has been tested in accordance with Section 316.6.

316.5.5 Foam-filled exterior doors. Foam-filled exterior doors are exempt from the requirements of Sections 316.3 and 316.4.

316.5.6 Foam-filled garage doors. Foam-filled garage doors in attached or detached garages are exempt from the requirements of Sections 316.3 and 316.4.

316.5.7 Foam backer board. The thermal barrier specified in Section 316.4 is not required where siding backer board foam plastic insulation has a maximum thickness of inch ( 12.7 mm) and a potential heat of not more than 2000 Btu per square foot (22 720 kJ/m2) when tested in accordance with NFPA 259 provided that:

1. The foam plastic insulation is separated from the interior of the building by not less than 2 inches (51 mm) of mineral fiber insulation or

2. The foam plastic insulation is installed over existing exterior wall finish in conjunction with re-siding or

3. The foam plastic insulation has been tested in accordance with Section 316.6.

316.5.8 Re-siding. The thermal barrier specified in Section 316.4 is not required where the foam plastic insulation is installed over existing exterior wall finish in conjunction with re-siding provided the foam plastic has a maximum thickness of 0.5 inch ( 12.7 mm) and a potential heat of not more than 2000 Btu per square foot (22 720 kJ/m2) when tested in accordance with NFPA 259.

316.5.9 Interior trim. The thermal barrier specified in Section 316.4 is not required for exposed foam plastic interior trim, provided all of the following are met:

1. The minimum density is 20 pounds per cubic foot (320 kg/m3).

2. The maximum thickness of the trim is 0.5 inch ( 12.7 mm) and the maximum width is 8 inches (204 mm).

3. The interior trim shall not constitute more than 10 percent of the aggregate wall and ceiling area of any room or space.

4. The flame spread index does not exceed 75 when tested per ASTM E 84. The smoke-developed index is not limited.

316.5.10 Interior finish. Foam plastics shall be permitted as interior finish where approved in accordance with Section 316.6. Foam plastics that are used as interior finish shall also meet the flame spread index and smoke-developed index requirements of Sections 302.9.1 and 302.9.2.

316.5.11 Sill plates and headers. Foam plastic shall be permitted to be spray applied to a sill plate and header without the thermal barrier specified in Section 316.4 subject to all of the following:

1. The maximum thickness of the foam plastic shall be 3¼ inches (83 mm).

2. The density of the foam plastic shall be in the range of 0.5 to 2.0 pounds per cubic foot (8 to 32 kg/m3).

3. The foam plastic shall have a flame spread index of 25 or less and an accompanying smoke developed index of 450 or less when tested in accordance with ASTM E 84.

316.5.12 Sheathing. Foam plastic insulation used as sheathing shall comply with Section 316.3 and Section 316.4. Where the foam plastic sheathing is exposed to the attic space at a gable or kneewall, the provisions of Section 316.5.3 shall apply.

316.6 Specific approval. Foam plastic not meeting the requirements of Sections 316.3 through 316.5 shall be specifically approved on the basis of one of the following approved tests: NFPA 286 with the acceptance criteria of Section 302.9.4, FM4880, UL 1040 or UL 1715, or fire tests related to actual end-use configurations. The specific approval shall be based on the actual end use configuration and shall be performed on the finished foam plastic assembly in the maximum thickness intended for use. Assemblies tested shall include seams, joints and other typical details used in the installation of the assembly and shall be tested in the manner intended for use.

316.7 Termite damage. The use of foam plastics in areas of "very heavy" termite infestation probability shall be in accordance with Section 318.4.

SECTION 317

PROTECTION OF WOOD AND WOOD BASED PRODUCTS AGAINST DECAY

317.1 Location required. Protection of wood and wood based products from decay shall be provided in the following locations by the use of naturally durable wood or wood that is preservative-treated in accordance with AWPA U1 for the species, product, preservative and end use. Preservatives shall be listed in Section 4 of AWPA U1.

1. Wood joists or the bottom of a wood structural floor when closer than 18 inches (457 mm) or wood girders when closer than 12 inches (305 mm) to the exposed ground in crawl spaces or unexcavated area located within the periphery of the building foundation.

2. All wood framing members that rest on concrete or masonry exterior foundation walls and are less than 8 inches (203 mm) from the exposed ground.

3. Sills and sleepers on a concrete or masonry slab that is in direct contact with the ground unless separated from such slab by an impervious moisture barrier.

4. The ends of wood girders entering exterior masonry or concrete walls having clearances of less than ½ inch ( 12.7 mm) on tops, sides and ends.

5. Wood siding, sheathing and wall framing on the exterior of a building having a clearance of less than 6 inches (152 mm) from the ground or less than 2 inches (51 mm) measured vertically from concrete steps, porch slabs, patio slabs, and similar horizontal surfaces exposed to the weather.

6. Wood structural members supporting moisture-permeable floors or roofs that are exposed to the weather, such as concrete or masonry slabs, unless separated from such floors or roofs by an impervious moisture barrier.

7. Wood furring strips or other wood framing members attached directly to the interior of exterior masonry walls or concrete walls below grade except where an approved vapor retarder is applied between the wall and the furring strips or framing members.

317.1.1 Field treatment. Deleted.

317.1.2 Ground contact. All wood in contact with the ground, embedded in concrete in direct contact with the ground or embedded in concrete exposed to the weather that supports permanent structures intended for human occupancy shall be approved pressure-preservative-treated wood suitable for ground contact use, except untreated wood may be used where entirely below groundwater level or continuously submerged in fresh water.

317.1.3 Geographical areas. In geographical areas where experience has demonstrated a specific need, approved naturally durable or pressure-preservative-treated wood shall be used for those portions of wood members that form the structural supports of buildings, balconies, porches or similar permanent building appurtenances when those members are exposed to the weather without adequate protection from a roof, eave, overhang or other covering that would prevent moisture or water accumulation on the surface or at joints between members. Depending on local experience, such members may include:

1. Horizontal members such as girders, joists and decking.

2. Vertical members such as posts, poles and columns.

3. Both horizontal and vertical members.

317.1.4 Wood columns. Wood columns shall be approved wood of natural decay resistance or approved pressure-preservative-treated wood.

Exceptions:

1. Columns exposed to the weather or in basements when supported by concrete piers or metal pedestals projecting 1 inch ( 25.4 mm) above a concrete floor or 6 inches (152 mm) above exposed earth and the earth is covered by an approved impervious moisture barrier.

2. Columns in enclosed crawl spaces or unexcavated areas located within the periphery of the building when supported by a concrete pier or metal pedestal at a height more than 8 inches (203mm) from exposed earth and the earth is covered by an impervious moisture barrier.

317.1.5 Exposed glued-laminated timbers. The portions of glued-laminated timbers that form the structural supports of a building or other structure and are exposed to weather and not properly protected by a roof, eave or similar covering shall be pressure treated with preservative, or be manufactured from naturally durable or preservative-treated wood.

317.2 Quality mark. Lumber and plywood required to be pressure-preservative-treated in accordance with Section 318.1 shall bear the quality mark of an approved inspection agency that maintains continuing supervision, testing and inspection over the quality of the product and that has been approved by an accreditation body that complies with the requirements of the American Lumber Standard Committee treated wood program.

317.2.1 Required information. The required quality mark on each piece of pressure-preservative-treated lumber or plywood shall contain the following information:

1. Identification of the treating plant.

2. Type of preservative.

3. The minimum preservative retention.

4. End use for which the product was treated.

5. Standard to which the product was treated.

6. Identity of the approved inspection agency.

7. The designation "Dry," if applicable.

Exception:Quality marks on lumber less than 1 inch ( 25.4 mm) nominal thickness, or lumber less than nominal 1 inch by 5 inches ( 25.4 mm by 127 mm) or 2 inches by 4 inches (51 mm by 102 mm) or lumber 36 inches (914 mm) or less in length shall be applied by stamping the faces of exterior pieces or by end labeling not less than 25 percent of the pieces of a bundled unit.

317.3 Fasteners and connectors in contact with preservative-treated and fire-retardant-treated wood. Fasteners and connectors in contact with preservative-treated wood and fire-retardant-treated wood shall be in accordance with this section. The coating weights for zinc-coated fasteners shall be in accordance with ASTM A 153.

317.3.1 Fasteners for preservative-treated wood. Fasteners for preservative-treated wood shall be of hot dipped zinc-coated galvanized steel, stainless steel, silicon bronze or copper. Coating types and weights for connectors in contact with preservative-treated wood shall be in accordance with the connector manufacturer's recommendations. In the absence of manufacturer's recommendations, a minimum of ASTM A 653 type G185 zinc-coated galvanized steel, or equivalent, shall be used.

Exceptions:

1. One-half-inch ( 12.7 mm) diameter or greater steel bolts.

2. Fasteners other than nails and timber rivets shall be permitted to be of mechanically deposited zinc coated steel with coating weights in accordance with ASTM B 695, Class 55 minimum.

317.3.2 Fastenings for wood foundations. Fastenings for wood foundations shall be as required in AF&PA PWF.

317.3.3 Fasteners for fire-retardant-treated wood used in exterior applications or wet or damp locations. Fasteners for fire-retardant-treated wood used in exterior applications or wet or damp locations shall be of hot-dipped zinc-coated galvanized steel, stainless steel, silicon bronze or copper. Fasteners other than nails and timber rivets shall be permitted to be of mechanically deposited zinc-coated steel with coating weights in accordance with ASTM B 695, Class 55 minimum.

317.3.4 Fasteners for fire-retardant-treated wood used in interior applications. Fasteners for fire-retardant-treated wood used in interior locations shall be in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations. In the absence of the manufacturer's recommendations, Section 317.3.3 shall apply.

317.4 Wood/plastic composites. Wood/plastic composites used in exterior deck boards, stair treads, handrails and guardrail systems shall bear a label indicating the required performance levels and demonstrating compliance with the provisions of ASTM D 7032.

317.4.1Wood/plastic composites shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

SECTION 318

PROTECTION AGAINST SUBTERRANEAN TERMITES

318.1 Subterranean termite control methods. In areas subject to damage from termites as indicated by Table 301.2(1), methods of protection shall be one of the following methods or a combination of these methods:

1. Chemical termiticide treatment, as provided in Section 318.2.

2. Termite baiting system installed and maintained according to the label.

3. Pressure-preservative-treated wood in accordance with the provisions of Section 317.1.

4. Naturally durable termite-resistant wood and used in locations as specified in Section 318.1.

5. Physical barriers as provided in Section 318.3.

6. Cold-formed steel framing in accordance with Sections 505.2.1 and 603.2.1.

318.1.1 Quality mark. Lumber and plywood required to be pressure-preservative-treated in accordance with Section 318.1 shall bear the quality mark of an approved inspection agency which maintains continuing supervision, testing and inspection over the quality of the product and which has been approved by an accreditation body which complies with the requirements of the American Lumber Standard Committee treated wood program.

318.1.2 Field treatment. Deleted.

318.2 Chemical termiticide treatment. Chemical termiticide treatment shall include soil treatment and/or field applied wood treatment. The concentration, rate of application and method of treatment of the chemical termiticide shall be in strict accordance with the termiticide label.

318.3 Barriers. Approved physical barriers, such as metal or plastic sheeting or collars specifically designed for termite prevention, shall be installed in a manner to prevent termites from entering the structure. Shields placed on top of an exterior foundation wall are permitted to be used only if in combination with another method of protection.

318.4 Foam plastic protection. In areas where the probability of termite infestation is "very heavy" as indicated in Figure 301.2(6), extruded and expanded polystyrene, polyisocyanurate and other foam plastics shall not be installed on the exterior face or under interior or exterior foundation walls or slab foundations located below grade. The clearance between foam plastics installed above grade and exposed earth shall be at least 6 inches (152 mm).

Exceptions:

1. Buildings where the structural members of walls, floors, ceilings and roofs are entirely of noncombustible materials or pressure-preservative-treated wood.

2. When in addition to the requirements of Section 318.1, an approved method of protecting the foam plastic and structure from subterranean termite damage is used.

3. On the interior side of basement walls.

SECTION 319

SITE ADDRESS

319.1 Address numbers. Buildings shall have approved address numbers, building numbers or approved building identification placed in a position that is plainly legible and visible from the street or road fronting the property.

SECTION 320

ACCESSIBILITY

320.1 Scope. Where there are four or more dwelling units or sleeping units in a single structure, and the design qualifies for this code to apply, the provisions of section 320 shall apply.

In structures with 1, 2 or 3 dwelling units, the accessibility provisions of this code are not required but when non-required accessibility components are intended to be installed inside the dwellings, they shall comply with the provisions for Type A, Type B or Accessible units in ICC/ANSI A 117.1 listed in Chapter 44 to the extent of the installation.

320.2 Applicability. Where there are four or more dwelling units or sleeping units intended to be occupied as residences in a single structure, every dwelling unit shall be a Type B unit designed and constructed for accessibility in accordance with section 320 and the provisions for Type B units in Chapter 10 of the ICC/ANSI A 117.1 listed in Chapter 44.

Exception: The number of Type B units is permitted to be reduced in accordance with Section 320.4.

When this code applies to structures of four or more dwellings and Type B units are required, the common and public use areas serving the Type B dwellings and the accessible route connecting the common and public use areas to the Type B units shall comply with ICC/ANSI A 117.1 listed in Chapter 44.

320.3 Accessible route. At least one accessible route shall connect accessible building or facility entrances with the primary entrance of each Type B unit within the building or facility and with those exterior and interior spaces and facilities that serve the Type B units.

Exception:

1. If due to circumstances outside the control of the owner, either the slope of the finished ground level between accessible facilities and buildings exceeds one unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (1:12), or where physical barriers or legal restrictions prevent the installation of an accessible route, a vehicular route with parking that complies with ICC/ANSI A 117.1 listed in Chapter 44 at each public or common use facility or building is permitted in place of the accessible route.

320.4 General exceptions. The required number of Type B units is permitted to be reduced in accordance with Sections 320.4.1 through 320.4.5.

320.4.1 Structures without elevator service. Where no elevator service is provided in a structure, only the dwelling units that are located on stories indicated in Sections 320.4.1.1 and 320.4.1.2 are required to be Type B units, respectively.

320.4.1.1 One story with Type B units required. At least one story containing dwelling units or sleeping units intended to be occupied as a residence shall be provided with an accessible entrance from the exterior of the structure and all units intended to be occupied as a residence on that story shall be Type B units.

320.4.1.2 Additional stories with Type B units. On all other stories that have a building entrance in proximity to arrival points intended to serve units on that story, as indicated in Items 1 and 2, all dwelling units intended to be occupied as a residence served by that entrance on that story shall be Type B units.

1. Where the slopes of the undisturbed site measured between the planned entrance and all vehicular or pedestrian arrival points within 50 feet (15 240 mm) of the planned entrance are 10 percent or less, and

2. Where the slopes of the planned finished grade measured between the entrance and all vehicular or pedestrian arrival points within 50 feet (15 240 mm) of the planned entrance are 10 percent or less.

Where no such arrival points are within 50 feet (15 240 mm) of the entrance, the closest arrival point shall be used unless that arrival point serves the story required by Section 320.4.1.1.

320.4.2 Multistory units. A multistory dwelling which is not provided with elevator service is not required to be a Type B unit. Where a multistory unit is provided with external elevator service to only one floor, the floor provided with elevator service shall be the primary entry to the unit, shall comply with the requirements for a Type B unit and a toilet facility shall be provided on that floor.

For purposes of applying section 320, multistory units are dwellings with finished, habitable space on more than one level of the unit.

320.4.3 Elevator service to the lowest story with units. Where elevator service in the building provides an accessible route only to the lowest story containing dwelling or sleeping units intended to be occupied as a residence, only the units on that story which are intended to be occupied as a residence are required to be Type B units.

320.4.4 Site impracticality. On a site with multiple non-elevator buildings, the number of units required by Section 320.4.1 to be Type B units is permitted to be reduced to a percentage which is equal to the percentage of the entire site having grades, prior to development, which are less than 10 percent, provided that all of the following conditions are met:

1. Not less than 20 percent of the units required by Section 320.4.1 on the site are Type B units;

2. Units required by Section 320.4.1, where the slope between the building entrance serving the units on that story and a pedestrian or vehicular arrival point is no greater than 8.33 percent, are Type B units;

3. Units required by Section 320.4.1, where an elevated walkway is planned between a building entrance serving the units on that story and a pedestrian or vehicular arrival point and the slope between them is 10 percent or less are Type B units; and

4. Units served by an elevator in accordance with Section 320.4.3 are Type B units.

320.4.5 Design flood elevation. The required number of Type B units shall not apply to a site where the required elevation of the lowest floor or the lowest horizontal structural building members of non-elevator buildings are at or above the design flood elevation resulting in:

1. A difference in elevation between the minimum required floor elevation at the primary entrances and vehicular and pedestrian arrival points within 50 feet (15 240 mm) exceeding 30 inches (762 mm), and

2. A slope exceeding 10 percent between the minimum required floor elevation at the primary entrances and vehicular and pedestrian arrival points within 50 feet ( 15.24 m).

Where no such arrival points are within 50 feet ( 15.24 m) of the primary entrances, the closest arrival points shall be used.

SECTION 321

ELEVATORS AND PLATFORM LIFTS

321.1 Elevators. Where provided, passenger elevators, limited-use/limited-application elevators or private residence elevators shall comply with ASME A 17.1.

321.2 Platform lifts. Where provided, platform lifts shall comply with ASME A 18.1.

321.3 Accessibility. Elevators or platform lifts that are part of an accessible route, shall also comply with ICC/ANSI A 117.1.

SECTION 322

FLOOD-RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION

322.1 General. Except where approved by the Flood Plain Administrator having jurisdiction or by variance granted, buildings and structures constructed in whole or in part in flood hazard areas (including A or V Zones) as established in Table 301.2(1) shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the provisions contained in this section.

Exception:Buildings and structures located in whole or in part in identified floodways shall be designed and constructed in accordance with ASCE 24.

322.1.1 Alternative provisions. As an alternative to the requirements in Section 322.3 for buildings and structures located in whole or in part in coastal high-hazard areas (V Zones), ASCE 24 is permitted subject to the limitations of this code and the limitations therein.

322.1.2 Structural systems. All structural systems of all buildings and structures shall be designed, connected and anchored to resist flotation, collapse or permanent lateral movement due to structural loads and stresses from flooding equal to the design flood elevation.

322.1.3 Flood-resistant construction. All buildings and structures erected in areas prone to flooding shall be constructed by methods and practices that minimize flood damage.

322.1.4 Establishing the design flood elevation. The design flood elevation shall be used to define areas prone to flooding. At a minimum, the design flood elevation is the higher of:

1. The base flood elevation at the depth of peak elevation of flooding (including wave height) which has a 1 percent (100-year flood) or greater chance of being equaled or exceeded in any given year, or

2. The elevation of the design flood associated with the area designated on a flood hazard map adopted by the community, or otherwise legally designated.

322.1.4.1 Determination of design flood elevations. If design flood elevations are not specified, the building official is authorized to require the applicant to:

1. Obtain and reasonably use data available from a federal, state or other source; or

2. Determine the design flood elevation in accordance with accepted hydrologic and hydraulic engineering practices used to define special flood hazard areas. Determinations shall be undertaken by a registered design professional who shall document that the technical methods used reflect currently accepted engineering practice. Studies, analyses and computations shall be submitted in sufficient detail to allow thorough review and approval.

322.1.4.2 Determination of impacts. In riverine flood hazard areas where design flood elevations are specified but floodways have not been designated, the applicant shall demonstrate that the effect of the proposed buildings and structures on design flood elevations, including fill, when combined with all other existing and anticipated flood hazard area encroachments, will not increase the design flood elevation more than 1 foot (305 mm) at any point within the jurisdiction.

322.1.5 Lowest floor. The lowest floor shall be the floor of the lowest enclosed area, including basement, but excluding any unfinished flood-resistant enclosure that is useable solely for vehicle parking, building access or limited storage provided that such enclosure is not built so as to render the building or structure in violation of this section.

322.1.6 Protection of mechanical and electrical systems. Electrical systems, equipment and components; heating, ventilating, air conditioning; plumbing appliances and plumbing fixtures; duct systems; and other service equipment shall be located at or above the elevation required in Section 322.2 (flood hazard areas including A Zones) or 322.3 (coastal high-hazard areas including V Zones). If replaced as part of a substantial improvement, electrical systems, equipment and components; heating, ventilating, air conditioning and plumbing appliances and plumbing fixtures; duct systems; and other service equipment shall meet the requirements of this section. Systems, fixtures, and equipment and components shall not be mounted on or penetrate through walls intended to break away under flood loads.

Exception:Locating electrical systems, equipment and components; heating, ventilating, air conditioning; plumbing appliances and plumbing fixtures; duct systems; and other service equipment is permitted below the elevation required in Section 322.2 (flood hazard areas including A Zones) or 322.3 (coastal high-hazard areas including V Zones) provided that they are designed and installed to prevent water from entering or accumulating within the components and to resist hydrostatic and hydrodynamic loads and stresses, including the effects of buoyancy, during the occurrence of flooding to the design flood elevation in accordance with ASCE 24. Electrical wiring systems are permitted to be located below the required elevation provided they conform to the provisions of the electrical part of this code for wet locations.

322.1.7 Protection of water supply and sanitary sewage systems. New and replacement water supply systems shall be designed to minimize or eliminate infiltration of flood waters into the systems in accordance with the plumbing code. New and replacement sanitary sewage systems shall be designed to minimize or eliminate infiltration of floodwaters into systems and discharges from systems into floodwaters in accordance with the plumbing code.

322.1.8 Flood-resistant materials. Building materials used below the elevation required in Section 322.2 (flood hazard areas including A Zones) or 322.3 (coastal high-hazard areas including V Zones) shall comply with the following:

1. All wood, including floor sheathing, shall be pressure-preservative-treated in accordance with AWPA U1 for the species, product, preservative and end use or be the decay-resistant heartwood of redwood, black locust or cedars. Preservatives shall be listed in Section 4 of AWPA U1.

2. Materials and installation methods used for flooring and interior and exterior walls and wall coverings shall conform to the provisions of FEMA/FIA-TB-2.

322.1.9 Manufactured homes. Deleted.

322.1.10 As-built elevation documentation. A registered design professional shall prepare documentation of the elevations specified in Section 322.2 or 322.3.

322.2 Flood hazard areas (including A Zones). All areas that have been determined to be prone to flooding but not subject to high velocity wave action shall be designated as flood hazard areas. Flood hazard areas that have been delineated as subject to wave heights between 1½ feet (457 mm) and 3 feet (914 mm) shall be designated as Coastal A Zones. All building and structures constructed in whole or in part in flood hazard areas shall be designed and constructed in accordance with Sections 322.2.1 through 322.2.3.

322.2.1 Elevation requirements.

1. Buildings and structures in flood hazard areas not designated as Coastal A Zones shall have the lowest floors elevated to or above the design flood elevation.

2. Buildings and structures in flood hazard areas designated as Coastal A Zones shall have the lowest floors elevated to or above the base flood elevation plus 1 foot (305 mm), or to the design flood elevation, whichever is higher.

3. In areas of shallow flooding (AO Zones), buildings and structures shall have the lowest floor (including basement) elevated at least as high above the highest adjacent grade as the depth number specified in feet on the FIRM, or at least 2 feet (610 mm) if a depth number is not specified.

4. Basement floors that are below grade on all sides shall be elevated to or above the design flood elevation.

Exception:Enclosed areas below the design flood elevation, including basements whose floors are not below grade on all sides, shall meet the requirements of Section 322.2.2.

322.2.2 Enclosed area below design flood elevation. Enclosed areas, including crawl spaces, that are below the design flood elevation shall:

1. Be used solely for parking of vehicles, building access or storage.

2. Be provided with flood openings that meet the following criteria:

There shall be a minimum of two openings on different sides of each enclosed area; if a building has more than one enclosed area below the design flood elevation, each area shall have openings on exterior walls.

The total net area of all openings shall be at least 1 square inch (645 mm2) for each square foot ( 0.093 m2) of enclosed area, or the openings shall be designed and the construction documents shall include a statement by a registered design professional that the design of the openings will provide for equalization of hydrostatic flood forces on exterior walls by allowing for the automatic entry and exit of floodwaters as specified in Section 2.6.2.2 of ASCE 24.

The bottom of each opening shall be 1 foot (305 mm) or less above the adjacent ground level.

Openings shall be not less than 3 inches (76 mm) in any direction in the plane of the wall.

Any louvers, screens or other opening covers shall allow the automatic flow of floodwaters into and out of the enclosed area.

Openings installed in doors and windows, that meet requirements 2.1 through 2.5, are acceptable; however, doors and windows without installed openings do not meet the requirements of this section.

322.2.3 Foundation design and construction. Foundation walls for all buildings and structures erected in flood hazard areas shall meet the requirements of Chapter 4.

Exception:Unless designed in accordance with Section 404:

1. The unsupported height of 6-inch (152 mm) plain masonry walls shall be no more than 3 feet (914 mm).

2. The unsupported height of 8-inch (203 mm) plain masonry walls shall be no more than 4 feet (1219 mm).

3. The unsupported height of 8-inch (203 mm) reinforced masonry walls shall be no more than 8 feet (2438 mm).

For the purpose of this exception, unsupported height is the distance from the finished grade of the under-floor space and the top of the wall.

322.3 Coastal high-hazard areas (including V Zones). Areas that have been determined to be subject to wave heights in excess of 3 feet (914 mm) or subject to high-velocity wave action or wave-induced erosion shall be designated as coastal high-hazard areas. Buildings and structures constructed in whole or in part in coastal high-hazard areas shall be designed and constructed in accordance with Sections 322.3.1 through 322.3.6.

322.3.1 Location and site preparation.

1. New buildings and buildings that are determined to be substantially improved pursuant to Section 113.4, shall be located landward of the reach of mean high tide.

2. For any alteration of sand dunes and other coastal features the building official shall require submission of an engineering analysis which demonstrates that the proposed alteration will not increase the potential for flood damage.

322.3.2 Elevation requirements.

1. All buildings and structures erected within coastal high hazard areas shall be elevated so that the lowest portion of all structural members supporting the lowest floor, with the exception of mat or raft foundations, piling, pile caps, columns, grade beams and bracing, is:

1.1 Located at or above the design flood elevation, if the lowest horizontal structural member is oriented parallel to the direction of wave approach, where parallel shall mean less than or equal to 20 degrees ( 0.35 rad) from the direction of approach, or

1.2 Located at the base flood elevation plus 1 foot (305 mm), or the design flood elevation, whichever is higher, if the lowest horizontal structural member is oriented perpendicular to the direction of wave approach, where perpendicular shall mean greater than 20 degrees ( 0.35 rad) from the direction of approach.

2. Basement floors that are below grade on all sides are prohibited.

3. The use of fill for structural support is prohibited.

4. Minor grading, and the placement of minor quantities of fill, shall be permitted for landscaping and for drainage purposes under and around buildings and for support of parking slabs, pool decks, patios and walkways.

Exception:Walls and partitions enclosing areas below the design flood elevation shall meet the requirements of Sections 322.3.4 and 322.3.5.

322.3.3 Foundations. Buildings and structures erected in coastal high-hazard areas shall be supported on pilings or columns and shall be adequately anchored to those pilings or columns. Pilings shall have adequate soil penetrations to resist the combined wave and wind loads (lateral and uplift). Water loading values used shall be those associated with the design flood. Wind loading values shall be those required by this code. Pile embedment shall include consideration of decreased resistance capacity caused by scour of soil strata surrounding the piling. Pile systems design and installation shall be certified in accordance with Section 322.3.6. Mat, raft or other foundations that support columns shall not be permitted where soil investigations that are required in accordance with Section 401.4 indicate that soil material under the mat, raft or other foundation is subject to scour or erosion from wave-velocity flow conditions. Slabs, pools, pool decks and walkways shall be located and constructed to be structurally independent of buildings and structures and their foundations to prevent transfer of flood loads to the buildings and structures during conditions of flooding, scour or erosion from wave-velocity flow conditions, unless the buildings and structures and their foundation are designed to resist the additional flood load.

322.3.4 Walls below design flood elevation. Walls and partitions are permitted below the elevated floor, provided that such walls and partitions are not part of the structural support of the building or structure and:

1. Electrical, mechanical, and plumbing system components are not to be mounted on or penetrate through walls that are designed to break away under flood loads; and

2. Are constructed with insect screening or open lattice; or

3. Are designed to break away or collapse without causing collapse, displacement or other structural damage to the elevated portion of the building or supporting foundation system. Such walls, framing and connections shall have a design safe loading resistance of not less than 10 (479 Pa) and no more than 20 pounds per square foot (958 Pa); or

4. Where wind loading values of this code exceed 20 pounds per square foot (958 Pa), the construction documents shall include documentation prepared by a registered design professional that:

4.1. The walls and partitions below the design flood elevation have been designed to collapse from a water load less than that which would occur during the design flood.

4.2. The elevated portion of the building and supporting foundation system have been designed to withstand the effects of wind and flood loads acting simultaneously on all building components (structural and nonstructural). Water loading values used shall be those associated with the design flood. Wind loading values shall be those required by this code.

322.3.5 Enclosed areas below design flood elevation. Enclosed areas below the design flood elevation shall be used solely for parking of vehicles, building access or storage.

322.3.6 Construction documents. The construction documents shall include documentation that is prepared by a registered design professional that the design and methods of construction to be used meet the applicable criteria of this section.

SECTION 323

STORM SHELTERS

323.1 General. This section applies to the construction of storm shelters when constructed as separate detached buildings or when constructed as safe rooms within buildings for the purpose of providing safe refuge from storms that produce high winds, such as tornados and hurricanes. In addition to other applicable requirements in this code, storm shelters shall be constructed in accordance with ICC/NSSA-500.

SECTION 324

POST FRAME ACCESSORY STRUCTURES

324.1 Post frame accessory structures. The following requirements serve as minimum standards for post and frame structures within all of the following structural limitations:

1. Residential accessory structures,

2. Single story,

3. Solid exterior structural sheathing or metal roof, and solid wall panels,

4. No attic storage ,

5. Maximum building width of thirty six feet including the overhang,

6. Maximum wall height of sixteen feet,

7. Maximum mean roof height of twenty feet, and

8. Maximum post spacing of eight feet .

Post and frame structures and portions thereof outside the above structural limitations of this standard shall be accompanied by structural calculations as required by the residential building official or designed under the provisions of section 106.5 of the Residential Code of Ohio (RCO). Post and frame structures shall comply with the structural design requirements of section 301 of the RCO.

324.2 Definition. Post frame accessory structures consist of primary members (wood posts, beams & single span roof trusses or ceiling joist and rafters) and secondary members (wood roof purlins, wall girts, bracing & sheathing) where all loads are transmitted from the sheathing and the secondary members to the primary members which transfer all combined loads to the soil through vertical posts bearing on footings embedded in the ground. See Figure 324.

324.3 Footings and foundations. Footings and foundations shall comply with applicable provisions of 401. Post frame structures shall have poured in-place concrete footings installed below all posts. The top of the footing shall be a minimum of 48 inches below finished grade and have footing diameters complying with Table 324.3.

TABLE 324.3

POST FRAME PIER FOOTING DIAMETERS 1,2,3,4

  

Building width (length of truss) including overhang (feet)

24

28

32

36

Diameter (inches) 20# roof snow load

18

20

22

22

Diameter (inches) 30# roof snow load

18

22

24

26

1. Pier footing thickness shall be a minimum one-half of the diameter of the footing.

2. Based upon 2000 PSF soil bearing capacity and truss loads of 20 or 30 PSF live or snow load top chord, 10 PSF dead load top chord, 5 PSF dead load on the bottom chord and no live load on the bottom chord

3. Fractional widths shall be rounded to the next higher pier footing diameter.

4. Table not to be used in Ohio case study areas.

324.4 Post and wall construction. Posts shall be three (3) ply un-spliced, reinforced spliced or solid wood and shall not be less than 4 inch by 6 inch nominal size. Posts shall comply with the requirements of Section 317.

324.4.1 Uplift protection: Posts shall have uplift protection by one of the following methods:

1. Two 2x6x12 inch post uplift protection blocks attached to each side of the base of the post. The post uplift blocks shall be placed horizontally, attached per Table 324.7 and comply with Section 317;

2. 12 inch high, concrete collar poured on top of footing around the post, with 2-#5x9 inch rebar placed through the post at 3 inches and 9 inches from bottom of post in opposite directions. The rebar ends must be 1 ½ inches from the soil. See Figure 324.1;

3.

324.4.2 Post Spacing. The maximum spacing for posts shall be (eight) 8 feet on center .

image: oh/admin/2014/4101$8-3-01_PH_FF_A_RU_20140414_1542-9.jpg

image: oh/admin/2014/4101$8-3-01_PH_FF_A_RU_20140414_1542-10.jpg

FIGURE 324.1 POST UPLIFT PROTECTION EXCEPTION

(NO SCALE)

324.4.3 Skirt Boards. Skirt boards shall be treated lumber meeting the requirements of Section 317 and attached per Table 324.7.

324.4.4 Wall girts. Wall girts shall be not less than 2 x 4 inches nominal and spaced not more than twenty-four (24) inches on center.

324.4.5 Load bearing beams and headers: Load bearing beams and headers shall comply with Table 502.5(1).

Exceptions.

1. Bearing beams are not required if the trusses or ceiling joists and rafters bear directly on the posts.

2. Headers in the gable-end wall which do not support more than five square feet of wall area per lineal foot of header shall be sized per Table 324.4.5.

TABLE 324.4.5

GABLE END HEADER SIZES.

Opening Width (feet)

10

12

16

Header Size (inches)

2-2x8

2-2x10

2-2x12

324.4.6 Bracing. Wall bracing shall be provided to resist all racking and shearing forces and must comply with the applicable provisions of section 602.10 or by installing 2x6 diagonal cross braces in the bays between adjacent posts as described in this section. The diagonal cross bracesshall be placed from the top header or girt to the next adjacent post at the skirt board. The cross bracing shall be placed or installed on all sides of the building and shall be spaced at a maximum of 25 feet on center and within 12 feet of the corners of the building and attached per Table 324.7. Any splices of the diagonal brace required due to excessive length, must lap over two consecutive wall girts.

324.4.7 Beams supporting trusses or rafters and ceiling joists attachment to column. Bearing beams supporting roof trusses or rafters and ceiling joists shall be connected to the posts by one of the following methods:

1. Bolts that are ½ inch diameter through-bolted to the side of the post;

2. Bolts that are ½ inch diameter, directly attached to a 3-ply post notch, enclosing the truss or rafter at the top of post; or

3. Other fasteners with minimum shear or withdraw values stated in Table 324.4.7

324.4.7.1 Number of fasteners. The minimum numbers of through bolts or other fasteners with minimum shears or withdraw values required per Table 324.4.7.

TABLE 324.4.7

BEAM OR TRUSS CONNECTION AT POSTS MINIMUM FASTENERS OR

TOTAL SHEAR OR WITHDRAW VALUES a,b,c

  

Building Width (Length of Truss) including overhang (feet)

24

28

32

36

Shear or withdraw (pounds) 20 lb snow load

3360

3920

4480

5040

Number of Bolts, 20 lb roof snow load

2

2

2

3

Shear or withdraw (pounds)

4320

5040

5760

6480

30 lb roof snow load

           

Number of Bolts, 30 lb roof snow load

2

3

3

3

a. Based upon truss loads of 20 or 30 PSF live or snow load top chord, 10 PSF dead load top chord, 5 PSF live load on the bottom chord and no live load on the bottom chord.

b. Based upon post spacing at intervals not exceeding 8 feet.

c. When beams are attached at each side of the column and fasteners do not extend through both beams such as through-bolts, the required values are one-half the amount shown above for each beam.

324.5 Roof purlins. Roof purlins shall be a minimum of 4x2 SPF#2 laid flat for spans up to 4 feet, and 4x2 SPF#2 laid on edge for spans up to 8 feet. Roof purlins shall be spaced not more than 24 inches on center.

324.6 Knee bracing:A 2x6 brace shall extend from the post to the top chord of the truss or rafter adjacent to the post at a 45 degree angle. The vertical distance down from the bottom chord of the truss or ceiling joist to the point where the brace attaches to the posts shall be in compliance with Table 324.6 as shown on Figure 324. Trusses or rafters must be spaced such that they align with the post intervals. Attachment of knee brace shall be per Table 324.7.

TABLE 324.6

KNEE BRACE VERTICAL DISTANCE.

Wall Height

Vertical Dimension

8'-0" and 9'-0"

1'-6"

10'-0" and 11'-0"

2'-0"

12'-0" and 13'-0"

3'-0"

14'-0" through 16'-0"

4'-0"

324.7 Attachment details. Structural fastener details for post and frame buildings shall comply with Table 324.7.

TABLE 324.7

STRUCTURAL FASTENERS

Fastener Schedule for Structural Members

Description of Building Element

Number and Type of Fastener

Attachment type

Uplift blocking to post

5-16d Hot Dipped Galvanized

Each block

Skirt board to post

2-16d Hot Dipped Galvanized

Face nail

Wall girt to post

2-16d Hot Dipped Galvanized

Face nail

Diagonal cross bracing to post

2-16d Hot Dipped Galvanized

Face nail

Diagonal cross bracing to skirt board

2-10d Hot Dipped Galvanized

Face nail

Diagonal cross bracing to wall girts,beam, or header

2-10d

Face nail

Knee brace to post

3-16d Hot Dipped Galvanized

Face nail

Knee brace to top chord of truss or rafter

3-10d

Face nail

Knee brace to bottom chord of truss or ceiling joist

3-10d

Face nail

Roof purlin to truss or rafter with span of 2' or 4'

2-16d

Face nail

Roof purlin to truss or rafter with span of 8'

Mechanical fastener with uplift protection greater than 225 pounds.

Per manufacturer installation manual

324.8 Roof trusses. Engineered roof trusses, where used, shall be accompanied by drawings sealed by the registered design professional responsible for their preparation and shall be submitted to the residential building official for approval prior to the framing inspection. The truss design shall comply with Sections 802.10 and 802.11 and shall account for all loads imposed on the truss as a result of the prescriptive requirements of this section.

Effective: 07/01/2014
R.C. 119.032 review dates: 01/01/2018
Promulgated Under: 119.03
Statutory Authority: 3781.10(A)
Rule Amplifies: 3781.01 , 3781.06 , 3781.10 , 3781.11 , 3791.04 , 4740.14
Prior Effective Dates: 5/27/06, 1/1/13