(A) When utilizing any prescription drug for the treatment of chronic pain , a practitioner shall comply with accepted and prevailing standards of care which shall include, but not be limited to, the following:
(1) An initial evaluation of the patient shall be conducted and documented in the patient's record that includes a relevant history, including complete medical, pain, alcohol and substance abuse histories; an assessment of the impact of pain on the patient's physical and psychological functions; a review of previous diagnostic studies and previously utilized therapies; an assessment of coexisting illnesses, diseases or conditions; and an appropriate physical examination;
(2) A medical diagnosis shall be established and documented in the patient's medical record that indicates not only the presence of chronic pain but also the signs, symptoms, and causes and, if determinable, the nature of the underlying disease and pain mechanism;
(3) An individualized treatment plan shall be formulated and documented in the patient's medical record. The treatment plan shall specify the treatment proposed, the patient's response to treatment, and any modification to the treatment plan. The treatment plan shall include the medical justification and the intended role of prescription drug therapy within the overall plan, and documentation that other medically reasonable treatments for relief of the patient's chronic pain have been offered or attempted without adequate or reasonable success. The prescription drug therapy shall be tailored to the individual medical needs of each patient.
(a) The practitioner's diagnosis of chronic pain shall be made after having the patient evaluated by one or more other practitioners who specialize in the treatment of the anatomic area, system, or organ of the body perceived as the source of the pain. For purposes of this rule, a practitioner "specializes" if the practitioner limits the whole or part of his or her practice, and is qualified by advanced training or experience to so limit his or her practice, to the particular anatomic area, system, or organ of the body perceived as the source of the pain. The evaluation shall include review of all available medical records of prior treatment of the chronic pain or the condition underlying the chronic pain; a thorough history and physical examination; and testing as required by accepted and prevailing standards of care. The practitioner shall maintain a copy of any report made by any practitioner to whom referral for evaluation was made under this paragraph. A practitioner shall not provide an evaluation under this paragraph if that practitioner would be prohibited by sections 4731.65 to 4731.69 of the Revised Code or any other rule adopted by the board from providing a designated health service upon referral by the treating practitioner; and
(b) The practitioner shall not be required to obtain such an evaluation, if the practitioner obtains a copy of medical records or a detailed written summary thereof showing that the patient has been evaluated and treated within a reasonable period of time by one or more other practitioners who specialize in the treatment of the anatomic area, system, or organ of the body perceived as the source of the pain and the treating practitioner is satisfied that he or she can rely on that evaluation for purposes of meeting the further requirements of this chapter of the Administrative Code. The practitioner shall obtain and review all available medical records or detailed written summaries of prior treatment of the chronic pain or the condition underlying the chronic pain. The practitioner shall maintain a copy of any record or report of any practitioner on which the practitioner relied for purposes of meeting the requirements under this paragraph; and
(5) The practitioner shall ensure and document in the patient's record that the patient or other individual who has the authority to provide consent to treatment on behalf of that patient gives consent to treatment after being informed of the benefits and risks of receiving prescription drug therapy for chronic pain and after being informed of available treatment alternatives.
(B) Upon completion and satisfaction of the conditions prescribed in paragraph (A) of this rule, and upon a practitioner's judgment that the continued utilization of prescription drugs is medically warranted for the treatment of chronic pain, a practitioner may utilize prescription drugs provided that the practitioner continues to adhere to accepted and prevailing standards of care which shall include, but not be limited to, the following:
(1) Patients shall be seen by the practitioner at appropriate periodic intervals to assess the efficacy of treatment, assure that prescription drug therapy remains indicated, evaluate the patient's progress toward treatment objectives and note any adverse drug effects. During each visit, attention shall be given to changes in the patient's ability to function or to the patient's quality of life as a result of prescription drug usage, as well as indications of possible addiction, drug abuse or diversion. Compliance with this paragraph of the rule shall be documented in the patient's medical record;
(2) Some patients with chronic pain may be at risk of developing increasing prescription drug consumption without improvement in functional status. Subjective reports by the patient should be supported by objective data. Objective measures in the patient's condition are determined by an ongoing assessment of the patient's functional status, including the ability to engage in work or other gainful activities, the pain intensity and its interference with activities of daily living, quality of family life and social activities, and physical activity of the patient. Compliance with this paragraph of the rule shall be documented in the patient's medical record;
(3) Based on evidence or behavioral indications of addiction or drug abuse, the practitioner shall obtain a drug screen on the patient. It is within the practitioner's discretion to decide the nature of the screen and which type of drug(s) to be screened. If the practitioner obtains a drug screen for the reasons described in this paragraph, the practitioner shall document the results of the drug screen in the patient's medical record. If the patient refuses to consent to a drug screen ordered by the practitioner, the practitioner shall make a referral as provided in paragraph (C) of this rule;
(4) The practitioner shall document in the patient's medical record the medical necessity for utilizing more than one controlled substance in the management of a patient's chronic pain; and
(5) The practitioner shall document in the patient's medical record the name and address of the patient to or for whom the prescription drugs were prescribed, dispensed, or administered, the dates on which prescription drugs were prescribed, dispensed, or administered, and the amounts and dosage forms of the prescription drugs prescribed, dispensed, or administered, including refills.
(6) The practitioner shall, in accordance with the requirements set forth in section 4731.055 of the Revised Code and rule 4731-11-11 of the Administrative Code, request a report from "OARRS," or the successor drug database maintained by the board of pharmacy.
(C) If the practitioner believes or has reason to believe that the patient is suffering from addiction or drug abuse, the practitioner shall immediately consult with an addiction medicine specialist or other substance abuse professional to obtain formal assessment of addiction or drug abuse.
(1) For purposes of this rule:
(a) Addiction medicine specialist means a physician who is qualified by advanced formal training in addiction medicine or other substance abuse specialty, and includes a medical doctor or doctor of osteopathic medicine who is certified by a specialty examining board to so limit the whole or part of his or her practice.
(b) Substance abuse professional includes a psychologist licensed pursuant to Chapter 4732. of the Revised Code and certified as a clinical health psychologist, an independent chemical dependency counselor, or a chemical dependency counselor III.
(2) The practitioner shall do all of the following:
(a) Document the recommendations of the consultation in the patient's record;
(b) Continue to actively monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of addiction, drug abuse or diversion; and
(c) Maintain a copy of any written report made by the addiction medicine specialist or substance abuse professional to whom referral for evaluation was made under this paragraph.
(3) Prescription drug therapy may be continued consistent with the recommendations of the consultation. If the consulting addiction medicine specialist or other substance abuse professional believes the patient to be suffering from addiction or drug abuse, prompt referral shall be made to one of the following:
(a) An addiction medicine specialist or substance abuse professional; or
(b) An addiction medicine or substance abuse treatment facility.
Five Year Review (FYR) Dates: 05/23/2017 and 08/31/2022
Promulgated Under: 119.03
Statutory Authority: 4730.07, 4730.39, 4731.05, 4731.052
Rule Amplifies: 4731.052 , 4731.22
Prior Effective Dates: 11/11/98, 11/30/08