1707.01 Securities definitions.

As used in this chapter:

(A) Whenever the context requires it, "division" or "division of securities" may be read as "director of commerce" or as "commissioner of securities."

(B) "Security" means any certificate or instrument, or any oral, written, or electronic agreement, understanding, or opportunity, that represents title to or interest in, or is secured by any lien or charge upon, the capital, assets, profits, property, or credit of any person or of any public or governmental body, subdivision, or agency. It includes shares of stock, certificates for shares of stock, an uncertificated security, membership interests in limited liability companies, voting-trust certificates, warrants and options to purchase securities, subscription rights, interim receipts, interim certificates, promissory notes, all forms of commercial paper, evidences of indebtedness, bonds, debentures, land trust certificates, fee certificates, leasehold certificates, syndicate certificates, endowment certificates, interests in or under profit-sharing or participation agreements, interests in or under oil, gas, or mining leases, preorganization or reorganization subscriptions, preorganization certificates, reorganization certificates, interests in any trust or pretended trust, any investment contract, any life settlement interest, any instrument evidencing a promise or an agreement to pay money, warehouse receipts for intoxicating liquor, and the currency of any government other than those of the United States and Canada, but sections 1707.01 to 1707.45 of the Revised Code do not apply to the sale of real estate.

(C)

(1) "Sale" has the full meaning of "sale" as applied by or accepted in courts of law or equity, and includes every disposition, or attempt to dispose, of a security or of an interest in a security. "Sale" also includes a contract to sell, an exchange, an attempt to sell, an option of sale, a solicitation of a sale, a solicitation of an offer to buy, a subscription, or an offer to sell, directly or indirectly, by agent, circular, pamphlet, advertisement, or otherwise.

(2) "Sell" means any act by which a sale is made.

(3) The use of advertisements, circulars, or pamphlets in connection with the sale of securities in this state exclusively to the purchasers specified in division (D) of section 1707.03 of the Revised Code is not a sale when the advertisements, circulars, and pamphlets describing and offering those securities bear a readily legible legend in substance as follows: "This offer is made on behalf of dealers licensed under sections 1707.01 to 1707.45 of the Revised Code, and is confined in this state exclusively to institutional investors and licensed dealers."

(4) The offering of securities by any person in conjunction with a licensed dealer by use of advertisement, circular, or pamphlet is not a sale if that person does not otherwise attempt to sell securities in this state.

(5) Any security given with, or as a bonus on account of, any purchase of securities is conclusively presumed to constitute a part of the subject of that purchase and has been "sold."

(6) "Sale" by an owner, pledgee, or mortgagee, or by a person acting in a representative capacity, includes sale on behalf of such party by an agent, including a licensed dealer or salesperson.

(D) "Person," except as otherwise provided in this chapter, means a natural person, firm, partnership, limited partnership, partnership association, syndicate, joint-stock company, unincorporated association, trust or trustee except where the trust was created or the trustee designated by law or judicial authority or by a will, and a corporation or limited liability company organized under the laws of any state, any foreign government, or any political subdivision of a state or foreign government.

(E)

(1) "Dealer," except as otherwise provided in this chapter, means every person, other than a salesperson, who engages or professes to engage, in this state, for either all or part of the person's time, directly or indirectly, either in the business of the sale of securities for the person's own account, or in the business of the purchase or sale of securities for the account of others in the reasonable expectation of receiving a commission, fee, or other remuneration as a result of engaging in the purchase and sale of securities. "Dealer" does not mean any of the following:

(a) Any issuer, including any officer, director, employee, or trustee of, or member or manager of, or partner in, or any general partner of, any issuer, that sells, offers for sale, or does any act in furtherance of the sale of a security that represents an economic interest in that issuer, provided no commission, fee, or other similar remuneration is paid to or received by the issuer for the sale;

(b) Any licensed attorney, public accountant, or firm of such attorneys or accountants, whose activities are incidental to the practice of the attorney's, accountant's, or firm's profession;

(c) Any person that, for the account of others, engages in the purchase or sale of securities that are issued and outstanding before such purchase and sale, if a majority or more of the equity interest of an issuer is sold in that transaction, and if, in the case of a corporation, the securities sold in that transaction represent a majority or more of the voting power of the corporation in the election of directors;

(d) Any person that brings an issuer together with a potential investor and whose compensation is not directly or indirectly based on the sale of any securities by the issuer to the investor;

(e) Any bank;

(f) Any person that the division of securities by rule exempts from the definition of "dealer" under division (E)(1) of this section.

(2) "Licensed dealer" means a dealer licensed under this chapter.

(F)

(1) "Salesman" or "salesperson" means every natural person, other than a dealer, who is employed, authorized, or appointed by a dealer to sell securities within this state.

(2) The general partners of a partnership, and the executive officers of a corporation or unincorporated association, licensed as a dealer are not salespersons within the meaning of this definition, nor are clerical or other employees of an issuer or dealer that are employed for work to which the sale of securities is secondary and incidental; but the division of securities may require a license from any such partner, executive officer, or employee if it determines that protection of the public necessitates the licensing.

(3) "Licensed salesperson" means a salesperson licensed under this chapter.

(G) "Issuer" means every person who has issued, proposes to issue, or issues any security.

(H) "Director" means each director or trustee of a corporation, each trustee of a trust, each general partner of a partnership, except a partnership association, each manager of a partnership association, and any person vested with managerial or directory power over an issuer not having a board of directors or trustees.

(I) "Incorporator" means any incorporator of a corporation and any organizer of, or any person participating, other than in a representative or professional capacity, in the organization of an unincorporated issuer.

(J) "Fraud," "fraudulent," "fraudulent acts," "fraudulent practices," or "fraudulent transactions" means anything recognized on or after July 22, 1929, as such in courts of law or equity; any device, scheme, or artifice to defraud or to obtain money or property by means of any false pretense, representation, or promise; any fictitious or pretended purchase or sale of securities; and any act, practice, transaction, or course of business relating to the purchase or sale of securities that is fraudulent or that has operated or would operate as a fraud upon the seller or purchaser.

(K) Except as otherwise specifically provided, whenever any classification or computation is based upon "par value," as applied to securities without par value, the average of the aggregate consideration received or to be received by the issuer for each class of those securities shall be used as the basis for that classification or computation.

(L)

(1) "Intangible property" means patents, copyrights, secret processes, formulas, services, good will, promotion and organization fees and expenses, trademarks, trade brands, trade names, licenses, franchises, any other assets treated as intangible according to generally accepted accounting principles, and securities, accounts receivable, or contract rights having no readily determinable value.

(2) "Tangible property" means all property other than intangible property and includes securities, accounts receivable, and contract rights, when the securities, accounts receivable, or contract rights have a readily determinable value.

(M) "Public utilities" means those utilities defined in sections 4905.02 , 4905.03 , 4907.02 , and 4907.03 of the Revised Code; in the case of a foreign corporation, it means those utilities defined as public utilities by the laws of its domicile; and in the case of any other foreign issuer, it means those utilities defined as public utilities by the laws of the situs of its principal place of business. The term always includes railroads whether or not they are so defined as public utilities.

(N) "State" means any state of the United States, any territory or possession of the United States, the District of Columbia, and any province of Canada.

(O) "Bank" means any bank, trust company, savings and loan association, savings bank, or credit union that is incorporated or organized under the laws of the United States, any state of the United States, Canada, or any province of Canada and that is subject to regulation or supervision by that country, state, or province.

(P) "Include," when used in a definition, does not exclude other things or persons otherwise within the meaning of the term defined.

(Q)

(1) "Registration by description" means that the requirements of section 1707.08 of the Revised Code have been complied with.

(2) "Registration by qualification" means that the requirements of sections 1707.09 and 1707.11 of the Revised Code have been complied with.

(3) "Registration by coordination" means that there has been compliance with section 1707.091 of the Revised Code. Reference in this chapter to registration by qualification also includes registration by coordination unless the context otherwise indicates.

(R) "Intoxicating liquor" includes all liquids and compounds that contain more than three and two-tenths per cent of alcohol by weight and are fit for use for beverage purposes.

(S) "Institutional investor" means any corporation, bank, insurance company, pension fund or pension fund trust, employees' profit-sharing fund or employees' profit-sharing trust, any association engaged, as a substantial part of its business or operations, in purchasing or holding securities, or any trust in respect of which a bank is trustee or cotrustee. "Institutional investor" does not include any business entity formed for the primary purpose of evading sections 1707.01 to 1707.45 of the Revised Code.

(T) A reference to a statute of the United States or to a rule, regulation, or form promulgated by the securities and exchange commission or by another federal agency means the statute, rule, regulation, or form as it exists at the time of the act, omission, event, or transaction to which it is applied under this chapter.

(U) "Securities and exchange commission" means the securities and exchange commission established by the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.

(V)

(1) "Control bid" means the purchase of or offer to purchase any equity security of a subject company from a resident of this state if either of the following applies:

(a) After the purchase of that security, the offeror would be directly or indirectly the beneficial owner of more than ten per cent of any class of the issued and outstanding equity securities of the issuer.

(b) The offeror is the subject company, there is a pending control bid by a person other than the issuer, and the number of the issued and outstanding shares of the subject company would be reduced by more than ten per cent.

(2) For purposes of division (V)(1) of this section, "control bid" does not include any of the following:

(a) A bid made by a dealer for the dealer's own account in the ordinary course of business of buying and selling securities;

(b) An offer to acquire any equity security solely in exchange for any other security, or the acquisition of any equity security pursuant to an offer, for the sole account of the offeror, in good faith and not for the purpose of avoiding the provisions of this chapter, and not involving any public offering of the other security within the meaning of Section 4 of Title I of the "Securities Act of 1933," 48 Stat. 77, 15 U.S.C.A. 77d(2) , as amended;

(c) Any other offer to acquire any equity security, or the acquisition of any equity security pursuant to an offer, for the sole account of the offeror, from not more than fifty persons, in good faith and not for the purpose of avoiding the provisions of this chapter.

(W) "Offeror" means a person who makes, or in any way participates or aids in making, a control bid and includes persons acting jointly or in concert, or who intend to exercise jointly or in concert any voting rights attached to the securities for which the control bid is made and also includes any subject company making a control bid for its own securities.

(X)

(1) "Investment adviser" means any person who, for compensation, engages in the business of advising others, either directly or through publications or writings, as to the value of securities or as to the advisability of investing in, purchasing, or selling securities, or who, for compensation and as a part of regular business, issues or promulgates analyses or reports concerning securities.

(2) "Investment adviser" does not mean any of the following:

(a) Any attorney, accountant, engineer, or teacher, whose performance of investment advisory services described in division (X)(1) of this section is solely incidental to the practice of the attorney's, accountant's, engineer's, or teacher's profession;

(b) A publisher of any bona fide newspaper, news magazine, or business or financial publication of general and regular circulation;

(c) A person who acts solely as an investment adviser representative;

(d) A bank holding company, as defined in the "Bank Holding Company Act of 1956," 70 Stat. 133, 12 U.S.C. 1841 , that is not an investment company;

(e) A bank, or any receiver, conservator, or other liquidating agent of a bank;

(f) Any licensed dealer or licensed salesperson whose performance of investment advisory services described in division (X)(1) of this section is solely incidental to the conduct of the dealer's or salesperson's business as a licensed dealer or licensed salesperson and who receives no special compensation for the services;

(g) Any person, the advice, analyses, or reports of which do not relate to securities other than securities that are direct obligations of, or obligations guaranteed as to principal or interest by, the United States, or securities issued or guaranteed by corporations in which the United States has a direct or indirect interest, and that have been designated by the secretary of the treasury as exempt securities as defined in the "Securities Exchange Act of 1934," 48 Stat. 881, 15 U.S.C. 78c ;

(h) Any person that is excluded from the definition of investment adviser pursuant to section 202(a)(11)(A) to (E) of the "Investment Advisers Act of 1940," 15 U.S.C. 80b - 2(a) (11 ), or that has received an order from the securities and exchange commission under section 202(a)(11)(F) of the "Investment Advisers Act of 1940," 15 U.S.C. 80b - 2(a) (11 )(F), declaring that the person is not within the intent of section 202(a)(11) of the Investment Advisers Act of 1940.

(i) A person who acts solely as a state retirement system investment officer or as a bureau of workers' compensation chief investment officer;

(j) Any other person that the division designates by rule, if the division finds that the designation is necessary or appropriate in the public interest or for the protection of investors or clients and consistent with the purposes fairly intended by the policy and provisions of this chapter.

(Y)

(1) "Subject company" means an issuer that satisfies both of the following:

(a) Its principal place of business or its principal executive office is located in this state, or it owns or controls assets located within this state that have a fair market value of at least one million dollars.

(b) More than ten per cent of its beneficial or record equity security holders are resident in this state, more than ten per cent of its equity securities are owned beneficially or of record by residents in this state, or more than one thousand of its beneficial or record equity security holders are resident in this state.

(2) The division of securities may adopt rules to establish more specific application of the provisions set forth in division (Y)(1) of this section. Notwithstanding the provisions set forth in division (Y)(1) of this section and any rules adopted under this division, the division, by rule or in an adjudicatory proceeding, may make a determination that an issuer does not constitute a "subject company" under division (Y)(1) of this section if appropriate review of control bids involving the issuer is to be made by any regulatory authority of another jurisdiction.

(Z) "Beneficial owner" includes any person who directly or indirectly through any contract, arrangement, understanding, or relationship has or shares, or otherwise has or shares, the power to vote or direct the voting of a security or the power to dispose of, or direct the disposition of, the security. "Beneficial ownership" includes the right, exercisable within sixty days, to acquire any security through the exercise of any option, warrant, or right, the conversion of any convertible security, or otherwise. Any security subject to any such option, warrant, right, or conversion privilege held by any person shall be deemed to be outstanding for the purpose of computing the percentage of outstanding securities of the class owned by that person, but shall not be deemed to be outstanding for the purpose of computing the percentage of the class owned by any other person. A person shall be deemed the beneficial owner of any security beneficially owned by any relative or spouse or relative of the spouse residing in the home of that person, any trust or estate in which that person owns ten per cent or more of the total beneficial interest or serves as trustee or executor, any corporation or entity in which that person owns ten per cent or more of the equity, and any affiliate or associate of that person.

(AA) "Offeree" means the beneficial or record owner of any security that an offeror acquires or offers to acquire in connection with a control bid.

(BB) "Equity security" means any share or similar security, or any security convertible into any such security, or carrying any warrant or right to subscribe to or purchase any such security, or any such warrant or right, or any other security that, for the protection of security holders, is treated as an equity security pursuant to rules of the division of securities.

(CC)

(1) "Investment adviser representative" means a supervised person of an investment adviser, provided that the supervised person has more than five clients who are natural persons other than excepted persons defined in division (EE) of this section, and that more than ten per cent of the supervised person's clients are natural persons other than excepted persons defined in division (EE) of this section. "Investment adviser representative" does not mean any of the following:

(a) A supervised person that does not on a regular basis solicit, meet with, or otherwise communicate with clients of the investment adviser;

(b) A supervised person that provides only investment advisory services described in division (X)(1) of this section by means of written materials or oral statements that do not purport to meet the objectives or needs of specific individuals or accounts;

(c) Any other person that the division designates by rule, if the division finds that the designation is necessary or appropriate in the public interest or for the protection of investors or clients and is consistent with the provisions fairly intended by the policy and provisions of this chapter.

(2) For the purpose of the calculation of clients in division (CC)(1) of this section, a natural person and the following persons are deemed a single client: Any minor child of the natural person; any relative, spouse, or relative of the spouse of the natural person who has the same principal residence as the natural person; all accounts of which the natural person or the persons referred to in division (CC)(2) of this section are the only primary beneficiaries; and all trusts of which the natural person or persons referred to in division (CC)(2) of this section are the only primary beneficiaries. Persons who are not residents of the United States need not be included in the calculation of clients under division (CC)(1) of this section.

(3) If subsequent to March 18, 1999, amendments are enacted or adopted defining "investment adviser representative" for purposes of the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 or additional rules or regulations are promulgated by the securities and exchange commission regarding the definition of "investment adviser representative" for purposes of the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, the division of securities shall, by rule, adopt the substance of the amendments, rules, or regulations, unless the division finds that the amendments, rules, or regulations are not necessary for the protection of investors or in the public interest.

(DD) "Supervised person" means a natural person who is any of the following:

(1) A partner, officer, or director of an investment adviser, or other person occupying a similar status or performing similar functions with respect to an investment adviser;

(2) An employee of an investment adviser;

(3) A person who provides investment advisory services described in division (X)(1) of this section on behalf of the investment adviser and is subject to the supervision and control of the investment adviser.

(EE) "Excepted person" means a natural person to whom any of the following applies:

(1) Immediately after entering into the investment advisory contract with the investment adviser, the person has at least seven hundred fifty thousand dollars under the management of the investment adviser.

(2) The investment adviser reasonably believes either of the following at the time the investment advisory contract is entered into with the person:

(a) The person has a net worth, together with assets held jointly with a spouse, of more than one million five hundred thousand dollars.

(b) The person is a qualified purchaser as defined in division (FF) of this section.

(3) Immediately prior to entering into an investment advisory contract with the investment adviser, the person is either of the following:

(a) An executive officer, director, trustee, general partner, or person serving in a similar capacity, of the investment adviser;

(b) An employee of the investment adviser, other than an employee performing solely clerical, secretarial, or administrative functions or duties for the investment adviser, which employee, in connection with the employee's regular functions or duties, participates in the investment activities of the investment adviser, provided that, for at least twelve months, the employee has been performing such nonclerical, nonsecretarial, or nonadministrative functions or duties for or on behalf of the investment adviser or performing substantially similar functions or duties for or on behalf of another company.

If subsequent to March 18, 1999, amendments are enacted or adopted defining "excepted person" for purposes of the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 or additional rules or regulations are promulgated by the securities and exchange commission regarding the definition of "excepted person" for purposes of the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, the division of securities shall, by rule, adopt the substance of the amendments, rules, or regulations, unless the division finds that the amendments, rules, or regulations are not necessary for the protection of investors or in the public interest.

(FF)

(1) "Qualified purchaser" means either of the following:

(a) A natural person who owns not less than five million dollars in investments as defined by rule by the division of securities;

(b) A natural person, acting for the person's own account or accounts of other qualified purchasers, who in the aggregate owns and invests on a discretionary basis, not less than twenty-five million dollars in investments as defined by rule by the division of securities.

(2) If subsequent to March 18, 1999, amendments are enacted or adopted defining "qualified purchaser" for purposes of the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 or additional rules or regulations are promulgated by the securities and exchange commission regarding the definition of "qualified purchaser" for purposes of the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, the division of securities shall, by rule, adopt the amendments, rules, or regulations, unless the division finds that the amendments, rules, or regulations are not necessary for the protection of investors or in the public interest.

(GG)

(1) "Purchase" has the full meaning of "purchase" as applied by or accepted in courts of law or equity and includes every acquisition of, or attempt to acquire, a security or an interest in a security. "Purchase" also includes a contract to purchase, an exchange, an attempt to purchase, an option to purchase, a solicitation of a purchase, a solicitation of an offer to sell, a subscription, or an offer to purchase, directly or indirectly, by agent, circular, pamphlet, advertisement, or otherwise.

(2) "Purchase" means any act by which a purchase is made.

(3) Any security given with, or as a bonus on account of, any purchase of securities is conclusively presumed to constitute a part of the subject of that purchase.

(HH) "Life settlement interest" means the entire interest or any fractional interest in an insurance policy or certificate of insurance, or in an insurance benefit under such a policy or certificate, that is the subject of a life settlement contract.

For purposes of this division, "life settlement contract" means an agreement for the purchase, sale, assignment, transfer, devise, or bequest of any portion of the death benefit or ownership of any life insurance policy or contract, in return for consideration or any other thing of value that is less than the expected death benefit of the life insurance policy or contract. "Life settlement contract" includes a viatical settlement contract as defined in section 3916.01 of the Revised Code, but does not include any of the following:

(1) A loan by an insurer under the terms of a life insurance policy, including, but not limited to, a loan secured by the cash value of the policy;

(2) An agreement with a bank that takes an assignment of a life insurance policy as collateral for a loan;

(3) The provision of accelerated benefits as defined in section 3915.21 of the Revised Code;

(4) Any agreement between an insurer and a reinsurer;

(5) An agreement by an individual to purchase an existing life insurance policy or contract from the original owner of the policy or contract, if the individual does not enter into more than one life settlement contract per calendar year;

(6) The initial purchase of an insurance policy or certificate of insurance from its owner by a viatical settlement provider, as defined in section 3916.01 of the Revised Code, that is licensed under Chapter 3916. of the Revised Code.

(II) "State retirement system" means the public employees retirement system, Ohio police and fire pension fund, state teachers retirement system, school employees retirement system, and state highway patrol retirement system.

(JJ) "State retirement system investment officer" means an individual employed by a state retirement system as a chief investment officer, assistant investment officer, or the person in charge of a class of assets or in a position that is substantially equivalent to chief investment officer, assistant investment officer, or person in charge of a class of assets.

(KK) "Bureau of workers' compensation chief investment officer" means an individual employed by the administrator of workers' compensation as a chief investment officer or in a position that is substantially equivalent to a chief investment officer.

Effective Date: 09-16-2003; 09-15-2004; 09-29-2005; 10-12-2006; 2007 HB100 09-10-2007