Chapter 1306: UNIFORM ELECTRONIC TRANSACTIONS ACT

1306.01 Definitions.

As used in sections 1306.01 to 1306.23 of the Revised Code:

(A) "Agreement" means the bargain of the parties in fact, as found in their language or inferred from other circumstances and from rules, regulations, and procedures given the effect of agreements under laws otherwise applicable to a particular transaction.

(B) "Automated transaction" means a transaction conducted or performed, in whole or in part, by electronic means or electronic records, in which the acts or records of one or both parties are not reviewed by an individual in the ordinary course in forming a contract, performing under an existing contract, or fulfilling an obligation required by the transaction.

(C) "Computer program" means a set of statements or instructions to be used directly or indirectly in an information processing system in order to bring about a certain result.

(D) "Contract" means the total legal obligation resulting from the parties' agreement as affected by sections 1306.01 to 1306.23 of the Revised Code and other applicable law.

(E) "Electronic" means relating to technology having electrical, digital, magnetic, wireless, optical, electromagnetic, or similar capabilities.

(F) "Electronic agent" means a computer program or an electronic or other automated means used independently to initiate an action or respond to electronic records or performances in whole or in part, without review or action by an individual.

(G) "Electronic record" means a record created, generated, sent, communicated, received, or stored by electronic means.

(H) "Electronic signature" means an electronic sound, symbol, or process attached to or logically associated with a record and executed or adopted by a person with the intent to sign the record.

(I) "Governmental agency" means any executive, legislative, or judicial agency, department, board, commission, authority, institution, or instrumentality of the federal government, of a state, or of a county, municipality, or other political subdivision of a state.

(J) "Information" means data, text, images, sounds, codes, computer programs, software, databases, or the like.

(K) "Information processing system" means an electronic system for creating, generating, sending, receiving, storing, displaying, or processing information.

(L) "Person" means an individual, corporation, business trust, estate, trust, partnership, limited liability company, association, joint venture, governmental agency, public corporation, or any other legal or commercial entity.

(M) "Record" means information that is inscribed on a tangible medium or that is stored in an electronic or other medium and is retrievable in perceivable form.

(N) "Security procedure" means a procedure employed for the purpose of verifying that an electronic signature, record, or performance is that of a specific person or for detecting changes or errors in the information in an electronic record. "Security procedure" includes a procedure that requires the use of algorithms or other codes, identifying word or numbers, encryption, or callback or other acknowledgment procedures.

(O) "State" means a state of the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the United States Virgin Islands, or any territory or insular possession subject to the jurisdiction of the United States. "State" includes an Indian tribe or band, or Alaskan native village, that is recognized by federal law or formally acknowledged by a state.

(P) "Transaction" means an action or set of actions occurring between two or more persons relating to the conduct of business, commercial, or governmental affairs.

Effective Date: 09-14-2000

1306.02 Scope of chapter - exceptions.

(A) Except as provided in division (B) of this section, sections 1306.01 to 1306.23 of the Revised Code apply to electronic records and electronic signatures relating to a transaction.

(B) Sections 1306.01 to 1306.23 of the Revised Code do not apply to a transaction to the extent it is governed by any of the following:

(1) A law governing the creation and execution of wills, codicils, or testamentary trusts;

(2) Chapter 1301., except section 1301.306 , and Chapters 1303., 1304., 1305., 1307., 1308., and 1309. of the Revised Code.

Amended by 129th General AssemblyFile No.9, HB 9, §1, eff. 6/29/2011.

Effective Date: 03-12-2001

1306.03 Prospective application of chapter.

Sections 1306.01 to 1306.23 of the Revised Code apply to any electronic record or electronic signature created, generated, sent, communicated, received, or stored on or after the effective date of sections 1306.01 to 1306.23 of the Revised Code.

Effective Date: 09-14-2000

1306.04 Applicability - agreements.

(A) Sections 1306.01 to 1306.23 of the Revised Code do not require a record or signature to be created, generated, sent, communicated, received, stored, or otherwise processed or used by electronic means or in electronic form.

(B) Sections 1306.01 to 1306.23 of the Revised Code apply only to transactions between parties each of which has agreed to conduct transactions by electronic means. Whether the parties agree to conduct a transaction by electronic means is determined from the context and surrounding circumstances, including the parties' conduct.

(C) A party that agrees to conduct a transaction by electronic means may refuse to conduct other transactions by electronic means. The right granted by this division may not be waived by agreement.

(D) Except as otherwise provided in sections 1306.01 to 1306.23 of the Revised Code, any of the provisions of such sections may be varied by agreement. The presence in certain provisions of sections 1306.01 to 1306.23 of the Revised Code of the words "unless otherwise agreed," or words of similar import, does not imply that the effect of other provisions may not be varied by agreement.

(E) Whether an electronic record or electronic signature has legal consequences is determined by sections 1306.01 to 1306.23 of the Revised Code and other applicable law.

Effective Date: 09-14-2000

1306.05 Citation, construction and application of chapter.

Sections 1306.01 to 1306.15 of the Revised Code may be known and cited as the "uniform electronic transactions act" and shall be construed and applied as follows:

(A) To facilitate electronic transactions consistent with other applicable law;

(B) To be consistent with reasonable practices concerning electronic transactions and with the continued expansion of those practices;

(C) To effectuate its general purpose to make uniform the law with respect to the subject of sections 1306.01 to 1306.15 of the Revised Code among states enacting the uniform electronic transactions act.

Effective Date: 09-14-2000

1306.06 Electronic record or signature satisfies legal requirements.

(A) A record or signature may not be denied legal effect or enforceability solely because it is in electronic form.

(B) A contract may not be denied legal effect or enforceability solely because an electronic record was used in its formation.

(C) If a law requires a record to be in writing, an electronic record satisfies the law.

(D) If a law requires a signature, an electronic signature satisfies the law.

Effective Date: 09-14-2000

1306.07 Electronic record capable of retention by recipient at time of receipt.

(A) If the parties have agreed to conduct a transaction by electronic means and a law requires a person to provide, send, or deliver information in writing to another person, the requirement is satisfied if the information is provided, sent, or delivered, as the case may be, in an electronic record capable of retention by the recipient at the time of receipt. An electronic record is not capable of retention by the recipient if the sender or its information processing system inhibits the ability of the recipient to print or store the electronic record.

(B) If a law other than sections 1306.01 to 1306.23 of the Revised Code requires a record to be posted or displayed in a certain manner, to be sent, communicated, or transmitted by a specified method, or to contain information that is formatted in a certain manner, all of the following apply:

(1) The record shall be posted or displayed in the manner specified in the other law.

(2) Except as otherwise provided in division (D)(2) of this section, the record shall be sent, communicated, or transmitted by the method specified in the other law.

(3) The record shall contain the information formatted in the manner specified in the other law.

(C) If a sender inhibits the ability of a recipient to store or print an electronic record, the electronic record is not enforceable against the recipient.

(D) Divisions (A), (B), and (C) of this section may not be varied by agreement, except as follows:

(1) To the extent a law, other than sections 1306.01 to 1306.23 of the Revised Code, requires information to be provided, sent, or delivered in writing but permits that requirement to be varied by agreement, the requirement under division (A) of this section that the information be in the form of an electronic record capable of retention also may be varied by agreement;

(2) A requirement under a law, other than sections 1306.01 to 1306.23 of the Revised Code, to send, communicate, or transmit a record by regular mail may be varied by agreement to the extent permitted by the other law.

Effective Date: 09-14-2000

1306.08 When electronic record or signature is attributable to person - effect.

(A) An electronic record or electronic signature is attributable to a person if it was the act of the person. The act of the person may be shown in any manner, including a showing of the efficacy of any security procedure applied to determine the person to which the electronic record or electronic signature is attributable.

(B) The effect of an electronic record or electronic signature attributed to a person under division (A) of this section shall be determined from the context and surrounding circumstances at the time of its creation, execution, or adoption, including the parties' agreement, if any, and otherwise as provided by law.

Effective Date: 09-14-2000

1306.09 Effect of change or error in transmission.

(A) If a change or error in an electronic record occurs in a transmission between parties to a transaction, both of the following apply:

(1) If the parties have agreed to use a security procedure to detect changes or errors and one party has conformed to the procedure, but the other party has not, and the nonconforming party would have detected the change or error had that party also conformed, the conforming party may avoid the effect of the changed or erroneous electronic record.

(2) In an automated transaction involving an individual, the individual may avoid the effect of an electronic record that resulted from an error made by the individual in dealing with the electronic agent of another person, if the electronic agent did not provide an opportunity for the prevention or correction of the error and, at the time the individual learns of the error, the individual does all of the following:

(a) The individual promptly notifies the other person of the error and that the individual did not intend to be bound by the electronic record received by the other person.

(b) The individual takes reasonable steps, including steps that conform to the other person's reasonable instructions, to return to the other person or, if instructed by the other person, to destroy the consideration received, if any, as a result of the erroneous electronic record.

(c) The individual has not used or received any benefit or value from the consideration, if any, received from the other person.

(B) If divisions (A)(1) and (2) of this section do not apply, the change or error has the effect provided by other law, including the law of mistake, and the parties' contract, if any.

(C) Divisions (A)(2) and (B) of this section may not be varied by agreement.

Effective Date: 09-14-2000

1306.10 Notary, acknowledgment, verification or oath requirement.

If a law requires a signature or record to be notarized, acknowledged, verified, or made under oath, the requirement is satisfied if the electronic signature of the person authorized to perform those acts, together with all other information required to be included by other applicable law, is attached to or logically associated with the signature or record.

Effective Date: 09-14-2000

1306.11 Requirement that record be retained - original records.

(A) If a law requires that a record be retained, the requirement is satisfied by retaining an electronic record of the information in the record if both of the following are satisfied:

(1) The electronic record accurately and completely reflects the information set forth in the record after it was first generated in its final form as an electronic record or otherwise.

(2) The electronic record remains accessible for later reference.

(B) A requirement to retain a record in accordance with division (A) of this section does not apply to any information the sole purpose of which is to enable the record to be sent, communicated, or received.

(C) A person satisfies division (A) of this section by using the services of another person if the requirements of that division are satisfied.

(D) If a law requires a record to be presented or retained in its original form, or provides consequences if the record is not presented or retained in its original form, that law is satisfied by an electronic record retained in accordance with division (A) of this section.

(E) If a law requires retention of a check, that requirement is satisfied by retention of an electronic record of the information on the front and back of the check in accordance with division (A) of this section.

(F) A record retained as an electronic record in accordance with division (A) of this section satisfies a law requiring a person to retain a record for evidentiary, audit, or similar purposes, unless a law enacted after the effective date of this section specifically prohibits the use of an electronic record for the specified purpose.

(G) This section does not preclude a governmental agency of this state from specifying additional requirements for the retention of a record subject to the agency's jurisdiction.

Effective Date: 09-14-2000

1306.12 Admissibility in evidence.

In a proceeding, evidence of a record or signature may not be excluded solely because it is in electronic form.

Effective Date: 09-14-2000

1306.13 Automated transaction - contracts - terms.

In an automated transaction, all of the following apply:

(A) A contract may be formed by the interaction of electronic agents of the parties, even if no individual was aware of or reviewed the electronic agents' actions or the resulting terms and agreements.

(B) A contract may be formed by the interaction of an electronic agent and an individual, acting on the individual's own behalf or for another person, including by an interaction in which the individual performs actions that the individual is free to refuse to perform and that the individual knows or has reason to know will cause the electronic agent to complete the transaction or performance.

(C) The terms of the contract described in this section are determined by the substantive law applicable to the contract.

Effective Date: 09-14-2000

1306.14 Sending and receiving conditions.

(A) Unless otherwise agreed between the sender and the recipient, an electronic record is sent when it satisfies all of the following:

(1) The record is addressed properly or otherwise directed properly to an information processing system that the recipient has designated or uses for the purpose of receiving electronic records or information of the type sent, and from which the recipient is able to retrieve the electronic record.

(2) The record is in a form capable of being processed by the information processing system described in division (A)(1) of this section.

(3) The record enters an information processing system outside the control of the sender or of a person that sent the electronic record on behalf of the sender, or enters a region of the information processing system designated or used by the recipient that is under the control of the recipient.

(B) Unless otherwise agreed between a sender and the recipient, an electronic record is received when both of the following are satisfied:

(1) The record enters an information processing system that the recipient has designated or uses for the purpose of receiving electronic records or information of the type sent, and from which the recipient is able to retrieve the electronic record.

(2) The record is in a form capable of being processed by the information processing system described in division (B)(1) of this section.

(C) Division (B) of this section applies even if the place the information processing system is located is different from the place the electronic record is deemed to be received under division (D) of this section.

(D)

(1) Unless otherwise expressly provided in the electronic record or agreed between the sender and the recipient, an electronic record is deemed to be sent from the sender's place of business and to be received at the recipient's place of business.

(2) For purposes of division (D)(1) of this section, both of the following apply:

(a) If the sender or recipient has more than one place of business, the place of business of that person is the place having the closest relationship to the underlying transaction.

(b) If the sender or the recipient does not have a place of business, the place of business is the sender's or recipient's residence, as the case may be.

(E) An electronic record is received under division (B) of this section even if no individual is aware of its receipt.

(F) Receipt of an electronic acknowledgment from an information processing system described in division (B) of this section establishes that a record was received, but, by itself, does not establish that the content sent corresponds to the content received.

(G)

(1) If a person is aware that an electronic record purportedly sent under division (A) of this section, or purportedly received under division (B) of this section, was not actually sent or received, the legal effect of the sending or receipt is determined by other applicable law.

(2) Except to the extent permitted by other law, division (G)(1) of this section may not be varied by agreement.

Effective Date: 09-14-2000

1306.15 Control of transferable record.

(A) As used in this section, "transferable record" means an electronic record that satisfies both of the following:

(1) The transferable record would be a note under Chapter 1303. or a document under Chapter 1307. of the Revised Code, if the electronic record were in writing.

(2) The issuer of the electronic record expressly has agreed that it is a transferable record.

(B) A person has control of a transferable record if a system employed for evidencing the transfer of interests in the transferable record reliably establishes that person as the person to which the transferable record was issued or transferred.

(C) A system satisfies division (B) of this section, and a person is deemed to have control of a transferable record, if the transferable record is created, stored, and assigned in such a manner that satisfies all of the following:

(1) A single authoritative copy of the transferable record exists that is unique, identifiable, and, except as provided in divisions (C)(4) to (6) of this section, unalterable.

(2) The authoritative copy identifies the person asserting control as either of the following:

(a) The person to which the transferable record was issued;

(b) If the authoritative copy indicates that the transferable record has been transferred, the person to which the transferable record most recently was transferred.

(3) The authoritative copy is communicated to and maintained by the person asserting control or its designated custodian.

(4) Copies or revisions that add or change an identified assignee of the authoritative copy may be made only with the consent of the person asserting control.

(5) Each copy of the authoritative copy and any copy of a copy is readily identifiable as a copy that is not the authoritative copy.

(6) Any revision of the authoritative copy is readily identifiable as authorized or unauthorized.

(D)

(1) Except as otherwise agreed, a person having control of a transferable record is the holder, as defined in section 1301.201 of the Revised Code, of the transferable record and has the same rights and defenses as a holder of an equivalent record or writing under the uniform commercial code. If the applicable statutory requirements under section 1303.32 , 1307.501 , or 1309.27 of the Revised Code are satisfied, these rights and defenses include the rights and defenses of a holder in due course, a holder to which a negotiable document of title has been duly negotiated, or a purchaser, respectively.

(2) Delivery, possession, and indorsement are not required to obtain or exercise any of the rights under division (D)(1) of this section.

(E) Except as otherwise agreed, an obligor under a transferable record has the same rights and defenses as an equivalent obligor under equivalent records or writings under the uniform commercial code.

(F)

(1) If requested by a person against which enforcement is sought, the person seeking to enforce the transferable record shall provide reasonable proof that the person is in control of the transferable record.

(2) Proof required by division (F)(1) of this section may include access to the authoritative copy of the transferable record and related business records sufficient to review the terms of the transferable record and to establish the identity of the person having control of the transferable record.

Amended by 129th General AssemblyFile No.9, HB 9, §1, eff. 6/29/2011.

Effective Date: 09-14-2000

1306.16 Enforceability against consumer.

(A) A provision of a nonelectronic contract involving a consumer and to which a state agency or a county office is not a party that authorizes the conducting of a transaction or any part of a transaction by electronic means is unenforceable against the consumer, unless the consumer separately signs the provision.

(B) A consumer's agreement to conduct a transaction or a part of a transaction electronically shall not be inferred solely from the fact that the consumer has used electronic means to pay an account or register a purchase or warranty.

(C) Divisions (A) and (B) of this section apply to every transaction described in those divisions notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter. This section shall not be varied by agreement.

(D) For purposes of this section:

(1) "Consumer" means an individual who is involved in a transaction primarily for personal, family, or household purposes.

(2) "State agency" means every organized body, office, or agency established by the laws of the state for the exercise of any function of state government.

(3) "County office" means any officer, department, board, commission, agency, court, or other instrumentality of a county.

Effective Date: 09-14-2000; 11-05-2004

1306.17 Commercial reasonableness of security procedure.

(A) This section and section 1306.18 of the Revised Code apply to the attribution of electronic records and electronic signatures among parties that are not state agencies.

(B) For purposes of this section and section 1306.18 of the Revised Code, the commercial reasonableness of a security procedure is to be determined by a court. In making this determination, both of the following apply:

(1) A security procedure established by statute or regulation is effective for transactions covered by the statute or regulation.

(2) Except as otherwise provided in division (B)(1) of this section, the commercial reasonableness and effectiveness is to be determined in light of the purposes of the security procedure and the commercial circumstances at the time the parties agree to or adopt the procedure.

(C) As used in this section, "state agency" means every organized body, office, or agency established by the laws of the state for the exercise of any function of state government.

Effective Date: 09-14-2000

1306.18 Security procedures.

(A) If there is a security procedure between the parties with respect to an electronic signature or electronic record, both of the following apply:

(1) The effect of compliance with a security procedure established by a law or regulation is determined by that law or regulation.

(2) In all other cases than those described in division (A)(1) of this section, if the parties agree to use or otherwise knowingly adopt a security procedure to verify the person from which an electronic signature or electronic record has been sent, the electronic signature or electronic record is attributable to the person identified by the security procedure, if the person relying on the attribution establishes all of the following:

(a) The security procedure is commercially reasonable.

(b) The party accepted or relied on the electronic message in good faith and in compliance with the security procedure and any additional agreement with or separate instructions of the other party.

(c) The security procedure indicates that the electronic message is from the person to which attribution is sought.

(B) If the electronic signature or electronic record is not attributable to a party under section 1306.08 of the Revised Code but is attributable to the party under other provisions of this section, then, notwithstanding the other provisions of this section, the electronic signature or electronic record is not attributable to the party if the party establishes that the electronic signature or electronic record was caused directly or indirectly by a person meeting any of the following:

(1) The person was not entrusted at any time with the right or duty to act for the party with respect to such electronic signature or electronic record or security procedure.

(2) The person lawfully obtained access to transmitting facilities of the party, if such access facilitated the misuse of the security procedure.

(3) The person obtained, from a source controlled by the party, information facilitating misuse of the security procedure.

(C) If the parties use a commercially reasonable security procedure to detect errors or changes with respect to an electronic signature or electronic record, both of the following apply:

(1) The effect of a security procedure is determined by the agreement between the parties, or, in the absence of an agreement, by this section or any law establishing the security procedure.

(2) Unless the circumstances indicate otherwise, if a security procedure indicates that an electronic signature or electronic record has not been altered since a particular time, it shall be treated as not having been altered since that time.

Effective Date: 09-14-2000

1306.19 Exemption for consumer transactions.

Sections 1306.17 and 1306.18 of the Revised Code do not apply to transactions to which a consumer is a party.

Effective Date: 09-14-2000

1306.20 State agency provisions.

(A) Subject to section 1306.11 of the Revised Code, each state agency shall determine if, and the extent to which, it will send and receive electronic records and electronic signatures to and from other persons and otherwise create, generate, communicate, store, process, use, and rely upon electronic records and electronic signatures.

(B)

(1) Subject to division (B)(2) of this section, a state agency may waive a requirement in the Revised Code, other than a requirement in sections 1306.01 to 1306.15 of the Revised Code, that relates to any of the following:

(a) The method of posting or displaying records;

(b) The manner of sending, communicating, or transmitting records;

(c) The manner of formatting records.

(2) A state agency may exercise its authority to waive a requirement under division (B)(1) of this section only if the following apply:

(a) The requirement relates to a matter over which the state agency has jurisdiction;

(b) The waiver is consistent with criteria set forth in rules adopted by the state agency. The criteria, to the extent reasonable under the circumstances, shall contain standards to facilitate the use of electronic commerce by persons under the jurisdiction of the state agency consistent with rules adopted by the department of administrative services pursuant to division (A) of section 1306.21 of the Revised Code.

(C) If a state agency creates, uses, receives, or retains electronic records, both of the following apply:

(1) Any rules adopted by a state agency relating to electronic records shall be consistent with rules adopted by the department of administrative services pursuant to division (A) of section 1306.21 of the Revised Code.

(2) Each state agency shall create, use, receive, and retain electronic records in accordance with section 149.40 of the Revised Code.

(D) If a state agency creates, uses, or receives electronic signatures, the state agency shall create, use, or receive the signatures in accordance with rules adopted by the department of administrative services pursuant to division (A) of section 1306.21 of the Revised Code.

(E)

(1) To the extent a state agency retains an electronic record, the state agency may retain a record in a format that is different from the format in which the record was originally created, used, sent, or received only if it can be demonstrated that the alternative format used accurately and completely reflects the record as it was originally created, used, sent, or received.

(2) If a state agency in retaining any set of electronic records pursuant to division (E)(1) of this section alters the format of the records, the state agency shall create a certificate of authenticity for each set of records that is altered.

(3) The department of administrative services, in consultation with the state archivist, shall adopt rules in accordance with section 111.15 of the Revised Code that establish the methods for creating certificates of authenticity pursuant to division (E)(2) of this section.

(F) Whenever any rule of law requires or authorizes the filing of any information, notice, lien, or other document or record with any state agency, a filing made by an electronic record shall have the same force and effect as a filing made on paper in all cases where the state agency has authorized or agreed to such electronic filing and the filing is made in accordance with applicable rules or agreement.

(G) Nothing in sections 1306.01 to 1306.23 of the Revised Code shall be construed to require any state agency to use or permit the use of electronic records and electronic signatures.

(H)

(1) Notwithstanding division (C)(1) or (D) of this section, any state agency that, prior to the effective date of this section, used or permitted the use of electronic records or electronic signatures pursuant to laws enacted, rules adopted, or agency policies adopted before the effective date of this section, may use or permit the use of electronic records or electronic signatures pursuant to those previously enacted laws, adopted rules, or adopted policies for a period of two years after the effective date of this section.

(2) Subject to division (H)(3) of this section, after the two-year period described in division (H)(1) of this section has concluded, all state agencies that use or permit the use of electronic records or electronic signatures before the effective date of this section shall only use or permit the use of electronic records or electronic signatures consistent with rules adopted by the department of administrative services pursuant to division (A) of section 1306.21 of the Revised Code.

(3) After the two-year period described in division (H)(1) of this section has concluded, the department of administrative services may permit a state agency to use electronic records or electronic signatures that do not comply with division (H)(2) of this section, if the state agency files a written request with the department.

(I) For the purposes of this section, "state agency" means every organized body, office, or agency established by the laws of the state for the exercise of any function of state government, but does not include the general assembly, any legislative agency, the supreme court, the other courts of record in this state, or any judicial agency.

Effective Date: 09-14-2000

1306.21 Rules for state agency use of electronic records or electronic signatures.

(A) With regard to state agency use of electronic records or electronic signatures, the department of administrative services, in consultation with the state archivist, shall adopt rules in accordance with section 111.15 of the Revised Code setting forth all of the following:

(1) The minimum requirements for the method of creation, maintenance, and security of electronic records and electronic signatures;

(2) If electronic records must be signed by electronic means, all of the following:

(a) The type of electronic signature required;

(b) The manner and format in which the electronic signature must be affixed to the electronic record;

(c) The identity of, or criteria that must be met by, any third party used by the person filing a document to facilitate the process.

(3) Control processes and procedures as appropriate to ensure adequate preservation, disposition, integrity, security, confidentiality, and auditability of electronic records;

(4) Any other required attributes for electronic records that are specified for corresponding nonelectronic records or are reasonably necessary under the circumstances.

(B)

(1) The department of administrative services may adopt rules in accordance with section 111.15 of the Revised Code to ensure consistency and interoperability among state agencies with regard to electronic transactions, electronic signatures, and security procedures.

(2) If the department of administrative services adopts rules pursuant to division (B)(1) of this section, the department shall consider consistency in applications and interoperability with governmental agencies of this state, agencies of other states, the federal government, and nongovernmental persons to the extent practicable when adopting rules pursuant to that division.

(C) With regard to electronic transactions, electronic signatures, and security procedures, the department of administrative services may publish recommendations for governmental agencies and nongovernmental persons to promote consistency and interoperability among nongovernmental persons, agencies of this state and other states, and the federal government.

(D) For purposes of this section, "state agency" has the same meaning as in section 1306.20 of the Revised Code.

Effective Date: 09-14-2000

1306.22 Use of electronic records and electronic signatures by general assembly and courts.

(A) Nothing in sections 1306.01 to 1306.23 of the Revised Code shall be construed to require the general assembly, any legislative agency, the supreme court, the other courts of record in this state, or any judicial agency to use or permit the use of electronic records and electronic signatures.

(B) The general assembly and the supreme court may adopt rules pertaining to the use of electronic records and electronic signatures by their respective bodies and agencies.

Effective Date: 09-14-2000

1306.23 Exemptions to public records laws.

Records that would disclose or may lead to the disclosure of records or information that would jeopardize the state's continued use or security of any computer or telecommunications devices or services associated with electronic signatures, electronic records, or electronic transactions are not public records for purposes of section 149.43 of the Revised Code.

Effective Date: 09-14-2000