(1) Except as otherwise provided by law, the probate court has exclusive jurisdiction:
(a) To take the proof of wills and to admit to record authenticated copies of wills executed, proved, and allowed in the courts of any other state, territory, or country. If the probate judge is unavoidably absent, any judge of the court of common pleas may take proof of wills and approve bonds to be given, but the record of these acts shall be preserved in the usual records of the probate court.
(b) To grant and revoke letters testamentary and of administration;
(c) To direct and control the conduct and settle the accounts of executors and administrators and order the distribution of estates;
(d) To appoint the attorney general to serve as the administrator of an estate pursuant to section 2113.06 of the Revised Code;
(e) To appoint and remove guardians, conservators, and testamentary trustees, direct and control their conduct, and settle their accounts;
(f) To grant marriage licenses;
(g) To make inquests respecting persons who are so mentally impaired as a result of a mental or physical illness or disability, or mental retardation, or as a result of chronic substance abuse, that they are unable to manage their property and affairs effectively, subject to guardianship;
(h) To qualify assignees, appoint and qualify trustees and commissioners of insolvents, control their conduct, and settle their accounts;
(i) To authorize the sale of lands, equitable estates, or interests in lands or equitable estates, and the assignments of inchoate dower in such cases of sale, on petition by executors, administrators, and guardians;
(j) To authorize the completion of real property contracts on petition of executors and administrators;
(k) To construe wills;
(l) To render declaratory judgments, including, but not limited to, those rendered pursuant to section 2107.084 of the Revised Code;
(m) To direct and control the conduct of fiduciaries and settle their accounts;
(n) To authorize the sale or lease of any estate created by will if the estate is held in trust, on petition by the trustee;
(o) To terminate a testamentary trust in any case in which a court of equity may do so;
(p) To hear and determine actions to contest the validity of wills;
(q) To make a determination of the presumption of death of missing persons and to adjudicate the property rights and obligations of all parties affected by the presumption;
(r) To hear and determine an action commenced pursuant to section 3107.41 of the Revised Code to obtain the release of information pertaining to the birth name of the adopted person and the identity of the adopted person's biological parents and biological siblings;
(s) To act for and issue orders regarding wards pursuant to section 2111.50 of the Revised Code;
(t) To hear and determine actions against sureties on the bonds of fiduciaries appointed by the probate court;
(u) To hear and determine actions involving informed consent for medication of persons hospitalized pursuant to section 5122.141 or 5122.15 of the Revised Code;
(v) To hear and determine actions relating to durable powers of attorney for health care as described in division (D) of section 1337.16 of the Revised Code;
(w) To hear and determine actions commenced by objecting individuals, in accordance with section 2133.05 of the Revised Code;
(x) To hear and determine complaints that pertain to the use or continuation, or the withholding or withdrawal, of life-sustaining treatment in connection with certain patients allegedly in a terminal condition or in a permanently unconscious state pursuant to division (E) of section 2133.08 of the Revised Code, in accordance with that division;
(y) To hear and determine applications that pertain to the withholding or withdrawal of nutrition and hydration from certain patients allegedly in a permanently unconscious state pursuant to section 2133.09 of the Revised Code, in accordance with that section;
(z) To hear and determine applications of attending physicians in accordance with division (B) of section 2133.15 of the Revised Code;
(aa) To hear and determine actions relative to the use or continuation of comfort care in connection with certain principals under durable powers of attorney for health care, declarants under declarations, or patients in accordance with division (E) of either section 1337.16 or 2133.12 of the Revised Code;
(bb) To hear and determine applications for an order relieving an estate from administration under section 2113.03 of the Revised Code;
(cc) To hear and determine applications for an order granting a summary release from administration under section 2113.031 of the Revised Code;
(dd) To hear and determine actions relating to the exercise of the right of disposition, in accordance with section 2108.90 of the Revised Code;
(ee) To hear and determine actions relating to the disinterment and reinterment of human remains under section 517.23 of the Revised Code;
(ff) To hear and determine petitions for an order for treatment of a person suffering from alcohol and other drug abuse filed under section 5119.93 of the Revised Code and to order treatment of that nature in accordance with, and take other actions afforded to the court under, sections 5119.90 to 5119.98 of the Revised Code.
(2) In addition to the exclusive jurisdiction conferred upon the probate court by division (A)(1) of this section, the probate court shall have exclusive jurisdiction over a particular subject matter if both of the following apply:
(a) Another section of the Revised Code expressly confers jurisdiction over that subject matter upon the probate court.
(b) No section of the Revised Code expressly confers jurisdiction over that subject matter upon any other court or agency.
(1) The probate court has concurrent jurisdiction with, and the same powers at law and in equity as, the general division of the court of common pleas to issue writs and orders, and to hear and determine actions as follows:
(a) If jurisdiction relative to a particular subject matter is stated to be concurrent in a section of the Revised Code or has been construed by judicial decision to be concurrent, any action that involves that subject matter;
(b) Any action that involves an inter vivos trust; a trust created pursuant to section 5815.28 of the Revised Code; a charitable trust or foundation; subject to divisions (A)(1)(u) and (z) of this section, a power of attorney, including, but not limited to, a durable power of attorney; the medical treatment of a competent adult; or a writ of habeas corpus;
(c) Subject to section 2101.31 of the Revised Code, any action with respect to a probate estate, guardianship, trust, or post-death dispute that involves any of the following:
(i) A designation or removal of a beneficiary of a life insurance policy, annuity contract, retirement plan, brokerage account, security account, bank account, real property, or tangible personal property;
(ii) A designation or removal of a payable-on-death beneficiary or transfer-on-death beneficiary;
(iii) A change in the title to any asset involving a joint and survivorship interest;
(iv) An alleged gift;
(v) The passing of assets upon the death of an individual otherwise than by will, intestate succession, or trust.
(2) Any action that involves a concurrent jurisdiction subject matter and that is before the probate court may be transferred by the probate court, on its order, to the general division of the court of common pleas.
(C) The probate court has plenary power at law and in equity to dispose fully of any matter that is properly before the court, unless the power is expressly otherwise limited or denied by a section of the Revised Code.
(D) The jurisdiction acquired by a probate court over a matter or proceeding is exclusive of that of any other probate court, except when otherwise provided by law.
Amended by 130th General Assembly File No. 25, HB 59, §101.01, eff. 9/29/2013.
Amended by 129th General AssemblyFile No.201, HB 479, §1, eff. 3/27/2013.
Amended by 129th General AssemblyFile No.65, SB 117, §1, eff. 3/22/2012.
Amended by 129th General AssemblyFile No.52, SB 124, §1, eff. 1/13/2012.
Effective Date: 08-29-2000; 10-12-2006; 01-01-2007
Note: This section is set out twice. See also § 2101.24 , as amended by 130th General Assembly File No. 56, SB 23, §1, eff. 3/20/2015.