Chapter 2315: TRIAL PROCEDURE

2315.01 Trial - procedure.

(A) When the jury is sworn, unless for special reasons the court otherwise directs, the trial shall proceed in the following order except as provided in section 2315.02 of the Revised Code:

(1) The plaintiff concisely shall state the plaintiff's claim, and briefly may state the plaintiff's evidence to sustain it.

(2) The defendant briefly shall state the defendant's defense, and briefly may state the defendant's evidence in support of it.

(3) The party who would be defeated if no evidence were offered on either side, first, shall produce that party's evidence, and the adverse party shall then produce the adverse party's evidence.

(4) The parties then shall be confined to rebutting evidence, unless the court for good reasons and in the furtherance of justice, permits them to offer evidence in their original cases.

(5) When the evidence is concluded, either party may present written instructions to the court on matters of law and request them to be given to the jury. The court shall give or refuse to give the written instructions to the jury before the argument to the jury is commenced.

(6) The parties then may submit or argue the case to the jury. The party required first to produce that party's evidence shall have the opening and closing arguments. If several defendants have separate defensesand appear by different counsel, the court shall arrange their relative order.

(7) The court, after the argument is concluded and before proceeding with other business, shall charge the jury. The court shall reduce a charge to writing if either party, before the argument to the jury is commenced, requests it. The parties may examine that charge before any closing argument is made by any of the parties. If a charge or instruction is written and given as prescribed in this division, the court shall not orally qualify, modify, or in any manner explain the charge or instruction to the jury . All written charges and instructions shall be taken by the jurors in their retirement, shall be returned with their verdict into court, and shall remain on file with the papers of the case.

(B) In all tort actions, the court shall instruct the jury regarding the extent to which an award of compensatory damages or punitive or exemplary damages is or is not subject to taxation under federal or state income tax laws.

As used in this division, "tort action" means a civil action for damages for injury, death, or loss to person or property. "Tort action" includes a product liability claim, as defined in section 2307.71 of the Revised Code, and an asbestos claim, as defined in section 2307.91 of the Revised Code, but does not include a civil action for damages for breach of contract or another agreement between persons.

Division (B) of this section shall be considered to be purely remedial in operation and shall be applied in a remedial manner in any civil action commenced on or after the effective date of this amendment, in which division (B) of this section is relevant, regardless of when the cause of action accrued and notwithstanding any other section of the Revised Code or prior rule of law of this state, but shall not be construed to apply to any civil action pending prior to the effective date of this amendment.

Effective Date: 07-06-2001; 04-07-2005

2315.02 View of property by jury.

If the court is of the opinion that it is proper for the jurors to have a view of property which is the subject of litigation, or of a place where a material fact occurred, it may order them to be conducted in a body under the charge of an officer to such property or place, which shall be shown to them by a person appointed by the court for that purpose. While the jurors are thus absent, no person, other than the person so appointed, shall speak to them on any subject connected with the trial.

The expense of such view as approved by the court shall be taxed as other costs in the case.

Effective Date: 09-11-1961

2315.03 Deliberations of jury.

When the case is submitted, the jury may decide it in court or retire to deliberate. Upon retiring, they must be kept together, in charge of an officer, at a convenient place, until they agree upon a verdict or are discharged by the court. The court may permit them temporarily to separate at night and for their meals.

Effective Date: 10-01-1953

2315.04 Duty of officer in charge of jury.

The officer in whose charge the jury is placed, as provided in section 2315.03 of the Revised Code, shall not communicate with them, nor allow anyone else to do so, unless by order of the court, except to ask if they have agreed upon their verdict. Such officer, before their verdict is rendered, shall not communicate to any person the state of their deliberations or the verdict agreed upon.

Effective Date: 10-01-1953

2315.05 Jury may be discharged without verdict.

Because of the sickness of a juror, or an accident or calamity which requires it, or with the consent of both parties, or after jurors have been kept together until it satisfactorily appears that there is no probability of their agreeing, the court may discharge the jury.

Effective Date: 07-06-2001

2315.06 Cause may be resubmitted.

When the jury is discharged during a trial or after a cause is submitted, such cause may at once be tried again, or on a future day, as the court directs.

Effective Date: 07-06-2001

2315.07 Verdict to contain amount of recovery.

If by the verdict in a civil action tried to a jury any party in the action is entitled to recover money from an adverse party, the jury shall determine the amount of the recovery in its verdict.

Effective Date: 07-06-2001

2315.08 Trial by court.

The provisions of this chapter that apply to trials by jury, apply to trials by the court.

Effective Date: 04-09-2003

2315.09 Case stated - controversy.

Parties to a question that might be the subject of a civil action, on filing an affidavit that the controversy is real and the proceeding in good faith to determine their rights, may agree upon a case containing the facts upon which the controversy depends and present a submission of it to any court of competent jurisdiction. The court shall hear and determine the case and render judgment as if an action were pending.

The case, the submission, and the judgment constitutes the record of a question submitted under this section.

Such judgment shall be with costs, may be enforced, and shall be subject to reversal, in like manner, as if it were rendered in an action, unless otherwise provided in the submission.

Effective Date: 07-06-2001

2315.10 to 2315.17 [Repealed].

Effective Date: 07-01-1971

2315.18 Compensatory damages in tort actions - factors excluded - findings or interrogatories.

(A) As used in this section and in section 2315.19 of the Revised Code:

(1) "Asbestos claim" has the same meaning as in section 2307.91 of the Revised Code.

(2) "Economic loss" means any of the following types of pecuniary harm:

(a) All wages, salaries, or other compensation lost as a result of an injury or loss to person or property that is a subject of a tort action;

(b) All expenditures for medical care or treatment, rehabilitation services, or other care, treatment, services, products, or accommodations as a result of an injury or loss to person or property that is a subject of a tort action;

(c) Any other expenditures incurred as a result of an injury or loss to person or property that is a subject of a tort action, other than attorney's fees incurred in connection with that action.

(3) "Medical claim," "dental claim," "optometric claim," and "chiropractic claim" have the same meanings as in section 2305.113 of the Revised Code.

(4) "Noneconomic loss" means nonpecuniary harm that results from an injury or loss to person or property that is a subject of a tort action, including, but not limited to, pain and suffering, loss of society, consortium, companionship, care, assistance, attention, protection, advice, guidance, counsel, instruction, training, or education, disfigurement, mental anguish, and any other intangible loss.

(5) "Occurrence" means all claims resulting from or arising out of any one person's bodily injury.

(6) "Product liability claim" has the same meaning as in section 2307.71 of the Revised Code.

(7) "Tort action" means a civil action for damages for injury or loss to person or property. "Tort action" includes a civil action upon a product liability claim or an asbestos claim. "Tort action" does not include a civil action upon a medical claim, dental claim, optometric claim, or chiropractic claim or a civil action for damages for a breach of contract or another agreement between persons.

(8) "Trier of fact" means the jury or, in a nonjury action, the court.

(B) In a tort action to recover damages for injury or loss to person or property, all of the following apply:

(1) There shall not be any limitation on the amount of compensatory damages that represents the economic loss of the person who is awarded the damages in the tort action.

(2) Except as otherwise provided in division (B)(3) of this section, the amount of compensatory damages that represents damages for noneconomic loss that is recoverable in a tort action under this section to recover damages for injury or loss to person or property shall not exceed the greater of two hundred fifty thousand dollars or an amount that is equal to three times the economic loss, as determined by the trier of fact, of the plaintiff in that tort action to a maximum of three hundred fifty thousand dollars for each plaintiff in that tort action or a maximum of five hundred thousand dollars for each occurrence that is the basis of that tort action.

(3) There shall not be any limitation on the amount of compensatory damages that represents damages for noneconomic loss that is recoverable in a tort action to recover damages for injury or loss to person or property if the noneconomic losses of the plaintiff are for either of the following:

(a) Permanent and substantial physical deformity, loss of use of a limb, or loss of a bodily organ system;

(b) Permanent physical functional injury that permanently prevents the injured person from being able to independently care for self and perform life-sustaining activities.

(C) In determining an award of compensatory damages for noneconomic loss in a tort action, the trier of fact shall not consider any of the following:

(1) Evidence of a defendant's alleged wrongdoing, misconduct, or guilt;

(2) Evidence of the defendant's wealth or financial resources;

(3) All other evidence that is offered for the purpose of punishing the defendant, rather than offered for a compensatory purpose.

(D) If a trial is conducted in a tort action to recover damages for injury or loss to person or property and a plaintiff prevails in that action, the court in a nonjury trial shall make findings of fact, and the jury in a jury trial shall return a general verdict accompanied by answers to interrogatories, that shall specify all of the following:

(1) The total compensatory damages recoverable by the plaintiff;

(2) The portion of the total compensatory damages that represents damages for economic loss;

(3) The portion of the total compensatory damages that represents damages for noneconomic loss.

(E)

(1) After the trier of fact in a tort action to recover damages for injury or loss to person or property complies with division (D) of this section, the court shall enter a judgment in favor of the plaintiff for compensatory damages for economic loss in the amount determined pursuant to division (D)(2) of this section, and, subject to division (F)(1) of this section, the court shall enter a judgment in favor of the plaintiff for compensatory damages for noneconomic loss. Except as provided in division (B)(3) of this section, in no event shall a judgment for compensatory damages for noneconomic loss exceed the maximum recoverable amount that represents damages for noneconomic loss as provided in division (B)(2) of this section. Division (B) of this section shall be applied in a jury trial only after the jury has made its factual findings and determination as to the damages.

(2) Prior to the trial in the tort action described in division (D) of this section, any party may seek summary judgment with respect to the nature of the alleged injury or loss to person or property, seeking a determination of the damages as described in division (B)(2) of this section.

(F)

(1) A court of common pleas has no jurisdiction to enter judgment on an award of compensatory damages for noneconomic loss in excess of the limits set forth in this section.

(2) If the trier of fact is a jury, the court shall not instruct the jury with respect to the limit on compensatory damages for noneconomic loss described in division (B)(2) of this section, and neither counsel for any party nor a witness shall inform the jury or potential jurors of that limit.

(G) With respect to a tort action to which division (B)(2) of this section applies, any excess amount of compensatory damages for noneconomic loss that is greater than the applicable amount specified in division (B)(2) of this section shall not be reallocated to any other tortfeasor beyond the amount of compensatory damages that the tortfeasor would otherwise be responsible for under the laws of this state.

(H) This section does not apply to any of the following:

(1) Tort actions that are brought against the state in the court of claims, including, but not limited to, those actions in which a state university or college is a defendant and to which division (B)(3) of section 3345.40 of the Revised Code applies;

(2) Tort actions that are brought against political subdivisions of this state and that are commenced under or are subject to Chapter 2744. of the Revised Code. Division (C) of section 2744.05 of the Revised Code applies to recoverable damages in those actions.

(3) Wrongful death actions brought pursuant to Chapter 2125. of the Revised Code.

(I) If the provisions regarding the limits on compensatory damages for noneconomic loss set forth in division (B)(2) of this section have been determined to be unconstitutional, then division (C) of this section and section 2315.19 of the Revised Code shall govern the determination of an award of compensatory damages for noneconomic loss in a tort action.

Effective Date: 04-07-2005

2315.19 Review of evidence supporting damages for noneconomic loss.

(A) Upon a post-judgment motion, a trial court in a tort action shall review the evidence supporting an award of compensatory damages for noneconomic loss that the defendant has challenged as excessive. That review shall include, but is not limited to, the following factors:

(1) Whether the evidence presented or the arguments of the attorneys resulted in one or more of the following events in the determination of an award of compensatory damages for noneconomic loss:

(a) It inflamed the passion or prejudice of the trier of fact.

(b) It resulted in the improper consideration of the wealth of the defendant.

(c) It resulted in the improper consideration of the misconduct of the defendant so as to punish the defendant improperly or in circumvention of the limitation on punitive or exemplary damages as provided in section 2315.21 of the Revised Code.

(2) Whether the verdict is in excess of verdicts involving comparable injuries to similarly situated plaintiffs;

(3) Whether there were any extraordinary circumstances in the record to account for an award of compensatory damages for noneconomic loss in excess of what was granted by courts to similarly situated plaintiffs, with consideration given to the type of injury, the severity of the injury, and the plaintiff's age at the time of the injury.

(B) A trial court upholding an award of compensatory damages for noneconomic loss that a party has challenged as inadequate or excessive shall set forth in writing its reasons for upholding the award.

(C) An appellate court shall use a de novo standard of review when considering an appeal of an award of compensatory damages for noneconomic loss on the grounds that the award is inadequate or excessive.

Effective Date: 04-07-2005

2315.20 Evidence of benefits to plaintiff from collateral sources.

(A) In any tort action, the defendant may introduce evidence of any amount payable as a benefit to the plaintiff as a result of the damages that result from an injury, death, or loss to person or property that is the subject of the claim upon which the action is based, except if the source of collateral benefits has a mandatory self-effectuating federal right of subrogation, a contractual right of subrogation, or a statutory right of subrogation or if the source pays the plaintiff a benefit that is in the form of a life insurance payment or a disability payment. However, evidence of the life insurance payment or disability payment may be introduced if the plaintiff's employer paid for the life insurance or disability policy, and the employer is a defendant in the tort action.

(B) If the defendant elects to introduce evidence described in division (A) of this section, the plaintiff may introduce evidence of any amount that the plaintiff has paid or contributed to secure the plaintiff's right to receive the benefits of which the defendant has introduced evidence.

(C) A source of collateral benefits of which evidence is introduced pursuant to division (A) of this section shall not recover any amount against the plaintiff nor shall it be subrogated to the rights of the plaintiff against a defendant.

(D) As used in this section:

(1) "Tort action" means a civil action for damages for injury, death, or loss to person or property. "Tort action" includes a civil action upon a product liability claim and an asbestos claim. "Tort action" does not include a civil action upon a medical claim, dental claim, optometric claim, or chiropractic claim or a civil action for damages for a breach of contract or another agreement between persons.

(2) "Medical claim," "dental claim," "optometric claim," and "chiropractic claim" have the same meanings as in section 2305.113 of the Revised Code.

(3) "Product liability claim" has the same meaning as in section 2307.71 of the Revised Code.

(4) "Asbestos claim" has the same meaning as in section 2307.91 of the Revised Code.

Effective Date: 04-07-2005

2315.21 Punitive or exemplary damages.

(A) As used in this section:

(1) "Tort action" means a civil action for damages for injury or loss to person or property. "Tort action" includes a product liability claim for damages for injury or loss to person or property that is subject to sections 2307.71 to 2307.80 of the Revised Code, but does not include a civil action for damages for a breach of contract or another agreement between persons.

(2) "Trier of fact" means the jury or, in a nonjury action, the court.

(3) "Home" has the same meaning as in section 3721.10 of the Revised Code.

(4) "Employer" includes, but is not limited to, a parent, subsidiary, affiliate, division, or department of the employer. If the employer is an individual, the individual shall be considered an employer under this section only if the subject of the tort action is related to the individual's capacity as an employer.

(5) "Small employer" means an employer who employs not more than one hundred persons on a full-time permanent basis, or, if the employer is classified as being in the manufacturing sector by the North American industrial classification system, "small employer" means an employer who employs not more than five hundred persons on a full-time permanent basis.

(B)

(1) In a tort action that is tried to a jury and in which a plaintiff makes a claim for compensatory damages and a claim for punitive or exemplary damages, upon the motion of any party, the trial of the tort action shall be bifurcated as follows:

(a) The initial stage of the trial shall relate only to the presentation of evidence, and a determination by the jury, with respect to whether the plaintiff is entitled to recover compensatory damages for the injury or loss to person or property from the defendant. During this stage, no party to the tort action shall present, and the court shall not permit a party to present, evidence that relates solely to the issue of whether the plaintiff is entitled to recover punitive or exemplary damages for the injury or loss to person or property from the defendant.

(b) If the jury determines in the initial stage of the trial that the plaintiff is entitled to recover compensatory damages for the injury or loss to person or property from the defendant, evidence may be presented in the second stage of the trial, and a determination by that jury shall be made, with respect to whether the plaintiff additionally is entitled to recover punitive or exemplary damages for the injury or loss to person or property from the defendant.

(2) In a tort action that is tried to a jury and in which a plaintiff makes a claim for both compensatory damages and punitive or exemplary damages, the court shall instruct the jury to return, and the jury shall return, a general verdict and, if that verdict is in favor of the plaintiff, answers to an interrogatory that specifies the total compensatory damages recoverable by the plaintiff from each defendant.

(3) In a tort action that is tried to a court and in which a plaintiff makes a claim for both compensatory damages and punitive or exemplary damages, the court shall make its determination with respect to whether the plaintiff is entitled to recover compensatory damages for the injury or loss to person or property from the defendant and, if that determination is in favor of the plaintiff, shall make findings of fact that specify the total compensatory damages recoverable by the plaintiff from the defendant.

(C) Subject to division (E) of this section, punitive or exemplary damages are not recoverable from a defendant in question in a tort action unless both of the following apply:

(1) The actions or omissions of that defendant demonstrate malice or aggravated or egregious fraud, or that defendant as principal or master knowingly authorized, participated in, or ratified actions or omissions of an agent or servant that so demonstrate.

(2) The trier of fact has returned a verdict or has made a determination pursuant to division (B)(2) or (3) of this section of the total compensatory damages recoverable by the plaintiff from that defendant.

(D)

(1) In a tort action, the trier of fact shall determine the liability of any defendant for punitive or exemplary damages and the amount of those damages.

(2) Except as provided in division (D)(6) of this section, all of the following apply regarding any award of punitive or exemplary damages in a tort action:

(a) The court shall not enter judgment for punitive or exemplary damages in excess of two times the amount of the compensatory damages awarded to the plaintiff from that defendant, as determined pursuant to division (B)(2) or (3) of this section.

(b) If the defendant is a small employer or individual, the court shall not enter judgment for punitive or exemplary damages in excess of the lesser of two times the amount of the compensatory damages awarded to the plaintiff from the defendant or ten percent of the employer's or individual's net worth when the tort was committed up to a maximum of three hundred fifty thousand dollars, as determined pursuant to division (B)(2) or (3) of this section.

(c) Any attorneys fees awarded as a result of a claim for punitive or exemplary damages shall not be considered for purposes of determining the cap on punitive damages.

(3) No award of prejudgment interest under division (C)(1) of section 1343.03 of the Revised Code shall include any prejudgment interest on punitive or exemplary damages found by the trier of fact.

(4) In a tort action, the burden of proof shall be upon a plaintiff in question, by clear and convincing evidence, to establish that the plaintiff is entitled to recover punitive or exemplary damages.

(5)

(a) In any tort action, except as provided in division (D)(5)(b) or (6) of this section, punitive or exemplary damages shall not be awarded against a defendant if that defendant files with the court a certified judgment, judgment entries, or other evidence showing that punitive or exemplary damages have already been awarded and have been collected, in any state or federal court, against that defendant based on the same act or course of conduct that is alleged to have caused the injury or loss to person or property for which the plaintiff seeks compensatory damages and that the aggregate of those previous punitive or exemplary damage awards exceeds the maximum amount of punitive or exemplary damages that may be awarded under division (D)(2) of this section against that defendant in the tort action.

(b) Notwithstanding division (D)(5)(a) of this section and except as provided in division (D)(6) of this section, punitive or exemplary damages may be awarded against a defendant in either of the following types of tort actions:

(i) In subsequent tort actions involving the same act or course of conduct for which punitive or exemplary damages have already been awarded, if the court determines by clear and convincing evidence that the plaintiff will offer new and substantial evidence of previously undiscovered, additional behavior of a type described in division (C) of this section on the part of that defendant, other than the injury or loss for which the plaintiff seeks compensatory damages. In that case, the court shall make specific findings of fact in the record to support its conclusion. The court shall reduce the amount of any punitive or exemplary damages otherwise awardable pursuant to this section by the sum of the punitive or exemplary damages awards previously rendered against that defendant in any state or federal court. The court shall not inform the jury about the court's determination and action under division (D)(5)(b)(i) of this section.

(ii) In subsequent tort actions involving the same act or course of conduct for which punitive or exemplary damages have already been awarded, if the court determines by clear and convincing evidence that the total amount of prior punitive or exemplary damages awards was totally insufficient to punish that defendant's behavior of a type described in division (C) of this section and to deter that defendant and others from similar behavior in the future. In that case, the court shall make specific findings of fact in the record to support its conclusion. The court shall reduce the amount of any punitive or exemplary damages otherwise awardable pursuant to this section by the sum of the punitive or exemplary damages awards previously rendered against that defendant in any state or federal court. The court shall not inform the jury about the court's determination and action under division (D)(5)(b)(ii) of this section.

(6) Division (D)(2) of this section does not apply to a tort action where the alleged injury, death, or loss to person or property resulted from the defendant acting with one or more of the culpable mental states of purposely and knowingly as described in section 2901.22 of the Revised Code and when the defendant has been convicted of or pleaded guilty to a criminal offense that is a felony, that had as an element of the offense one or more of the culpable mental states of purposely and knowingly as described in that section, and that is the basis of the tort action.

(E) This section does not apply to tort actions against the state in the court of claims, including, but not limited to, tort actions against a state university or college that are subject to division (B)(1) of section 3345.40 of the Revised Code, to tort actions against political subdivisions of this state that are commenced under or are subject to Chapter 2744. of the Revised Code, or to the extent that another section of the Revised Code expressly provides any of the following:

(1) Punitive or exemplary damages are recoverable from a defendant in question in a tort action on a basis other than that the actions or omissions of that defendant demonstrate malice or aggravated or egregious fraud or on a basis other than that the defendant in question as principal or master knowingly authorized, participated in, or ratified actions or omissions of an agent or servant that so demonstrate.

(2) Punitive or exemplary damages are recoverable from a defendant in question in a tort action irrespective of whether the plaintiff in question has adduced proof of actual damages.

(3) The burden of proof upon a plaintiff in question to recover punitive or exemplary damages from a defendant in question in a tort action is one other than clear and convincing evidence.

(4) Punitive or exemplary damages are not recoverable from a defendant in question in a tort action.

(F) If the trier of fact is a jury, the court shall not instruct the jury with respect to the limits on punitive or exemplary damages pursuant to division (D) of this section, and neither counsel for any party or a witness shall inform the jury or potential jurors of those limits.

(G) When determining the amount of an award of punitive or exemplary damages against either a home or a residential facility licensed under section 5123.19 of the Revised Code, the trier of fact shall consider all of the following:

(1) The ability of the home or residential facility to pay the award of punitive or exemplary damages based on the home's or residential facility's assets, income, and net worth;

(2) Whether the amount of punitive or exemplary damages is sufficient to deter future tortious conduct;

(3) The financial ability of the home or residential facility, both currently and in the future, to provide accommodations, personal care services, and skilled nursing care.

Effective Date: 11-07-2002; 04-07-2005

2315.22, 2315.221 [Repealed].

Effective Date: 07-01-1971

2315.23 Amended and Renumbered RC 2315.08.

Effective Date: 07-06-2001

2315.24 Amended and Renumbered RC 2315.09.

Effective Date: 07-06-2001

2315.25 [Repealed].

Effective Date: 07-01-1996

2315.26 to 2315.31 [Repealed].

Effective Date: 07-01-1971

2315.32 Asserting contributory fault.

(A) Sections 2315.32 to 2315.36 of the Revised Code do not apply to actions described in section 4113.03 of the Revised Code.

(B) The contributory fault of the plaintiff may be asserted as an affirmative defense to a tort claim , except that the contributory fault of the plaintiff may not be asserted as an affirmative defense to an intentional tort claim.

Effective Date: 04-09-2003; 04-07-2005

2315.33 Contributory fault effect on right to recover.

The contributory fault of a person does not bar the person as plaintiff from recovering damages that have directly and proximately resulted from the tortious conduct of one or more other persons, if the contributory fault of the plaintiff was not greater than the combined tortious conduct of all other persons from whom the plaintiff seeks recovery in this action and of all other persons from whom the plaintiff does not seek recovery in this action. The court shall diminish any compensatory damages recoverable by the plaintiff by an amount that is proportionately equal to the percentage of tortious conduct of the plaintiff as determined pursuant to section 2315.34 of the Revised Code.

Effective Date: 04-09-2003; 04-07-2005

2315.34 Findings of fact by court - general verdict and interrogatories by jury.

If contributory fault is asserted and established as an affirmative defense to a tort claim, the court in a nonjury action shall make findings of fact, and the jury in a jury action shall return a general verdict accompanied by answers to interrogatories, that shall specify the following:

(A) The total amount of the compensatory damages that would have been recoverable on that tort claim but for the tortious conduct of the plaintiff;

(B) The portion of the compensatory damages specified under division (A) of this section that represents economic loss;

(C) The portion of the compensatory damages specified under division (A) of this section that represents noneconomic loss;

(D) The percentage of tortious conduct attributable to all persons as determined pursuant to section 2307.23 of the Revised Code.

Effective Date: 04-09-2003; 04-07-2005

2315.35 Diminishing compensatory damages by percentage of tortious conduct.

After the court makes its findings of fact or after the jury returns its general verdict accompanied by answers to interrogatories as described in section 2315.34 of the Revised Code, the court shall diminish the total amount of the compensatory damages that would have been recoverable by an amount that is proportionately equal to the percentage of tortious conduct determined under section 2307.23 of the Revised Code that is attributable to the plaintiff. If the percentage of the tortious conduct determined to be attributable to the plaintiff is greater than the sum of the percentages of the tortious conduct determined to be attributable to all parties to the tort action from whom the plaintiff seeks recovery plus all persons from whom the plaintiff does not seek recovery in this action, the court shall enter judgment in favor of the defendants.

Effective Date: 04-09-2003

2315.36 Apportionment of liability.

If contributory fault is asserted as an affirmative defense to a tort claim, if it is determined that the plaintiff was contributorily at fault and that contributory fault was a direct and proximate cause of the injury, death, or loss to person or property that is the subject of the tort action, and if the plaintiff is entitled to recover compensatory damages pursuant to section 2315.33 of the Revised Code from more than one party, after it makes findings of fact or after the jury returns its general verdict accompanied by answers to interrogatories as described in section 2315.34 of the Revised Code, the court shall enter a judgment that is in favor of the plaintiff and that imposes liability pursuant to section 2307.22 of the Revised Code.

Effective Date: 04-09-2003; 04-07-2005

2315.37 [Repealed].

Effective Date: 07-06-2001

2315.38 to 2315.40 [Repealed].

Effective Date: 07-01-1971

2315.41 to 2315.46 [Repealed].

Effective Date: 04-07-2005

2315.99 [Repealed].

Effective Date: 07-01-1996