Chapter 2913: THEFT AND FRAUD

2913.01 Theft and fraud general definitions.

As used in this chapter, unless the context requires that a term be given a different meaning:

(A) "Deception" means knowingly deceiving another or causing another to be deceived by any false or misleading representation, by withholding information, by preventing another from acquiring information, or by any other conduct, act, or omission that creates, confirms, or perpetuates a false impression in another, including a false impression as to law, value, state of mind, or other objective or subjective fact.

(B) "Defraud" means to knowingly obtain, by deception, some benefit for oneself or another, or to knowingly cause, by deception, some detriment to another.

(C) "Deprive" means to do any of the following:

(1) Withhold property of another permanently, or for a period that appropriates a substantial portion of its value or use, or with purpose to restore it only upon payment of a reward or other consideration;

(2) Dispose of property so as to make it unlikely that the owner will recover it;

(3) Accept, use, or appropriate money, property, or services, with purpose not to give proper consideration in return for the money, property, or services, and without reasonable justification or excuse for not giving proper consideration.

(D) "Owner" means, unless the context requires a different meaning, any person, other than the actor, who is the owner of, who has possession or control of, or who has any license or interest in property or services, even though the ownership, possession, control, license, or interest is unlawful.

(E) "Services" include labor, personal services, professional services, rental services, public utility services including wireless service as defined in division (F)(1) of section 128.01 of the Revised Code, common carrier services, and food, drink, transportation, entertainment, and cable television services and, for purposes of section 2913.04 of the Revised Code, include cable services as defined in that section.

(F) "Writing" means any computer software, document, letter, memorandum, note, paper, plate, data, film, or other thing having in or upon it any written, typewritten, or printed matter, and any token, stamp, seal, credit card, badge, trademark, label, or other symbol of value, right, privilege, license, or identification.

(G) "Forge" means to fabricate or create, in whole or in part and by any means, any spurious writing, or to make, execute, alter, complete, reproduce, or otherwise purport to authenticate any writing, when the writing in fact is not authenticated by that conduct.

(H) "Utter" means to issue, publish, transfer, use, put or send into circulation, deliver, or display.

(I) "Coin machine" means any mechanical or electronic device designed to do both of the following:

(1) Receive a coin, bill, or token made for that purpose;

(2) In return for the insertion or deposit of a coin, bill, or token, automatically dispense property, provide a service, or grant a license.

(J) "Slug" means an object that, by virtue of its size, shape, composition, or other quality, is capable of being inserted or deposited in a coin machine as an improper substitute for a genuine coin, bill, or token made for that purpose.

(K) "Theft offense" means any of the following:

(1) A violation of section 2911.01, 2911.02, 2911.11, 2911.12, 2911.13, 2911.31, 2911.32, 2913.02, 2913.03, 2913.04, 2913.041, 2913.05, 2913.06, 2913.11, 2913.21, 2913.31, 2913.32, 2913.33, 2913.34, 2913.40, 2913.42, 2913.43, 2913.44, 2913.45, 2913.47, 2913.48, former section 2913.47 or 2913.48, or section 2913.51, 2915.05, or 2921.41 of the Revised Code;

(2) A violation of an existing or former municipal ordinance or law of this or any other state, or of the United States, substantially equivalent to any section listed in division (K)(1) of this section or a violation of section 2913.41, 2913.81, or 2915.06 of the Revised Code as it existed prior to July 1, 1996;

(3) An offense under an existing or former municipal ordinance or law of this or any other state, or of the United States, involving robbery, burglary, breaking and entering, theft, embezzlement, wrongful conversion, forgery, counterfeiting, deceit, or fraud;

(4) A conspiracy or attempt to commit, or complicity in committing, any offense under division (K)(1), (2), or (3) of this section.

(L) "Computer services" includes, but is not limited to, the use of a computer system, computer network, computer program, data that is prepared for computer use, or data that is contained within a computer system or computer network.

(M) "Computer" means an electronic device that performs logical, arithmetic, and memory functions by the manipulation of electronic or magnetic impulses. "Computer" includes, but is not limited to, all input, output, processing, storage, computer program, or communication facilities that are connected, or related, in a computer system or network to an electronic device of that nature.

(N) "Computer system" means a computer and related devices, whether connected or unconnected, including, but not limited to, data input, output, and storage devices, data communications links, and computer programs and data that make the system capable of performing specified special purpose data processing tasks.

(O) "Computer network" means a set of related and remotely connected computers and communication facilities that includes more than one computer system that has the capability to transmit among the connected computers and communication facilities through the use of computer facilities.

(P) "Computer program" means an ordered set of data representing coded instructions or statements that, when executed by a computer, cause the computer to process data.

(Q) "Computer software" means computer programs, procedures, and other documentation associated with the operation of a computer system.

(R) "Data" means a representation of information, knowledge, facts, concepts, or instructions that are being or have been prepared in a formalized manner and that are intended for use in a computer, computer system, or computer network. For purposes of section 2913.47 of the Revised Code, "data" has the additional meaning set forth in division (A) of that section.

(S) "Cable television service" means any services provided by or through the facilities of any cable television system or other similar closed circuit coaxial cable communications system, or any microwave or similar transmission service used in connection with any cable television system or other similar closed circuit coaxial cable communications system.

(T) "Gain access" means to approach, instruct, communicate with, store data in, retrieve data from, or otherwise make use of any resources of a computer, computer system, or computer network, or any cable service or cable system both as defined in section 2913.04 of the Revised Code.

(U) "Credit card" includes, but is not limited to, a card, code, device, or other means of access to a customer's account for the purpose of obtaining money, property, labor, or services on credit, or for initiating an electronic fund transfer at a point-of-sale terminal, an automated teller machine, or a cash dispensing machine. It also includes a county procurement card issued under section 301.29 of the Revised Code.

(V) "Electronic fund transfer" has the same meaning as in 92 Stat. 3728, 15 U.S.C.A. 1693a, as amended.

(W) "Rented property" means personal property in which the right of possession and use of the property is for a short and possibly indeterminate term in return for consideration; the rentee generally controls the duration of possession of the property, within any applicable minimum or maximum term; and the amount of consideration generally is determined by the duration of possession of the property.

(X) "Telecommunication" means the origination, emission, dissemination, transmission, or reception of data, images, signals, sounds, or other intelligence or equivalence of intelligence of any nature over any communications system by any method, including, but not limited to, a fiber optic, electronic, magnetic, optical, digital, or analog method.

(Y) "Telecommunications device" means any instrument, equipment, machine, or other device that facilitates telecommunication, including, but not limited to, a computer, computer network, computer chip, computer circuit, scanner, telephone, cellular telephone, pager, personal communications device, transponder, receiver, radio, modem, or device that enables the use of a modem.

(Z) "Telecommunications service" means the providing, allowing, facilitating, or generating of any form of telecommunication through the use of a telecommunications device over a telecommunications system.

(AA) "Counterfeit telecommunications device" means a telecommunications device that, alone or with another telecommunications device, has been altered, constructed, manufactured, or programmed to acquire, intercept, receive, or otherwise facilitate the use of a telecommunications service or information service without the authority or consent of the provider of the telecommunications service or information service. "Counterfeit telecommunications device" includes, but is not limited to, a clone telephone, clone microchip, tumbler telephone, or tumbler microchip; a wireless scanning device capable of acquiring, intercepting, receiving, or otherwise facilitating the use of telecommunications service or information service without immediate detection; or a device, equipment, hardware, or software designed for, or capable of, altering or changing the electronic serial number in a wireless telephone.

(BB)

(1) "Information service" means, subject to division (BB)(2) of this section, the offering of a capability for generating, acquiring, storing, transforming, processing, retrieving, utilizing, or making available information via telecommunications, including, but not limited to, electronic publishing.

(2) "Information service" does not include any use of a capability of a type described in division (BB)(1) of this section for the management, control, or operation of a telecommunications system or the management of a telecommunications service.

(CC) "Elderly person" means a person who is sixty-five years of age or older.

(DD) "Disabled adult" means a person who is eighteen years of age or older and has some impairment of body or mind that makes the person unable to work at any substantially remunerative employment that the person otherwise would be able to perform and that will, with reasonable probability, continue for a period of at least twelve months without any present indication of recovery from the impairment, or who is eighteen years of age or older and has been certified as permanently and totally disabled by an agency of this state or the United States that has the function of so classifying persons.

(EE) "Firearm" and "dangerous ordnance" have the same meanings as in section 2923.11 of the Revised Code.

(FF) "Motor vehicle" has the same meaning as in section 4501.01 of the Revised Code.

(GG) "Dangerous drug" has the same meaning as in section 4729.01 of the Revised Code.

(HH) "Drug abuse offense" has the same meaning as in section 2925.01 of the Revised Code.

(II)

(1) "Computer hacking" means any of the following:

(a) Gaining access or attempting to gain access to all or part of a computer, computer system, or a computer network without express or implied authorization with the intent to defraud or with intent to commit a crime;

(b) Misusing computer or network services including, but not limited to, mail transfer programs, file transfer programs, proxy servers, and web servers by performing functions not authorized by the owner of the computer, computer system, or computer network or other person authorized to give consent. As used in this division, "misuse of computer and network services" includes, but is not limited to, the unauthorized use of any of the following:

(i) Mail transfer programs to send mail to persons other than the authorized users of that computer or computer network;

(ii) File transfer program proxy services or proxy servers to access other computers, computer systems, or computer networks;

(iii) Web servers to redirect users to other web pages or web servers.

(c)

(i) Subject to division (II)(1)(c)(ii) of this section, using a group of computer programs commonly known as "port scanners" or "probes" to intentionally access any computer, computer system, or computer network without the permission of the owner of the computer, computer system, or computer network or other person authorized to give consent. The group of computer programs referred to in this division includes, but is not limited to, those computer programs that use a computer network to access a computer, computer system, or another computer network to determine any of the following: the presence or types of computers or computer systems on a network; the computer network's facilities and capabilities; the availability of computer or network services; the presence or versions of computer software including, but not limited to, operating systems, computer services, or computer contaminants; the presence of a known computer software deficiency that can be used to gain unauthorized access to a computer, computer system, or computer network; or any other information about a computer, computer system, or computer network not necessary for the normal and lawful operation of the computer initiating the access.

(ii) The group of computer programs referred to in division (II)(1)(c)(i) of this section does not include standard computer software used for the normal operation, administration, management, and test of a computer, computer system, or computer network including, but not limited to, domain name services, mail transfer services, and other operating system services, computer programs commonly called "ping," "tcpdump," and "traceroute" and other network monitoring and management computer software, and computer programs commonly known as "nslookup" and "whois" and other systems administration computer software.

(d) The intentional use of a computer, computer system, or a computer network in a manner that exceeds any right or permission granted by the owner of the computer, computer system, or computer network or other person authorized to give consent.

(2) "Computer hacking" does not include the introduction of a computer contaminant, as defined in section 2909.01 of the Revised Code, into a computer, computer system, computer program, or computer network.

(JJ) "Police dog or horse" has the same meaning as in section 2921.321 of the Revised Code.

(KK) "Anhydrous ammonia" is a compound formed by the combination of two gaseous elements, nitrogen and hydrogen, in the manner described in this division. Anhydrous ammonia is one part nitrogen to three parts hydrogen (NH3). Anhydrous ammonia by weight is fourteen parts nitrogen to three parts hydrogen, which is approximately eighty-two per cent nitrogen to eighteen per cent hydrogen.

(LL) "Assistance dog" has the same meaning as in section 955.011 of the Revised Code.

(MM) "Federally licensed firearms dealer" has the same meaning as in section 5502.63 of the Revised Code.

(NN) "Active duty service member" means any member of the armed forces of the United States performing active duty under title 10 of the United States Code.

Amended by 130th General Assembly File No. TBD, HB 488, §1, eff. 9/16/2014.

Amended by 130th General Assembly File No. 25, HB 59, §101.01, eff. 9/29/2013.

Amended by 130th General Assembly File No. 7, HB 51, §101.01, eff. 7/1/2013.

Amended by 129th General AssemblyFile No.166, HB 360, §1, eff. 12/20/2012.

Amended by 129th General AssemblyFile No.132, SB 193, §1, eff. 9/28/2012.

Amended by 129th General AssemblyFile No.29, HB 86, §1, eff. 9/30/2011.

Effective Date: 02-12-2004; 09-23-2004; 11-26-2004; 04-15-2005; 05-06-2005; 06-30-2006; 03-14-2007; 2008 SB320 04-07-2009

2913.02 Theft.

(A) No person, with purpose to deprive the owner of property or services, shall knowingly obtain or exert control over either the property or services in any of the following ways:

(1) Without the consent of the owner or person authorized to give consent;

(2) Beyond the scope of the express or implied consent of the owner or person authorized to give consent;

(3) By deception;

(4) By threat;

(5) By intimidation.

(B)

(1) Whoever violates this section is guilty of theft.

(2) Except as otherwise provided in this division or division (B)(3), (4), (5), (6), (7), (8), or (9) of this section, a violation of this section is petty theft, a misdemeanor of the first degree. If the value of the property or services stolen is one thousand dollars or more and is less than seven thousand five hundred dollars or if the property stolen is any of the property listed in section 2913.71 of the Revised Code, a violation of this section is theft, a felony of the fifth degree. If the value of the property or services stolen is seven thousand five hundred dollars or more and is less than one hundred fifty thousand dollars, a violation of this section is grand theft, a felony of the fourth degree. If the value of the property or services stolen is one hundred fifty thousand dollars or more and is less than seven hundred fifty thousand dollars, a violation of this section is aggravated theft, a felony of the third degree. If the value of the property or services is seven hundred fifty thousand dollars or more and is less than one million five hundred thousand dollars, a violation of this section is aggravated theft, a felony of the second degree. If the value of the property or services stolen is one million five hundred thousand dollars or more, a violation of this section is aggravated theft of one million five hundred thousand dollars or more, a felony of the first degree.

(3) Except as otherwise provided in division (B)(4), (5), (6), (7), (8), or (9) of this section, if the victim of the offense is an elderly person , disabled adult, active duty service member, or spouse of an active duty service member, a violation of this section is theft from a person in a protected class, and division (B)(3) of this section applies. Except as otherwise provided in this division, theft from a person in a protected class is a felony of the fifth degree. If the value of the property or services stolen is one thousand dollars or more and is less than seven thousand five hundred dollars, theft from a person in a protected class is a felony of the fourth degree. If the value of the property or services stolen is seven thousand five hundred dollars or more and is less than thirty-seven thousand five hundred dollars, theft from a person in a protected class is a felony of the third degree. If the value of the property or services stolen is thirty-seven thousand five hundred dollars or more and is less than one hundred fifty thousand dollars, theft from a person in a protected class is a felony of the second degree. If the value of the property or services stolen is one hundred fifty thousand dollars or more, theft from a person in a protected class is a felony of the first degree.

(4) If the property stolen is a firearm or dangerous ordnance, a violation of this section is grand theft. Except as otherwise provided in this division, grand theft when the property stolen is a firearm or dangerous ordnance is a felony of the third degree, and there is a presumption in favor of the court imposing a prison term for the offense. If the firearm or dangerous ordnance was stolen from a federally licensed firearms dealer, grand theft when the property stolen is a firearm or dangerous ordnance is a felony of the first degree. The offender shall serve a prison term imposed for grand theft when the property stolen is a firearm or dangerous ordnance consecutively to any other prison term or mandatory prison term previously or subsequently imposed upon the offender.

(5) If the property stolen is a motor vehicle, a violation of this section is grand theft of a motor vehicle, a felony of the fourth degree.

(6) If the property stolen is any dangerous drug, a violation of this section is theft of drugs, a felony of the fourth degree, or, if the offender previously has been convicted of a felony drug abuse offense, a felony of the third degree.

(7) If the property stolen is a police dog or horse or an assistance dog and the offender knows or should know that the property stolen is a police dog or horse or an assistance dog, a violation of this section is theft of a police dog or horse or an assistance dog, a felony of the third degree.

(8) If the property stolen is anhydrous ammonia, a violation of this section is theft of anhydrous ammonia, a felony of the third degree.

(9) Except as provided in division (B)(2) of this section with respect to property with a value of seven thousand five hundred dollars or more and division (B)(3) of this section with respect to property with a value of one thousand dollars or more, if the property stolen is a special purpose article as defined in section 4737.04 of the Revised Code or is a bulk merchandise container as defined in section 4737.012 of the Revised Code, a violation of this section is theft of a special purpose article or articles or theft of a bulk merchandise container or containers, a felony of the fifth degree.

(10) In addition to the penalties described in division (B)(2) of this section, if the offender committed the violation by causing a motor vehicle to leave the premises of an establishment at which gasoline is offered for retail sale without the offender making full payment for gasoline that was dispensed into the fuel tank of the motor vehicle or into another container, the court may do one of the following:

(a) Unless division (B)(10)(b) of this section applies, suspend for not more than six months the offender's driver's license, probationary driver's license, commercial driver's license, temporary instruction permit, or nonresident operating privilege;

(b) If the offender's driver's license, probationary driver's license, commercial driver's license, temporary instruction permit, or nonresident operating privilege has previously been suspended pursuant to division (B)(10)(a) of this section, impose a class seven suspension of the offender's license, permit, or privilege from the range specified in division (A)(7) of section 4510.02 of the Revised Code, provided that the suspension shall be for at least six months.

(c) The court, in lieu of suspending the offender's driver's or commercial driver's license, probationary driver's license, temporary instruction permit, or nonresident operating privilege pursuant to division (B)(10)(a) or (b) of this section, instead may require the offender to perform community service for a number of hours determined by the court.

(11) In addition to the penalties described in division (B)(2) of this section, if the offender committed the violation by stealing rented property or rental services, the court may order that the offender make restitution pursuant to section 2929.18 or 2929.28 of the Revised Code. Restitution may include, but is not limited to, the cost of repairing or replacing the stolen property, or the cost of repairing the stolen property and any loss of revenue resulting from deprivation of the property due to theft of rental services that is less than or equal to the actual value of the property at the time it was rented. Evidence of intent to commit theft of rented property or rental services shall be determined pursuant to the provisions of section 2913.72 of the Revised Code.

(C) The sentencing court that suspends an offender's license, permit, or nonresident operating privilege under division (B)(10) of this section may grant the offender limited driving privileges during the period of the suspension in accordance with Chapter 4510. of the Revised Code.

Amended by 130th General Assembly File No. TBD, HB 488, §1, eff. 9/16/2014.

Amended by 130th General Assembly File No. 7, HB 51, §101.01, eff. 7/1/2013.

Amended by 129th General AssemblyFile No.131, SB 337, §1, eff. 9/28/2012.

Amended by 129th General AssemblyFile No.29, HB 86, §1, eff. 9/30/2011.

Effective Date: 04-08-2004; 11-26-2004; 06-30-2006; 03-14-2007; 2008 SB320 04-07-2009

2913.03 Unauthorized use of a vehicle.

(A) No person shall knowingly use or operate an aircraft, motor vehicle, motorcycle, motorboat, or other motor-propelled vehicle without the consent of the owner or person authorized to give consent.

(B) No person shall knowingly use or operate an aircraft, motor vehicle, motorboat, or other motor-propelled vehicle without the consent of the owner or person authorized to give consent, and either remove it from this state or keep possession of it for more than forty-eight hours.

(C) The following are affirmative defenses to a charge under this section:

(1) At the time of the alleged offense, the actor, though mistaken, reasonably believed that the actor was authorized to use or operate the property.

(2) At the time of the alleged offense, the actor reasonably believed that the owner or person empowered to give consent would authorize the actor to use or operate the property.

(D)

(1) Whoever violates this section is guilty of unauthorized use of a vehicle.

(2) Except as otherwise provided in division (D)(4) of this section, a violation of division (A) of this section is a misdemeanor of the first degree.

(3) Except as otherwise provided in division (D)(4) of this section, a violation of division (B) of this section is a felony of the fifth degree.

(4) If the victim of the offense is an elderly person or disabled adult and if the victim incurs a loss as a result of the violation, a violation of division (A) or (B) of this section is whichever of the following is applicable:

(a) Except as otherwise provided in division (D)(4)(b), (c), or (d) of this section, a felony of the fifth degree;

(b) If the loss to the victim is one thousand dollars or more and is less than seven thousand five hundred dollars, a felony of the fourth degree;

(c) If the loss to the victim is seven thousand five hundred dollars or more and is less than thirty-seven thousand five hundred dollars, a felony of the third degree;

(d) If the loss to the victim is thirty-seven thousand five hundred dollars or more, a felony of the second degree.

Amended by 129th General AssemblyFile No.29, HB 86, §1, eff. 9/30/2011.

Effective Date: 11-10-1999

2913.04 Unauthorized use of property - computer, cable, or telecommunication property.

(A) No person shall knowingly use or operate the property of another without the consent of the owner or person authorized to give consent.

(B) No person, in any manner and by any means, including, but not limited to, computer hacking, shall knowingly gain access to, attempt to gain access to, or cause access to be gained to any computer, computer system, computer network, cable service, cable system, telecommunications device, telecommunications service, or information service without the consent of, or beyond the scope of the express or implied consent of, the owner of the computer, computer system, computer network, cable service, cable system, telecommunications device, telecommunications service, or information service or other person authorized to give consent.

(C) No person shall knowingly gain access to, attempt to gain access to, cause access to be granted to, or disseminate information gained from access to the law enforcement automated database system created pursuant to section 5503.10 of the Revised Code without the consent of, or beyond the scope of the express or implied consent of, the chair of the law enforcement automated data system steering committee.

(D) No person shall knowingly gain access to, attempt to gain access to, cause access to be granted to, or disseminate information gained from access to the Ohio law enforcement gateway established and operated pursuant to division (C)(1) of section 109.57 of the Revised Code without the consent of, or beyond the scope of the express or implied consent of, the superintendent of the bureau of criminal identification and investigation.

(E) The affirmative defenses contained in division (C) of section 2913.03 of the Revised Code are affirmative defenses to a charge under this section.

(F)

(1) Whoever violates division (A) of this section is guilty of unauthorized use of property.

(2) Except as otherwise provided in division (F)(3) or (4) of this section, unauthorized use of property is a misdemeanor of the fourth degree.

(3) Except as otherwise provided in division (F)(4) of this section, if unauthorized use of property is committed for the purpose of devising or executing a scheme to defraud or to obtain property or services, unauthorized use of property is whichever of the following is applicable:

(a) Except as otherwise provided in division (F)(3)(b), (c), or (d) of this section, a misdemeanor of the first degree.

(b) If the value of the property or services or the loss to the victim is one thousand dollars or more and is less than seven thousand five hundred dollars, a felony of the fifth degree.

(c) If the value of the property or services or the loss to the victim is seven thousand five hundred dollars or more and is less than one hundred fifty thousand dollars, a felony of the fourth degree.

(d) If the value of the property or services or the loss to the victim is one hundred fifty thousand dollars or more, a felony of the third degree.

(4) If the victim of the offense is an elderly person or disabled adult, unauthorized use of property is whichever of the following is applicable:

(a) Except as otherwise provided in division (F)(4)(b), (c), or (d) of this section, a felony of the fifth degree;

(b) If the value of the property or services or loss to the victim is one thousand dollars or more and is less than seven thousand five hundred dollars, a felony of the fourth degree;

(c) If the value of the property or services or loss to the victim is seven thousand five hundred dollars or more and is less than thirty-seven thousand five hundred dollars, a felony of the third degree;

(d) If the value of the property or services or loss to the victim is thirty-seven thousand five hundred dollars or more, a felony of the second degree.

(G)

(1) Whoever violates division (B) of this section is guilty of unauthorized use of computer, cable, or telecommunication property, and shall be punished as provided in division (G)(2), (3), or (4) of this section.

(2) Except as otherwise provided in division (G)(3) or (4) of this section, unauthorized use of computer, cable, or telecommunication property is a felony of the fifth degree.

(3) Except as otherwise provided in division (G)(4) of this section, if unauthorized use of computer, cable, or telecommunication property is committed for the purpose of devising or executing a scheme to defraud or to obtain property or services, for obtaining money, property, or services by false or fraudulent pretenses, or for committing any other criminal offense, unauthorized use of computer, cable, or telecommunication property is whichever of the following is applicable:

(a) Except as otherwise provided in division (G)(3)(b) of this section, if the value of the property or services involved or the loss to the victim is seven thousand five hundred dollars or more and less than one hundred fifty thousand dollars, a felony of the fourth degree;

(b) If the value of the property or services involved or the loss to the victim is one hundred fifty thousand dollars or more, a felony of the third degree.

(4) If the victim of the offense is an elderly person or disabled adult, unauthorized use of computer, cable, or telecommunication property is whichever of the following is applicable:

(a) Except as otherwise provided in division (G)(4)(b), (c), or (d) of this section, a felony of the fifth degree;

(b) If the value of the property or services or loss to the victim is one thousand dollars or more and is less than seven thousand five hundred dollars, a felony of the fourth degree;

(c) If the value of the property or services or loss to the victim is seven thousand five hundred dollars or more and is less than thirty-seven thousand five hundred dollars, a felony of the third degree;

(d) If the value of the property or services or loss to the victim is thirty-seven thousand five hundred dollars or more, a felony of the second degree.

(H) Whoever violates division (C) of this section is guilty of unauthorized use of the law enforcement automated database system, a felony of the fifth degree.

(I) Whoever violates division (D) of this section is guilty of unauthorized use of the Ohio law enforcement gateway, a felony of the fifth degree.

(J) As used in this section:

(1) "Cable operator" means any person or group of persons that does either of the following:

(a) Provides cable service over a cable system and directly or through one or more affiliates owns a significant interest in that cable system;

(b) Otherwise controls or is responsible for, through any arrangement, the management and operation of a cable system.

(2) "Cable service" means any of the following:

(a) The one-way transmission to subscribers of video programming or of information that a cable operator makes available to all subscribers generally;

(b) Subscriber interaction, if any, that is required for the selection or use of video programming or of information that a cable operator makes available to all subscribers generally, both as described in division (J)(2)(a) of this section;

(c) Any cable television service.

(3) "Cable system" means any facility, consisting of a set of closed transmission paths and associated signal generation, reception, and control equipment that is designed to provide cable service that includes video programming and that is provided to multiple subscribers within a community. "Cable system" does not include any of the following:

(a) Any facility that serves only to retransmit the television signals of one or more television broadcast stations;

(b) Any facility that serves subscribers without using any public right-of-way;

(c) Any facility of a common carrier that, under 47 U.S.C.A. 522(7)(c) , is excluded from the term "cable system" as defined in 47 U.S.C.A. 522(7) ;

(d) Any open video system that complies with 47 U.S.C.A. 573 ;

(e) Any facility of any electric utility used solely for operating its electric utility system.

Amended by 129th General AssemblyFile No.29, HB 86, §1, eff. 9/30/2011.

Amended by 128th General AssemblyFile No.21, HB 10, §1, eff. 6/17/2010.

Effective Date: 04-08-2004; 09-23-2004

2913.041 Possession or sale of unauthorized cable television device.

(A) No person shall knowingly possess any device, including any instrument, apparatus, computer chip, equipment, decoder, descrambler, converter, software, or other device specially adapted, modified, or remanufactured for gaining access to cable television service, without securing authorization from or paying the required compensation to the owner or operator of the system that provides the cable television service.

(B) No person shall knowingly sell, distribute, or manufacture any device, including any instrument, apparatus, computer chip, equipment, decoder, descrambler, converter, software, or other device specially adapted, modified, or remanufactured for gaining access to cable television service, without securing authorization from or paying the required compensation to the owner or operator of the system that provides the cable television service.

(C) Whoever violates division (A) of this section is guilty of possession of an unauthorized device, a felony of the fifth degree. Whoever violates division (B) of this section is guilty of sale of an unauthorized device, a felony of the fourth degree.

(D) A person commits a separate violation of this section with regard to each device that is sold, distributed, manufactured, or possessed in violation of division (A) or (B) of this section.

Effective Date: 07-01-1996

2913.05 Telecommunications fraud.

(A) No person, having devised a scheme to defraud, shall knowingly disseminate, transmit, or cause to be disseminated or transmitted by means of a wire, radio, satellite, telecommunication, telecommunications device, or telecommunications service any writing, data, sign, signal, picture, sound, or image with purpose to execute or otherwise further the scheme to defraud.

(B) If an offender commits a violation of division (A) of this section and the violation occurs as part of a course of conduct involving other violations of division (A) of this section or violations of, attempts to violate, conspiracies to violate, or complicity in violations of section 2913.02 , 2913.04 , 2913.11 , 2913.21 , 2913.31 , 2913.42 , 2913.43 , or 2921.13 of the Revised Code, the court, in determining the degree of the offense pursuant to division (C) of this section, may aggregate the value of the benefit obtained by the offender or of the detriment to the victim of the fraud in the violations involved in that course of conduct. The course of conduct may involve one victim or more than one victim.

(C) Whoever violates this section is guilty of telecommunications fraud. Except as otherwise provided in this division, telecommunications fraud is a felony of the fifth degree. If the value of the benefit obtained by the offender or of the detriment to the victim of the fraud is one thousand dollars or more but less than seven thousand five hundred dollars, telecommunications fraud is a felony of the fourth degree. If the value of the benefit obtained by the offender or of the detriment to the victim of the fraud is seven thousand five hundred dollars or more but less than one hundred fifty thousand dollars, telecommunications fraud is a felony of the third degree. If the value of the benefit obtained by the offender or of the detriment to the victims of the fraud is one hundred fifty thousand dollars or more but less than one million dollars, telecommunications fraud is a felony of the second degree. If the value of the benefit obtained by the offender or of the detriment to the victims of the fraud is one million dollars or more, telecommunications fraud is a felony of the first degree.

Amended by 129th General AssemblyFile No.88, SB 223, §1, eff. 6/8/2012.

Effective Date: 03-30-1999

2913.06 Unlawful use of telecommunications device.

(A) No person shall knowingly manufacture, possess, deliver, offer to deliver, or advertise a counterfeit telecommunications device with purpose to use it criminally.

(B) No person shall knowingly manufacture, possess, deliver, offer to deliver, or advertise a counterfeit telecommunications device with purpose to use that device or to allow that device to be used, or knowing or having reason to know that another person may use that device, to do any of the following:

(1) Obtain or attempt to obtain telecommunications service or information service with purpose to avoid a lawful charge for that service or aid or cause another person to obtain or attempt to obtain telecommunications service or information service with purpose to avoid a lawful charge for that service;

(2) Conceal the existence, place of origin, or destination of a telecommunications service or information service.

(C) Whoever violates this section is guilty of unlawful use of a telecommunications device, a felony of the fifth degree.

(D) This section does not prohibit or restrict a person who holds an amateur service license issued by the federal communications commission from possessing a radio receiver or transceiver that is intended primarily or exclusively for use in the amateur radio service and is used for lawful purposes.

(E) This section does not preclude a person from disputing charges imposed for telecommunications service or information service by the provider of that service.

Effective Date: 03-30-1999

2913.07 Motion picture piracy.

(A) As used in this section:

(1) "Audiovisual recording function" means the capability of a device to record or transmit a motion picture or any part of a motion picture by means of any technology existing on, or developed after, the effective date of this section.

(2) "Facility" includes all retail establishments and movie theaters.

(B) No person, without the written consent of the owner or lessee of the facility and of the licensor of the motion picture, shall knowingly operate an audiovisual recording function of a device in a facility in which a motion picture is being shown.

(C) Whoever violates division (B) of this section is guilty of motion picture piracy, a misdemeanor of the first degree on the first offense and a felony of the fifth degree on each subsequent offense.

(D) This section does not prohibit or restrict a lawfully authorized investigative, law enforcement, protective, or intelligence gathering employee or agent of the government of this state or a political subdivision of this state, or of the federal government, when acting in an official capacity, from operating an audiovisual recording function of a device in any facility in which a motion picture is being shown.

(E) Division (B) of this section does not limit or affect the application of any other prohibition in the Revised Code. Any act that is a violation of both division (B) of this section and another provision of the Revised Code may be prosecuted under this section, under the other provision of the Revised Code, or under both this section and the other provision of the Revised Code.

Effective Date: 12-23-2003

2913.08 to 2913.10 [Repealed].

Effective Date: 01-01-1974

2913.11 Passing bad checks.

(A) As used in this section:

(1) "Check" includes any form of debit from a demand deposit account, including, but not limited to any of the following:

(a) A check, bill of exchange, draft, order of withdrawal, or similar negotiable or non-negotiable instrument;

(b) An electronic check, electronic transaction, debit card transaction, check card transaction, substitute check, web check, or any form of automated clearing house transaction.

(2) "Issue a check" means causing any form of debit from a demand deposit account.

(B) No person, with purpose to defraud, shall issue or transfer or cause to be issued or transferred a check or other negotiable instrument, knowing that it will be dishonored or knowing that a person has ordered or will order stop payment on the check or other negotiable instrument.

(C) For purposes of this section, a person who issues or transfers a check or other negotiable instrument is presumed to know that it will be dishonored if either of the following occurs:

(1) The drawer had no account with the drawee at the time of issue or the stated date, whichever is later;

(2) The check or other negotiable instrument was properly refused payment for insufficient funds upon presentment within thirty days after issue or the stated date, whichever is later, and the liability of the drawer, indorser, or any party who may be liable thereon is not discharged by payment or satisfaction within ten days after receiving notice of dishonor.

(D) For purposes of this section, a person who issues or transfers a check, bill of exchange, or other draft is presumed to have the purpose to defraud if the drawer fails to comply with section 1349.16 of the Revised Code by doing any of the following when opening a checking account intended for personal, family, or household purposes at a financial institution:

(1) Falsely stating that the drawer has not been issued a valid driver's or commercial driver's license or identification card issued under section 4507.50 of the Revised Code;

(2) Furnishing such license or card, or another identification document that contains false information;

(3) Making a false statement with respect to the drawer's current address or any additional relevant information reasonably required by the financial institution.

(E) In determining the value of the payment for purposes of division (F) of this section, the court may aggregate all checks and other negotiable instruments that the offender issued or transferred or caused to be issued or transferred in violation of division (A) of this section within a period of one hundred eighty consecutive days.

(F) Whoever violates this section is guilty of passing bad checks. Except as otherwise provided in this division, passing bad checks is a misdemeanor of the first degree. If the check or checks or other negotiable instrument or instruments are issued or transferred to a single vendor or single other person for the payment of one thousand dollars or more but less than seven thousand five hundred dollars or if the check or checks or other negotiable instrument or instruments are issued or transferred to multiple vendors or persons for the payment of one thousand five hundred dollars or more but less than seven thousand five hundred dollars, passing bad checks is a felony of the fifth degree. If the check or checks or other negotiable instrument or instruments are for the payment of seven thousand five hundred dollars or more but less than one hundred fifty thousand dollars, passing bad checks is a felony of the fourth degree. If the check or checks or other negotiable instrument or instruments are for the payment of one hundred fifty thousand dollars or more, passing bad checks is a felony of the third degree.

Amended by 129th General AssemblyFile No.29, HB 86, §1, eff. 9/30/2011.

Effective Date: 07-01-1996; 05-18-2005

2913.12 to 2913.17 [Repealed].

Effective Date: 01-01-1974

2913.21 Misuse of credit cards.

(A) No person shall do any of the following:

(1) Practice deception for the purpose of procuring the issuance of a credit card, when a credit card is issued in actual reliance thereon;

(2) Knowingly buy or sell a credit card from or to a person other than the issuer.

(B) No person, with purpose to defraud, shall do any of the following:

(1) Obtain control over a credit card as security for a debt;

(2) Obtain property or services by the use of a credit card, in one or more transactions, knowing or having reasonable cause to believe that the card has expired or been revoked, or was obtained, is retained, or is being used in violation of law;

(3) Furnish property or services upon presentation of a credit card, knowing that the card is being used in violation of law;

(4) Represent or cause to be represented to the issuer of a credit card that property or services have been furnished, knowing that the representation is false.

(C) No person, with purpose to violate this section, shall receive, possess, control, or dispose of a credit card.

(D)

(1) Whoever violates this section is guilty of misuse of credit cards.

(2) Except as otherwise provided in division (D)(4) of this section, a violation of division (A), (B)(1), or (C) of this section is a misdemeanor of the first degree.

(3) Except as otherwise provided in this division or division (D)(4) of this section, a violation of division (B)(2), (3), or (4) of this section is a misdemeanor of the first degree. If the cumulative retail value of the property and services involved in one or more violations of division (B)(2), (3), or (4) of this section, which violations involve one or more credit card accounts and occur within a period of ninety consecutive days commencing on the date of the first violation, is one thousand dollars or more and is less than seven thousand five hundred dollars, misuse of credit cards in violation of any of those divisions is a felony of the fifth degree. If the cumulative retail value of the property and services involved in one or more violations of division (B)(2), (3), or (4) of this section, which violations involve one or more credit card accounts and occur within a period of ninety consecutive days commencing on the date of the first violation, is seven thousand five hundred dollars or more and is less than one hundred fifty thousand dollars, misuse of credit cards in violation of any of those divisions is a felony of the fourth degree. If the cumulative retail value of the property and services involved in one or more violations of division (B)(2), (3), or (4) of this section, which violations involve one or more credit card accounts and occur within a period of ninety consecutive days commencing on the date of the first violation, is one hundred fifty thousand dollars or more, misuse of credit cards in violation of any of those divisions is a felony of the third degree.

(4) If the victim of the offense is an elderly person or disabled adult, and if the offense involves a violation of division (B)(1) or (2) of this section, division (D)(4) of this section applies. Except as otherwise provided in division (D)(4) of this section, a violation of division (B)(1) or (2) of this section is a felony of the fifth degree. If the debt for which the card is held as security or the cumulative retail value of the property or services involved in the violation is one thousand dollars or more and is less than seven thousand five hundred dollars, a violation of either of those divisions is a felony of the fourth degree. If the debt for which the card is held as security or the cumulative retail value of the property or services involved in the violation is seven thousand five hundred dollars or more and is less than thirty-seven thousand five hundred dollars, a violation of either of those divisions is a felony of the third degree. If the debt for which the card is held as security or the cumulative retail value of the property or services involved in the violation is thirty-seven thousand five hundred dollars or more, a violation of either of those divisions is a felony of the second degree.

Amended by 129th General AssemblyFile No.29, HB 86, §1, eff. 9/30/2011.

Effective Date: 11-10-1999

2913.31 Forgery - Forging identification cards or selling or distributing forged identification cards.

(A) No person, with purpose to defraud, or knowing that the person is facilitating a fraud, shall do any of the following:

(1) Forge any writing of another without the other person's authority;

(2) Forge any writing so that it purports to be genuine when it actually is spurious, or to be the act of another who did not authorize that act, or to have been executed at a time or place or with terms different from what in fact was the case, or to be a copy of an original when no such original existed;

(3) Utter, or possess with purpose to utter, any writing that the person knows to have been forged.

(B) No person shall knowingly do either of the following:

(1) Forge an identification card;

(2) Sell or otherwise distribute a card that purports to be an identification card, knowing it to have been forged.

As used in this division, "identification card" means a card that includes personal information or characteristics of an individual, a purpose of which is to establish the identity of the bearer described on the card, whether the words "identity," "identification," "identification card," or other similar words appear on the card.

(C)

(1)

(a) Whoever violates division (A) of this section is guilty of forgery.

(b) Except as otherwise provided in this division or division (C)(1)(c) of this section, forgery is a felony of the fifth degree. If property or services are involved in the offense or the victim suffers a loss, forgery is one of the following:

(i) If the value of the property or services or the loss to the victim is seven thousand five hundred dollars or more and is less than one hundred fifty thousand dollars, a felony of the fourth degree;

(ii) If the value of the property or services or the loss to the victim is one hundred fifty thousand dollars or more, a felony of the third degree.

(c) If the victim of the offense is an elderly person or disabled adult, division (C)(1)(c) of this section applies to the forgery. Except as otherwise provided in division (C)(1)(c) of this section, forgery is a felony of the fifth degree. If property or services are involved in the offense or if the victim suffers a loss, forgery is one of the following:

(i) If the value of the property or services or the loss to the victim is one thousand dollars or more and is less than seven thousand five hundred dollars, a felony of the fourth degree;

(ii) If the value of the property or services or the loss to the victim is seven thousand five hundred dollars or more and is less than thirty-seven thousand five hundred dollars, a felony of the third degree;

(iii) If the value of the property or services or the loss to the victim is thirty-seven thousand five hundred dollars or more, a felony of the second degree.

(2) Whoever violates division (B) of this section is guilty of forging identification cards or selling or distributing forged identification cards. Except as otherwise provided in this division, forging identification cards or selling or distributing forged identification cards is a misdemeanor of the first degree. If the offender previously has been convicted of a violation of division (B) of this section, forging identification cards or selling or distributing forged identification cards is a misdemeanor of the first degree and, in addition, the court shall impose upon the offender a fine of not less than two hundred fifty dollars.

Amended by 129th General AssemblyFile No.29, HB 86, §1, eff. 9/30/2011.

Effective Date: 11-10-1999

2913.32 Criminal simulation.

(A) No person, with purpose to defraud, or knowing that the person is facilitating a fraud, shall do any of the following:

(1) Make or alter any object so that it appears to have value because of antiquity, rarity, curiosity, source, or authorship, which it does not in fact possess;

(2) Practice deception in making, retouching, editing, or reproducing any photograph, movie film, video tape, phonograph record, or recording tape;

(3) Falsely or fraudulently make, simulate, forge, alter, or counterfeit any wrapper, label, stamp, cork, or cap prescribed by the liquor control commission under Chapters 4301. and 4303. of the Revised Code, falsely or fraudulently cause to be made, simulated, forged, altered, or counterfeited any wrapper, label, stamp, cork, or cap prescribed by the liquor control commission under Chapters 4301. and 4303. of the Revised Code, or use more than once any wrapper, label, stamp, cork, or cap prescribed by the liquor control commission under Chapters 4301. and 4303. of the Revised Code.

(4) Utter, or possess with purpose to utter, any object that the person knows to have been simulated as provided in division (A)(1), (2), or (3) of this section.

(B) Whoever violates this section is guilty of criminal simulation. Except as otherwise provided in this division, criminal simulation is a misdemeanor of the first degree. If the loss to the victim is one thousand dollars or more and is less than seven thousand five hundred dollars, criminal simulation is a felony of the fifth degree. If the loss to the victim is seven thousand five hundred dollars or more and is less than one hundred fifty thousand dollars, criminal simulation is a felony of the fourth degree. If the loss to the victim is one hundred fifty thousand dollars or more, criminal simulation is a felony of the third degree.

Amended by 129th General AssemblyFile No.29, HB 86, §1, eff. 9/30/2011.

Effective Date: 07-01-1996

2913.33 Making or using slugs.

(A) No person shall do any of the following:

(1) Insert or deposit a slug in a coin machine, with purpose to defraud;

(2) Make, possess, or dispose of a slug, with purpose of enabling another to defraud by inserting or depositing it in a coin machine.

(B) Whoever violates this section is guilty of making or using slugs, a misdemeanor of the second degree.

Effective Date: 01-01-1974

2913.34 Trademark counterfeiting.

(A) No person shall knowingly do any of the following:

(1) Attach, affix, or otherwise use a counterfeit mark in connection with the manufacture of goods or services, whether or not the goods or services are intended for sale or resale;

(2) Possess, sell, or offer for sale tools, machines, instruments, materials, articles, or other items of personal property with the knowledge that they are designed for the production or reproduction of counterfeit marks;

(3) Purchase or otherwise acquire goods, and keep or otherwise have the goods in the person's possession, with the knowledge that a counterfeit mark is attached to, affixed to, or otherwise used in connection with the goods and with the intent to sell or otherwise dispose of the goods;

(4) Sell, offer for sale, or otherwise dispose of goods with the knowledge that a counterfeit mark is attached to, affixed to, or otherwise used in connection with the goods;

(5) Sell, offer for sale, or otherwise provide services with the knowledge that a counterfeit mark is used in connection with that sale, offer for sale, or other provision of the services.

(B)

(1) Whoever violates this section is guilty of trademark counterfeiting.

(2) Except as otherwise provided in this division, a violation of division (A)(1) of this section is a felony of the fifth degree. Except as otherwise provided in this division, if the cumulative sales price of the goods or services to which or in connection with which the counterfeit mark is attached, affixed, or otherwise used in the offense is five thousand dollars or more but less than one hundred thousand dollars or if the number of units of goods to which or in connection with which the counterfeit mark is attached, affixed, or otherwise used in the offense is more than one hundred units but less than one thousand units, a violation of division (A)(1) of this section is a felony of the fourth degree. If the cumulative sales price of the goods or services to which or in connection with which the counterfeit mark is attached, affixed, or otherwise used in the offense is one hundred thousand dollars or more or if the number of units of goods to which or in connection with which the counterfeit mark is attached, affixed, or otherwise used in the offense is one thousand units or more, a violation of division (A)(1) of this section is a felony of the third degree.

(3) Except as otherwise provided in this division, a violation of division (A)(2) of this section is a misdemeanor of the first degree. If the circumstances of the violation indicate that the tools, machines, instruments, materials, articles, or other items of personal property involved in the violation were intended for use in the commission of a felony, a violation of division (A)(2) of this section is a felony of the fifth degree.

(4) Except as otherwise provided in this division, a violation of division (A)(3), (4), or (5) of this section is a misdemeanor of the first degree. Except as otherwise provided in this division, if the cumulative sales price of the goods or services to which or in connection with which the counterfeit mark is attached, affixed, or otherwise used in the offense is one thousand dollars or more but less than seven thousand five hundred dollars, a violation of division (A)(3), (4), or (5) of this section is a felony of the fifth degree. Except as otherwise provided in this division, if the cumulative sales price of the goods or services to which or in connection with which the counterfeit mark is attached, affixed, or otherwise used in the offense is seven thousand five hundred dollars or more but less than one hundred fifty thousand dollars or if the number of units of goods to which or in connection with which the counterfeit mark is attached, affixed, or otherwise used in the offense is more than one hundred units but less than one thousand units, a violation of division (A)(3), (4), or (5) of this section is a felony of the fourth degree. If the cumulative sales price of the goods or services to which or in connection with which the counterfeit mark is attached, affixed, or otherwise used in the offense is one hundred fifty thousand dollars or more or if the number of units of goods to which or in connection with which the counterfeit mark is attached, affixed, or otherwise used in the offense is one thousand units or more, a violation of division (A)(3), (4), or (5) of this section is a felony of the third degree.

(C) A defendant may assert as an affirmative defense to a charge of a violation of this section defenses, affirmative defenses, and limitations on remedies that would be available in a civil, criminal, or administrative action or proceeding under the "Lanham Act," 60 Stat. 427-443 (1946), 15 U.S.C. 1051 - 1127 , as amended, "The Trademark Counterfeiting Act of 1984," 98 Stat. 2178, 18 U.S.C. 2320 , as amended, Chapter 1329. or another section of the Revised Code, or common law.

(D)

(1) Law enforcement officers may seize pursuant to Criminal Rule 41 or Chapter 2933. or 2981. of the Revised Code either of the following:

(a) Goods to which or in connection with which a person attached, affixed, otherwise used, or intended to attach, affix, or otherwise use a counterfeit mark in violation of this section;

(b) Tools, machines, instruments, materials, articles, vehicles, or other items of personal property that are possessed, sold, offered for sale, or used in a violation of this section or in an attempt to commit or complicity in the commission of a violation of this section.

(2) Notwithstanding any contrary provision of Chapter 2981. of the Revised Code, if a person is convicted of or pleads guilty to a violation of this section, an attempt to violate this section, or complicity in a violation of this section, the court involved shall declare that the goods described in division (D)(1)(a) of this section and the personal property described in division (D)(1)(b) of this section are contraband and are forfeited. Prior to the court's entry of judgment under Criminal Rule 32, the owner of a registered trademark or service mark that is the subject of the counterfeit mark may recommend a manner in which the forfeited goods and forfeited personal property should be disposed of. If that owner makes a timely recommendation of a manner of disposition, the court is not bound by the recommendation. If that owner makes a timely recommendation of a manner of disposition, the court may include in its entry of judgment an order that requires appropriate persons to dispose of the forfeited goods and forfeited personal property in the recommended manner. If that owner fails to make a timely recommendation of a manner of disposition or if that owner makes a timely recommendation of the manner of disposition but the court determines to not follow the recommendation, the court shall include in its entry of judgment an order that requires the law enforcement agency that employs the law enforcement officer who seized the forfeited goods or the forfeited personal property to destroy them or cause their destruction.

(E) This section does not affect the rights of an owner of a trademark or a service mark, or the enforcement in a civil action or in administrative proceedings of the rights of an owner of a trademark or a service mark, under the "Lanham Act," 60 Stat. 427-443 (1946), 15 U.S.C. 1051 - 1127 , as amended, "The Trademark Counterfeiting Act of 1984," 92 Stat. 2178, 18 U.S.C. 2320 , as amended, Chapter 1329. or another section of the Revised Code, or common law.

(F) As used in this section:

(1)

(a) Except as provided in division (F)(1)(b) of this section, "counterfeit mark" means a spurious trademark or a spurious service mark that satisfies both of the following:

(i) It is identical with or substantially indistinguishable from a mark that is registered on the principal register in the United States patent and trademark office for the same goods or services as the goods or services to which or in connection with which the spurious trademark or spurious service mark is attached, affixed, or otherwise used or from a mark that is registered with the secretary of state pursuant to sections 1329.54 to 1329.67 of the Revised Code for the same goods or services as the goods or services to which or in connection with which the spurious trademark or spurious service mark is attached, affixed, or otherwise used, and the owner of the registration uses the registered mark, whether or not the offender knows that the mark is registered in a manner described in division (F)(1)(a)(i) of this section.

(ii) Its use is likely to cause confusion or mistake or to deceive other persons.

(b) "Counterfeit mark" does not include a mark or other designation that is attached to, affixed to, or otherwise used in connection with goods or services if the holder of the right to use the mark or other designation authorizes the manufacturer, producer, or vendor of those goods or services to attach, affix, or otherwise use the mark or other designation in connection with those goods or services at the time of their manufacture, production, or sale.

(2) "Cumulative sales price" means the product of the lowest single unit sales price charged or sought to be charged by an offender for goods to which or in connection with which a counterfeit mark is attached, affixed, or otherwise used or of the lowest single service transaction price charged or sought to be charged by an offender for services in connection with which a counterfeit mark is used, multiplied by the total number of those goods or services, whether or not units of goods are sold or are in an offender's possession, custody, or control.

(3) "Registered trademark or service mark" means a trademark or service mark that is registered in a manner described in division (F)(1) of this section.

(4) "Trademark" and "service mark" have the same meanings as in section 1329.54 of the Revised Code.

Amended by 129th General AssemblyFile No.29, HB 86, §1, eff. 9/30/2011.

Effective Date: 03-31-1997; 07-01-2007

2913.40 Medicaid fraud.

(A) As used in this section:

(1) "Statement or representation" means any oral, written, electronic, electronic impulse, or magnetic communication that is used to identify an item of goods or a service for which reimbursement may be made under the medicaid program or that states income and expense and is or may be used to determine a rate of reimbursement under the medicaid program.

(2)

"Provider" means any person who has signed a provider agreement with the department of medicaid to provide goods or services pursuant to the medicaid program or any person who has signed an agreement with a party to such a provider agreement under which the person agrees to provide goods or services that are reimbursable under the medicaid program.

(3) "Provider agreement" has the same meaning as in section 5164.01 of the Revised Code.

(4) "Recipient" means any individual who receives goods or services from a provider under the medicaid program.

(5) "Records" means any medical, professional, financial, or business records relating to the treatment or care of any recipient, to goods or services provided to any recipient, or to rates paid for goods or services provided to any recipient and any records that are required by the rules of the medicaid director to be kept for the medicaid program.

(B) No person shall knowingly make or cause to be made a false or misleading statement or representation for use in obtaining reimbursement from the medicaid program.

(C) No person, with purpose to commit fraud or knowing that the person is facilitating a fraud, shall do either of the following:

(1) Contrary to the terms of the person's provider agreement, charge, solicit, accept, or receive for goods or services that the person provides under the medicaid program any property, money, or other consideration in addition to the amount of reimbursement under the medicaid program and the person's provider agreement for the goods or services and any cost-sharing expenses authorized by section 5162.20 of the Revised Code or rules adopted by the medicaid director regarding the medicaid program.

(2) Solicit, offer, or receive any remuneration, other than any cost-sharing expenses authorized by section 5162.20 of the Revised Code or rules adopted by the medicaid director regarding the medicaid program, in cash or in kind, including, but not limited to, a kickback or rebate, in connection with the furnishing of goods or services for which whole or partial reimbursement is or may be made under the medicaid program.

(D) No person, having submitted a claim for or provided goods or services under the medicaid program, shall do either of the following for a period of at least six years after a reimbursement pursuant to that claim, or a reimbursement for those goods or services, is received under the medicaid program:

(1) Knowingly alter, falsify, destroy, conceal, or remove any records that are necessary to fully disclose the nature of all goods or services for which the claim was submitted, or for which reimbursement was received, by the person;

(2) Knowingly alter, falsify, destroy, conceal, or remove any records that are necessary to disclose fully all income and expenditures upon which rates of reimbursements were based for the person.

(E) Whoever violates this section is guilty of medicaid fraud. Except as otherwise provided in this division, medicaid fraud is a misdemeanor of the first degree. If the value of property, services, or funds obtained in violation of this section is one thousand dollars or more and is less than seven thousand five hundred dollars, medicaid fraud is a felony of the fifth degree. If the value of property, services, or funds obtained in violation of this section is seven thousand five hundred dollars or more and is less than one hundred fifty thousand dollars, medicaid fraud is a felony of the fourth degree. If the value of the property, services, or funds obtained in violation of this section is one hundred fifty thousand dollars or more, medicaid fraud is a felony of the third degree.

(F) Upon application of the governmental agency, office, or other entity that conducted the investigation and prosecution in a case under this section, the court shall order any person who is convicted of a violation of this section for receiving any reimbursement for furnishing goods or services under the medicaid program to which the person is not entitled to pay to the applicant its cost of investigating and prosecuting the case. The costs of investigation and prosecution that a defendant is ordered to pay pursuant to this division shall be in addition to any other penalties for the receipt of that reimbursement that are provided in this section, section 5164.35 of the Revised Code, or any other provision of law.

(G) The provisions of this section are not intended to be exclusive remedies and do not preclude the use of any other criminal or civil remedy for any act that is in violation of this section.

Amended by 130th General Assembly File No. 25, HB 59, §101.01, eff. 9/29/2013.

Amended by 129th General AssemblyFile No.29, HB 86, §1, eff. 9/30/2011.

Effective Date: 06-05-2002; 09-29-2005; 2007 HB119 09-29-2007

2913.401 Medicaid eligibility fraud.

(A) As used in this section:

(1) "Medicaid services" has the same meaning as in section 5164.01 of the Revised Code.

(2) "Property" means any real or personal property or other asset in which a person has any legal title or interest.

(B) No person shall knowingly do any of the following in an application for enrollment in the medicaid program or in a document that requires a disclosure of assets for the purpose of determining eligibility for the medicaid program:

(1) Make or cause to be made a false or misleading statement;

(2) Conceal an interest in property;

(3)

(a) Except as provided in division (B)(3)(b) of this section, fail to disclose a transfer of property that occurred during the period beginning thirty-six months before submission of the application or document and ending on the date the application or document was submitted;

(b) Fail to disclose a transfer of property that occurred during the period beginning sixty months before submission of the application or document and ending on the date the application or document was submitted and that was made to an irrevocable trust a portion of which is not distributable to the applicant for or recipient of medicaid or to a revocable trust.

(C)

(1) Whoever violates this section is guilty of medicaid eligibility fraud. Except as otherwise provided in this division, a violation of this section is a misdemeanor of the first degree. If the value of the medicaid services paid as a result of the violation is one thousand dollars or more and is less than seven thousand five hundred dollars, a violation of this section is a felony of the fifth degree. If the value of the medicaid services paid as a result of the violation is seven thousand five hundred dollars or more and is less than one hundred fifty thousand dollars, a violation of this section is a felony of the fourth degree. If the value of the medicaid services paid as a result of the violation is one hundred fifty thousand dollars or more, a violation of this section is a felony of the third degree.

(2) In addition to imposing a sentence under division (C)(1) of this section, the court shall order that a person who is guilty of medicaid eligibility fraud make restitution in the full amount of any medicaid services paid on behalf of an applicant for or recipient of medicaid for which the applicant or recipient was not eligible, plus interest at the rate applicable to judgments on unreimbursed amounts from the date on which the medicaid services were paid to the date on which restitution is made.

(3) The remedies and penalties provided in this section are not exclusive and do not preclude the use of any other criminal or civil remedy for any act that is in violation of this section.

(D) This section does not apply to a person who fully disclosed in an application for medicaid or in a document that requires a disclosure of assets for the purpose of determining eligibility for medicaid all of the interests in property of the applicant for or recipient of medicaid , all transfers of property by the applicant for or recipient of medicaid , and the circumstances of all those transfers.

(E) Any amounts of medicaid services recovered as restitution under this section and any interest on those amounts shall be credited to the general revenue fund, and any applicable federal share shall be returned to the appropriate agency or department of the United States.

Amended by 130th General Assembly File No. 25, HB 59, §101.01, eff. 9/29/2013.

Amended by 129th General AssemblyFile No.29, HB 86, §1, eff. 9/30/2011.

Effective Date: 09-29-2005

2913.41 Defrauding a rental agency or hostelry.

In a prosecution of a person for a theft offense that alleges that the person, with purpose to defraud or knowing that the person was facilitating a fraud, hired or rented an aircraft, motor vehicle, motorcycle, motorboat, sailboat, camper, trailer, horse, buggy, or other property or equipment, kept or operated any of the same that has been hired or rented, or engaged accommodations at a hotel, motel, inn, campground, or other hostelry, it is prima-facie evidence of purpose to defraud if the person did any of the following:

(A) Used deception to induce the rental agency to furnish the person with the aircraft, motor vehicle, motorcycle, motorboat, sailboat, camper, trailer, horse, buggy, or other property or equipment, or used deception to induce the hostelry to furnish the person with accommodations;

(B) Hired or rented any aircraft, motor vehicle, motorcycle, motorboat, sailboat, camper, trailer, horse, buggy, or other property or equipment, or engaged accommodations, knowing the person was without sufficient means to pay the hire or rental;

(C) Absconded without paying the hire or rental;

(D) Knowingly failed to pay the hire or rental as required by the contract of hire or rental, without reasonable excuse for such failure;

(E) Knowingly failed to return hired or rented property as required by the contract of hire or rental, without reasonable excuse for the failure.

Effective Date: 04-10-2001

2913.42 Tampering with records.

(A) No person, knowing the person has no privilege to do so, and with purpose to defraud or knowing that the person is facilitating a fraud, shall do any of the following:

(1) Falsify, destroy, remove, conceal, alter, deface, or mutilate any writing, computer software, data, or record;

(2) Utter any writing or record, knowing it to have been tampered with as provided in division (A)(1) of this section.

(B)

(1) Whoever violates this section is guilty of tampering with records.

(2) Except as provided in division (B)(4) of this section, if the offense does not involve data or computer software, tampering with records is whichever of the following is applicable:

(a) If division (B)(2)(b) of this section does not apply, a misdemeanor of the first degree;

(b) If the writing or record is a will unrevoked at the time of the offense, a felony of the fifth degree.

(3) Except as provided in division (B)(4) of this section, if the offense involves a violation of division (A) of this section involving data or computer software, tampering with records is whichever of the following is applicable:

(a) Except as otherwise provided in division (B)(3)(b), (c), or (d) of this section, a misdemeanor of the first degree;

(b) If the value of the data or computer software involved in the offense or the loss to the victim is one thousand dollars or more and is less than seven thousand five hundred dollars, a felony of the fifth degree;

(c) If the value of the data or computer software involved in the offense or the loss to the victim is seven thousand five hundred dollars or more and is less than one hundred fifty thousand dollars, a felony of the fourth degree;

(d) If the value of the data or computer software involved in the offense or the loss to the victim is one hundred fifty thousand dollars or more or if the offense is committed for the purpose of devising or executing a scheme to defraud or to obtain property or services and the value of the property or services or the loss to the victim is seven thousand five hundred dollars or more, a felony of the third degree.

(4) If the writing, data, computer software, or record is kept by or belongs to a local, state, or federal governmental entity, a felony of the third degree.

Amended by 129th General AssemblyFile No.29, HB 86, §1, eff. 9/30/2011.

Effective Date: 03-30-1999

2913.421 Illegally transmitting multiple commercial electronic mail messages (spamming) - unauthorized access of computer.

(A) As used in this section:

(1) "Computer," "computer network," and "computer system" have the same meanings as in section 2913.01 of the Revised Code.

(2) "Commercial electronic mail message" means any electronic mail message the primary purpose of which is the commercial advertisement or promotion of a commercial product or service, including content on an internet web site operated for a commercial purpose, but does not include a transactional or relationship message. The inclusion of a reference to a commercial entity or a link to the web site of a commercial entity does not, by itself, cause that message to be treated as a commercial electronic mail message for the purpose of this section, if the contents or circumstances of the message indicate a primary purpose other than commercial advertisement or promotion of a commercial product or service.

(3) "Domain name" means any alphanumeric designation that is registered with or assigned by any domain name registrar, domain name registry, or other domain name registration authority as part of an electronic address on the internet.

(4) "Electronic mail," "originating address," and "receiving address" have the same meanings as in section 2307.64 of the Revised Code.

(5) "Electronic mail message" means each electronic mail addressed to a discrete addressee.

(6) "Electronic mail service provider" means any person, including an internet service provider, that is an intermediary in sending and receiving electronic mail and that provides to the public electronic mail accounts or online user accounts from which electronic mail may be sent.

(7) "Header information" means the source, destination, and routing information attached to an electronic mail message, including the originating domain name, the originating address, and technical information that authenticates the sender of an electronic mail message for computer network security or computer network management purposes.

(8) "Initiate the transmission" or "initiated" means to originate or transmit a commercial electronic mail message or to procure the origination or transmission of that message, regardless of whether the message reaches its intended recipients, but does not include actions that constitute routine conveyance of such message.

(9) "Internet" has the same meaning as in section 341.42 of the Revised Code.

(10) "Internet protocol address" means the string of numbers by which locations on the internet are identified by routers or other computers connected to the internet.

(11) "Materially falsify" means to alter or conceal in a manner that would impair the ability of a recipient of an electronic mail message, an electronic mail service provider processing an electronic mail message on behalf of a recipient, a person alleging a violation of this section, or a law enforcement agency to identify, locate, or respond to the person that initiated the electronic mail message or to investigate an alleged violation of this section.

(12) "Multiple" means more than ten commercial electronic mail messages during a twenty-four-hour period, more than one hundred commercial electronic mail messages during a thirty-day period, or more than one thousand commercial electronic mail messages during a one-year period.

(13) "Recipient" means a person who receives a commercial electronic mail message at any one of the following receiving addresses:

(a) A receiving address furnished by an electronic mail service provider that bills for furnishing and maintaining that receiving address to a mailing address within this state;

(b) A receiving address ordinarily accessed from a computer located within this state or by a person domiciled within this state;

(c) Any other receiving address with respect to which this section can be imposed consistent with the United States Constitution.

(14) "Routine conveyance" means the transmission, routing, relaying, handling, or storing, through an automated technical process, of an electronic mail message for which another person has identified the recipients or provided the recipient addresses.

(15) "Transactional or relationship message" means an electronic mail message the primary purpose of which is to do any of the following:

(a) Facilitate, complete, or confirm a commercial transaction that the recipient has previously agreed to enter into with the sender;

(b) Provide warranty information, product recall information, or safety or security information with respect to a commercial product or service used or purchased by the recipient;

(c) Provide notification concerning a change in the terms or features of; a change in the recipient's standing or status with respect to; or, at regular periodic intervals, account balance information or other type of account statement with respect to, a subscription, membership, account, loan, or comparable ongoing commercial relationship involving the ongoing purchase or use by the recipient of products or services offered by the sender;

(d) Provide information directly related to an employment relationship or related benefit plan in which the recipient is currently involved, participating, or enrolled;

(e) Deliver goods or services, including product updates or upgrades, that the recipient is entitled to receive under the terms of a transaction that the recipient has previously agreed to enter into with the sender.

(B) No person, with regard to commercial electronic mail messages sent from or to a computer in this state, shall do any of the following:

(1) Knowingly use a computer to relay or retransmit multiple commercial electronic mail messages, with the intent to deceive or mislead recipients or any electronic mail service provider, as to the origin of those messages;

(2) Knowingly and materially falsify header information in multiple commercial electronic mail messages and purposely initiate the transmission of those messages;

(3) Knowingly register, using information that materially falsifies the identity of the actual registrant, for five or more electronic mail accounts or online user accounts or two or more domain names and purposely initiate the transmission of multiple commercial electronic mail messages from one, or any combination, of those accounts or domain names;

(4) Knowingly falsely represent the right to use five or more internet protocol addresses, and purposely initiate the transmission of multiple commercial electronic mail messages from those addresses.

(C)

(1) Whoever violates division (B) of this section is guilty of illegally transmitting multiple commercial electronic mail messages. Except as otherwise provided in division (C)(2) or (E) of this section, illegally transmitting multiple commercial electronic mail messages is a felony of the fifth degree.

(2) Illegally transmitting multiple commercial electronic mail messages is a felony of the fourth degree if any of the following apply:

(a) Regarding a violation of division (B)(3) of this section, the offender, using information that materially falsifies the identity of the actual registrant, knowingly registers for twenty or more electronic mail accounts or online user accounts or ten or more domain names, and purposely initiates, or conspires to initiate, the transmission of multiple commercial electronic mail messages from the accounts or domain names.

(b) Regarding any violation of division (B) of this section, the volume of commercial electronic mail messages the offender transmitted in committing the violation exceeds two hundred and fifty during any twenty-four-hour period, two thousand five hundred during any thirty-day period, or twenty-five thousand during any one-year period.

(c) Regarding any violation of division (B) of this section, during any one-year period the aggregate loss to the victim or victims of the violation is one thousand dollars or more, or during any one-year period the aggregate value of the property or services obtained by any offender as a result of the violation is one thousand dollars or more.

(d) Regarding any violation of division (B) of this section, the offender committed the violation with three or more other persons with respect to whom the offender was the organizer or leader of the activity that resulted in the violation.

(e) Regarding any violation of division (B) of this section, the offender knowingly assisted in the violation through the provision or selection of electronic mail addresses to which the commercial electronic mail message was transmitted, if that offender knew that the electronic mail addresses of the recipients were obtained using an automated means from an internet web site or proprietary online service operated by another person, and that web site or online service included, at the time the electronic mail addresses were obtained, a notice stating that the operator of that web site or online service will not transfer addresses maintained by that web site or online service to any other party for the purposes of initiating the transmission of, or enabling others to initiate the transmission of, electronic mail messages.

(f) Regarding any violation of division (B) of this section, the offender knowingly assisted in the violation through the provision or selection of electronic mail addresses of the recipients obtained using an automated means that generates possible electronic mail addresses by combining names, letters, or numbers into numerous permutations.

(D)

(1) No person, with regard to commercial electronic mail messages sent from or to a computer in this state, shall knowingly access a computer without authorization and purposely initiate the transmission of multiple commercial electronic mail messages from or through the computer.

(2) Except as otherwise provided in division (E) of this section, whoever violates division (D)(1) of this section is guilty of unauthorized access of a computer, a felony of the fourth degree.

(E) Illegally transmitting multiple commercial electronic mail messages and unauthorized access of a computer in violation of this section are felonies of the third degree if the offender previously has been convicted of a violation of this section, or a violation of a law of another state or the United States regarding the transmission of electronic mail messages or unauthorized access to a computer, or if the offender committed the violation of this section in the furtherance of a felony.

(F)

(1) The attorney general or an electronic mail service provider that is injured by a violation of this section may bring a civil action in an appropriate court of common pleas of this state seeking relief from any person whose conduct violated this section. The civil action may be commenced at any time within one year of the date after the act that is the basis of the civil action.

(2) In a civil action brought by the attorney general pursuant to division (F)(1) of this section for a violation of this section, the court may award temporary, preliminary, or permanent injunctive relief. The court also may impose a civil penalty against the offender, as the court considers just, in an amount that is the lesser of: (a) twenty-five thousand dollars for each day a violation occurs, or (b) not less than two dollars but not more than eight dollars for each commercial electronic mail message initiated in violation of this section.

(3) In a civil action brought by an electronic mail service provider pursuant to division (F)(1) of this section for a violation of this section, the court may award temporary, preliminary, or permanent injunctive relief, and also may award damages in an amount equal to the greater of the following:

(a) The sum of the actual damages incurred by the electronic mail service provider as a result of a violation of this section, plus any receipts of the offender that are attributable to a violation of this section and that were not taken into account in computing actual damages;

(b) Statutory damages, as the court considers just, in an amount that is the lesser of: (i) twenty-five thousand dollars for each day a violation occurs, or (ii) not less than two dollars but not more than eight dollars for each commercial electronic mail message initiated in violation of this section.

(4) In assessing damages awarded under division (F)(3) of this section, the court may consider whether the offender has established and implemented, with due care, commercially reasonable practices and procedures designed to effectively prevent the violation, or the violation occurred despite commercially reasonable efforts to maintain the practices and procedures established.

(G) Any equipment, software, or other technology of a person who violates this section that is used or intended to be used in the commission of a violation of this section, and any real or personal property that constitutes or is traceable to the gross proceeds obtained from the commission of a violation of this section, is contraband and is subject to seizure and forfeiture pursuant to Chapter 2981. of the Revised Code.

(H) The attorney general may bring a civil action, pursuant to the "CAN-SPAM Act of 2003," Pub. L. No. 108-187, 117 Stat. 2699, 15 U.S.C. 7701 et seq., on behalf of the residents of the state in a district court of the United States that has jurisdiction for a violation of the CAN-SPAM Act of 2003, but the attorney general shall not bring a civil action under both this division and division (F) of this section. If a federal court dismisses a civil action brought under this division for reasons other than upon the merits, a civil action may be brought under division (F) of this section in the appropriate court of common pleas of this state.

(I) Nothing in this section shall be construed:

(1) To require an electronic mail service provider to block, transmit, route, relay, handle, or store certain types of electronic mail messages;

(2) To prevent or limit, in any way, an electronic mail service provider from adopting a policy regarding electronic mail, including a policy of declining to transmit certain types of electronic mail messages, or from enforcing such policy through technical means, through contract, or pursuant to any remedy available under any other federal, state, or local criminal or civil law;

(3) To render lawful any policy adopted under division (I)(2) of this section that is unlawful under any other law.

Amended by 129th General AssemblyFile No.29, HB 86, §1, eff. 9/30/2011.

Effective Date: 05-06-2005; 07-01-2007

2913.43 Securing writings by deception.

(A) No person, by deception, shall cause another to execute any writing that disposes of or encumbers property, or by which a pecuniary obligation is incurred.

(B)

(1) Whoever violates this section is guilty of securing writings by deception.

(2) Except as otherwise provided in this division or division (B)(3) of this section, securing writings by deception is a misdemeanor of the first degree. If the value of the property or the obligation involved is one thousand dollars or more and less than seven thousand five hundred dollars, securing writings by deception is a felony of the fifth degree. If the value of the property or the obligation involved is seven thousand five hundred dollars or more and is less than one hundred fifty thousand dollars, securing writings by deception is a felony of the fourth degree. If the value of the property or the obligation involved is one hundred fifty thousand dollars or more, securing writings by deception is a felony of the third degree.

(3) If the victim of the offense is an elderly person , disabled adult, active duty service member, or spouse of an active duty service member, division (B)(3) of this section applies. Except as otherwise provided in division (B)(3) of this section, securing writings by deception is a felony of the fifth degree. If the value of the property or obligation involved is one thousand dollars or more and is less than seven thousand five hundred dollars, securing writings by deception is a felony of the fourth degree. If the value of the property or obligation involved is seven thousand five hundred dollars or more and is less than thirty-seven thousand five hundred dollars, securing writings by deception is a felony of the third degree. If the value of the property or obligation involved is thirty-seven thousand five hundred dollars or more, securing writings by deception is a felony of the second degree.

Amended by 130th General Assembly File No. TBD, HB 488, §1, eff. 9/16/2014.

Amended by 129th General AssemblyFile No.29, HB 86, §1, eff. 9/30/2011.

Effective Date: 11-10-1999

2913.44 Personating an officer.

(A) No person, with purpose to defraud or knowing that he is facilitating a fraud, or with purpose to induce another to purchase property or services, shall personate a law enforcement officer, or an inspector, investigator, or agent of any governmental agency.

(B) Whoever violates this section is guilty of personating an officer, a misdemeanor of the first degree.

Effective Date: 01-01-1974

2913.441 Unlawful display of law enforcement emblem.

(A) No person who is not entitled to do so shall knowingly display on a motor vehicle the emblem of a law enforcement agency or an organization of law enforcement officers.

(B) Whoever violates this section is guilty of the unlawful display of the emblem of a law enforcement agency or an organization of law enforcement officers, a minor misdemeanor.

Effective Date: 01-11-1977

2913.45 Defrauding creditors.

(A) No person, with purpose to defraud one or more of the person's creditors, shall do any of the following:

(1) Remove, conceal, destroy, encumber, convey, or otherwise deal with any of the person's property;

(2) Misrepresent or refuse to disclose to a fiduciary appointed to administer or manage the person's affairs or estate, the existence, amount, or location of any of the person's property, or any other information regarding such property that the person is legally required to furnish to the fiduciary.

(B) Whoever violates this section is guilty of defrauding creditors. Except as otherwise provided in this division, defrauding creditors is a misdemeanor of the first degree. If the value of the property involved is one thousand dollars or more and is less than seven thousand five hundred dollars, defrauding creditors is a felony of the fifth degree. If the value of the property involved is seven thousand five hundred dollars or more and is less than one hundred fifty thousand dollars, defrauding creditors is a felony of the fourth degree. If the value of the property involved is one hundred fifty thousand dollars or more, defrauding creditors is a felony of the third degree.

Amended by 129th General AssemblyFile No.29, HB 86, §1, eff. 9/30/2011.

Effective Date: 07-01-1996

2913.46 Illegal use of food stamps or WIC program benefits.

(A)

(1) As used in this section:

(a) "Electronically transferred benefit" means the transfer of supplemental nutrition assistance program benefits or WIC program benefits through the use of an access device.

(b) "WIC program benefits" includes money, coupons, delivery verification receipts, other documents, food, or other property received directly or indirectly pursuant to section 17 of the "Child Nutrition Act of 1966," 80 Stat. 885, 42 U.S.C.A. 1786 , as amended.

(c) "Access device" means any card, plate, code, account number, or other means of access that can be used, alone or in conjunction with another access device, to obtain payments, allotments, benefits, money, goods, or other things of value or that can be used to initiate a transfer of funds pursuant to section 5101.33 of the Revised Code and the Food and Nutrition Act of 2008 ( 7 U.S.C. 2011 et seq.), or any supplemental food program administered by any department of this state or any county or local agency pursuant to section 17 of the "Child Nutrition Act of 1966," 80 Stat. 885, 42 U.S.C.A. 1786 , as amended. An "access device" may include any electronic debit card or other means authorized by section 5101.33 of the Revised Code.

(d) "Aggregate value of supplemental nutrition assistance program benefits, WIC program benefits, and electronically transferred benefits involved in the violation" means the total face value of any supplemental nutrition assistance program benefits, plus the total face value of WIC program coupons or delivery verification receipts, plus the total value of other WIC program benefits, plus the total value of any electronically transferred benefit or other access device, involved in the violation.

(e) "Total value of any electronically transferred benefit or other access device" means the total value of the payments, allotments, benefits, money, goods, or other things of value that may be obtained, or the total value of funds that may be transferred, by use of any electronically transferred benefit or other access device at the time of violation.

(2) If supplemental nutrition assistance program benefits, WIC program benefits, or electronically transferred benefits or other access devices of various values are used, transferred, bought, acquired, altered, purchased, possessed, presented for redemption, or transported in violation of this section over a period of twelve months, the course of conduct may be charged as one offense and the values of supplemental nutrition assistance program benefits, WIC program benefits, or any electronically transferred benefits or other access devices may be aggregated in determining the degree of the offense.

(B) No individual shall knowingly possess, buy, sell, use, alter, accept, or transfer supplemental nutrition assistance program benefits, WIC program benefits, or any electronically transferred benefit in any manner not authorized by the Food and Nutrition Act of 2008 ( 7 U.S.C. 2011 et seq.) or section 17 of the "Child Nutrition Act of 1966," 80 Stat. 885, 42 U.S.C. 1786 , as amended.

(C) No organization, as defined in division (D) of section 2901.23 of the Revised Code, shall do either of the following:

(1) Knowingly allow an employee or agent to sell, transfer, or trade items or services, the purchase of which is prohibited by the Food and Nutrition Act of 2008 ( 7 U.S.C. 2011 et seq. or section 17 of the "Child Nutrition Act of 1966," 80 Stat. 885, 42 U.S.C. 1786 , as amended, in exchange for supplemental nutrition assistance program benefits, WIC program benefits, or any electronically transferred benefit;

(2) Negligently allow an employee or agent to sell, transfer, or exchange supplemental nutrition assistance program benefits, WIC program benefits, or any electronically transferred benefit for anything of value.

(D) Whoever violates this section is guilty of illegal use of supplemental nutrition assistance program benefits or WIC program benefits. Except as otherwise provided in this division, illegal use of supplemental nutrition assistance program benefits or WIC program benefits is a felony of the fifth degree. If the aggregate value of the supplemental nutrition assistance program benefits, WIC program benefits, and electronically transferred benefits involved in the violation is one thousand dollars or more and is less than seven thousand five hundred dollars, illegal use of supplemental nutrition assistance program benefits or WIC program benefits is a felony of the fourth degree. If the aggregate value of the supplemental nutrition assistance program benefits, WIC program benefits, and electronically transferred benefits involved in the violation is seven thousand five hundred dollars or more and is less than one hundred fifty thousand dollars, illegal use of supplemental nutrition assistance program benefits or WIC program benefits is a felony of the third degree. If the aggregate value of the supplemental nutrition assistance program benefits, WIC program benefits, and electronically transferred benefits involved in the violation is one hundred fifty thousand dollars or more, illegal use of supplemental nutrition assistance program benefits or WIC program benefits is a felony of the second degree.

Amended by 129th General AssemblyFile No.29, HB 86, §1, eff. 9/30/2011.

Amended by 128th General AssemblyFile No.9, HB 1, §101.01, eff. 10/16/2009.

Effective Date: 09-26-1996

2913.47 Insurance fraud.

(A) As used in this section:

(1) "Data" has the same meaning as in section 2913.01 of the Revised Code and additionally includes any other representation of information, knowledge, facts, concepts, or instructions that are being or have been prepared in a formalized manner.

(2) "Deceptive" means that a statement, in whole or in part, would cause another to be deceived because it contains a misleading representation, withholds information, prevents the acquisition of information, or by any other conduct, act, or omission creates, confirms, or perpetuates a false impression, including, but not limited to, a false impression as to law, value, state of mind, or other objective or subjective fact.

(3) "Insurer" means any person that is authorized to engage in the business of insurance in this state under Title XXXIX of the Revised Code, the Ohio fair plan underwriting association created under section 3929.43 of the Revised Code, any health insuring corporation, and any legal entity that is self-insured and provides benefits to its employees or members.

(4) "Policy" means a policy, certificate, contract, or plan that is issued by an insurer.

(5) "Statement" includes, but is not limited to, any notice, letter, or memorandum; proof of loss; bill of lading; receipt for payment; invoice, account, or other financial statement; estimate of property damage; bill for services; diagnosis or prognosis; prescription; hospital, medical, or dental chart or other record; x-ray, photograph, videotape, or movie film; test result; other evidence of loss, injury, or expense; computer-generated document; and data in any form.

(B) No person, with purpose to defraud or knowing that the person is facilitating a fraud, shall do either of the following:

(1) Present to, or cause to be presented to, an insurer any written or oral statement that is part of, or in support of, an application for insurance, a claim for payment pursuant to a policy, or a claim for any other benefit pursuant to a policy, knowing that the statement, or any part of the statement, is false or deceptive;

(2) Assist, aid, abet, solicit, procure, or conspire with another to prepare or make any written or oral statement that is intended to be presented to an insurer as part of, or in support of, an application for insurance, a claim for payment pursuant to a policy, or a claim for any other benefit pursuant to a policy, knowing that the statement, or any part of the statement, is false or deceptive.

(C) Whoever violates this section is guilty of insurance fraud. Except as otherwise provided in this division, insurance fraud is a misdemeanor of the first degree. If the amount of the claim that is false or deceptive is one thousand dollars or more and is less than seven thousand five hundred dollars, insurance fraud is a felony of the fifth degree. If the amount of the claim that is false or deceptive is seven thousand five hundred dollars or more and is less than one hundred fifty thousand dollars, insurance fraud is a felony of the fourth degree. If the amount of the claim that is false or deceptive is one hundred fifty thousand dollars or more, insurance fraud is a felony of the third degree.

(D) This section shall not be construed to abrogate, waive, or modify division (A) of section 2317.02 of the Revised Code.

Amended by 129th General AssemblyFile No.29, HB 86, §1, eff. 9/30/2011.

Effective Date: 06-04-1997

2913.48 Workers' compensation fraud.

(A) No person, with purpose to defraud or knowing that the person is facilitating a fraud, shall do any of the following:

(1) Receive workers' compensation benefits to which the person is not entitled;

(2) Make or present or cause to be made or presented a false or misleading statement with the purpose to secure payment for goods or services rendered under Chapter 4121., 4123., 4127., or 4131. of the Revised Code or to secure workers' compensation benefits;

(3) Alter, falsify, destroy, conceal, or remove any record or document that is necessary to fully establish the validity of any claim filed with, or necessary to establish the nature and validity of all goods and services for which reimbursement or payment was received or is requested from, the bureau of workers' compensation, or a self-insuring employer under Chapter 4121., 4123., 4127., or 4131. of the Revised Code;

(4) Enter into an agreement or conspiracy to defraud the bureau or a self-insuring employer by making or presenting or causing to be made or presented a false claim for workers' compensation benefits;

(5) Make or present or cause to be made or presented a false statement concerning manual codes, classification of employees, payroll, paid compensation, or number of personnel, when information of that nature is necessary to determine the actual workers' compensation premium or assessment owed to the bureau by an employer;

(6) Alter, forge, or create a workers' compensation certificate to falsely show current or correct workers' compensation coverage;

(7) Fail to secure or maintain workers' compensation coverage as required by Chapter 4123. of the Revised Code with the intent to defraud the bureau of workers' compensation.

(B) Whoever violates this section is guilty of workers' compensation fraud. Except as otherwise provided in this division, a violation of this section is a misdemeanor of the first degree. If the value of premiums and assessments unpaid pursuant to actions described in division (A)(5), (6), or (7) of this section, or of goods, services, property, or money stolen is one thousand dollars or more and is less than seven thousand five hundred dollars, a violation of this section is a felony of the fifth degree. If the value of premiums and assessments unpaid pursuant to actions described in division (A)(5), (6), or (7) of this section, or of goods, services, property, or money stolen is seven thousand five hundred dollars or more and is less than one hundred fifty thousand dollars, a violation of this section is a felony of the fourth degree. If the value of premiums and assessments unpaid pursuant to actions described in division (A)(5), (6), or (7) of this section, or of goods, services, property, or money stolen is one hundred fifty thousand dollars or more, a violation of this section is a felony of the third degree.

(C) Upon application of the governmental body that conducted the investigation and prosecution of a violation of this section, the court shall order the person who is convicted of the violation to pay the governmental body its costs of investigating and prosecuting the case. These costs are in addition to any other costs or penalty provided in the Revised Code or any other section of law.

(D) The remedies and penalties provided in this section are not exclusive remedies and penalties and do not preclude the use of any other criminal or civil remedy or penalty for any act that is in violation of this section.

(E) As used in this section:

(1) "False" means wholly or partially untrue or deceptive.

(2) "Goods" includes, but is not limited to, medical supplies, appliances, rehabilitative equipment, and any other apparatus or furnishing provided or used in the care, treatment, or rehabilitation of a claimant for workers' compensation benefits.

(3) "Services" includes, but is not limited to, any service provided by any health care provider to a claimant for workers' compensation benefits and any and all services provided by the bureau as part of workers' compensation insurance coverage.

(4) "Claim" means any attempt to cause the bureau, an independent third party with whom the administrator or an employer contracts under section 4121.44 of the Revised Code, or a self-insuring employer to make payment or reimbursement for workers' compensation benefits.

(5) "Employment" means participating in any trade, occupation, business, service, or profession for substantial gainful remuneration.

(6) "Employer," "employee," and "self-insuring employer" have the same meanings as in section 4123.01 of the Revised Code.

(7) "Remuneration" includes, but is not limited to, wages, commissions, rebates, and any other reward or consideration.

(8) "Statement" includes, but is not limited to, any oral, written, electronic, electronic impulse, or magnetic communication notice, letter, memorandum, receipt for payment, invoice, account, financial statement, or bill for services; a diagnosis, prognosis, prescription, hospital, medical, or dental chart or other record; and a computer generated document.

(9) "Records" means any medical, professional, financial, or business record relating to the treatment or care of any person, to goods or services provided to any person, or to rates paid for goods or services provided to any person, or any record that the administrator of workers' compensation requires pursuant to rule.

(10) "Workers' compensation benefits" means any compensation or benefits payable under Chapter 4121., 4123., 4127., or 4131. of the Revised Code.

Amended by 129th General AssemblyFile No.29, HB 86, §1, eff. 9/30/2011.

Effective Date: 07-01-1996; 2006 SB7 06-30-2006

2913.49 Identity fraud.

(A) As used in this section, "personal identifying information" includes, but is not limited to, the following: the name, address, telephone number, driver's license, driver's license number, commercial driver's license, commercial driver's license number, state identification card, state identification card number, social security card, social security number, birth certificate, place of employment, employee identification number, mother's maiden name, demand deposit account number, savings account number, money market account number, mutual fund account number, other financial account number, personal identification number, password, or credit card number of a living or dead individual.

(B) No person, without the express or implied consent of the other person, shall use, obtain, or possess any personal identifying information of another person with intent to do either of the following:

(1) Hold the person out to be the other person;

(2) Represent the other person's personal identifying information as the person's own personal identifying information.

(C) No person shall create, obtain, possess, or use the personal identifying information of any person with the intent to aid or abet another person in violating division (B) of this section.

(D) No person, with intent to defraud, shall permit another person to use the person's own personal identifying information.

(E) No person who is permitted to use another person's personal identifying information as described in division (D) of this section shall use, obtain, or possess the other person's personal identifying information with intent to defraud any person by doing any act identified in division (B)(1) or (2) of this section.

(F)

(1) It is an affirmative defense to a charge under division (B) of this section that the person using the personal identifying information is acting in accordance with a legally recognized guardianship or conservatorship or as a trustee or fiduciary.

(2) It is an affirmative defense to a charge under division (B), (C), (D), or (E) of this section that either of the following applies:

(a) The person or entity using, obtaining, possessing, or creating the personal identifying information or permitting it to be used is a law enforcement agency, authorized fraud personnel, or a representative of or attorney for a law enforcement agency or authorized fraud personnel and is using, obtaining, possessing, or creating the personal identifying information or permitting it to be used, with prior consent given as specified in this division, in a bona fide investigation, an information security evaluation, a pretext calling evaluation, or a similar matter. The prior consent required under this division shall be given by the person whose personal identifying information is being used, obtained, possessed, or created or is being permitted to be used or, if the person whose personal identifying information is being used, obtained, possessed, or created or is being permitted to be used is deceased, by that deceased person's executor, or a member of that deceased person's family, or that deceased person's attorney. The prior consent required under this division may be given orally or in writing by the person whose personal identifying information is being used, obtained, possessed, or created or is being permitted to be used or that person's executor, or family member, or attorney.

(b) The personal identifying information was obtained, possessed, used, created, or permitted to be used for a lawful purpose, provided that division (F)(2)(b) of this section does not apply if the person or entity using, obtaining, possessing, or creating the personal identifying information or permitting it to be used is a law enforcement agency, authorized fraud personnel, or a representative of or attorney for a law enforcement agency or authorized fraud personnel that is using, obtaining, possessing, or creating the personal identifying information or permitting it to be used in an investigation, an information security evaluation, a pretext calling evaluation, or similar matter.

(G) It is not a defense to a charge under this section that the person whose personal identifying information was obtained, possessed, used, created, or permitted to be used was deceased at the time of the offense.

(H)

(1) If an offender commits a violation of division (B), (D), or (E) of this section and the violation occurs as part of a course of conduct involving other violations of division (B), (D), or (E) of this section or violations of, attempts to violate, conspiracies to violate, or complicity in violations of division (C) of this section or section 2913.02, 2913.04, 2913.11, 2913.21, 2913.31, 2913.42, 2913.43, or 2921.13 of the Revised Code, the court, in determining the degree of the offense pursuant to division (I) of this section, may aggregate all credit, property, or services obtained or sought to be obtained by the offender and all debts or other legal obligations avoided or sought to be avoided by the offender in the violations involved in that course of conduct. The course of conduct may involve one victim or more than one victim.

(2) If an offender commits a violation of division (C) of this section and the violation occurs as part of a course of conduct involving other violations of division (C) of this section or violations of, attempts to violate, conspiracies to violate, or complicity in violations of division (B), (D), or (E) of this section or section 2913.02, 2913.04, 2913.11, 2913.21, 2913.31, 2913.42, 2913.43, or 2921.13 of the Revised Code, the court, in determining the degree of the offense pursuant to division (I) of this section, may aggregate all credit, property, or services obtained or sought to be obtained by the person aided or abetted and all debts or other legal obligations avoided or sought to be avoided by the person aided or abetted in the violations involved in that course of conduct. The course of conduct may involve one victim or more than one victim.

(I)

(1) Whoever violates this section is guilty of identity fraud.

(2) Except as otherwise provided in this division or division (I)(3) of this section, identity fraud is a felony of the fifth degree. If the value of the credit, property, services, debt, or other legal obligation involved in the violation or course of conduct is one thousand dollars or more and is less than seven thousand five hundred dollars, except as otherwise provided in division (I)(3) of this section, identity fraud is a felony of the fourth degree. If the value of the credit, property, services, debt, or other legal obligation involved in the violation or course of conduct is seven thousand five hundred dollars or more and is less than one hundred fifty thousand dollars, except as otherwise provided in division (I)(3) of this section, identity fraud is a felony of the third degree. If the value of the credit, property, services, debt, or other legal obligation involved in the violation or course of conduct is one hundred fifty thousand dollars or more, except as otherwise provided in division (I)(3) of this section, identity fraud is a felony of the second degree.

(3) If the victim of the offense is an elderly person , disabled adult, active duty service member, or spouse of an active duty service member, a violation of this section is identity fraud against a person in a protected class. Except as otherwise provided in this division, identity fraud against a person in a protected class is a felony of the fourth degree. If the value of the credit, property, services, debt, or other legal obligation involved in the violation or course of conduct is one thousand dollars or more and is less than seven thousand five hundred dollars, identity fraud against a person in a protected class is a felony of the third degree. If the value of the credit, property, services, debt, or other legal obligation involved in the violation or course of conduct is seven thousand five hundred dollars or more and is less than one hundred fifty thousand dollars, identity fraud against a person in a protected class is a felony of the second degree. If the value of the credit, property, services, debt, or other legal obligation involved in the violation or course of conduct is one hundred fifty thousand dollars or more, identity fraud against a person in a protected class is a felony of the first degree.

(J) In addition to the penalties described in division (I) of this section, anyone injured in person or property by a violation of division (B), (D), or (E) of this section who is the owner of the identifying information involved in that violation has a civil action against the offender pursuant to section 2307.60 of the Revised Code. That person may also bring a civil action to enjoin or restrain future acts that would constitute a violation of division (B), (D), or (E) of this section.

Amended by 130th General Assembly File No. TBD, HB 488, §1, eff. 9/16/2014.

Amended by 129th General AssemblyFile No.29, HB 86, §1, eff. 9/30/2011.

Effective Date: 09-27-2002; 09-16-2005

2913.51 Receiving stolen property.

(A) No person shall receive, retain, or dispose of property of another knowing or having reasonable cause to believe that the property has been obtained through commission of a theft offense.

(B) It is not a defense to a charge of receiving stolen property in violation of this section that the property was obtained by means other than through the commission of a theft offense if the property was explicitly represented to the accused person as being obtained through the commission of a theft offense.

(C) Whoever violates this section is guilty of receiving stolen property. Except as otherwise provided in this division or division (D) of this section, receiving stolen property is a misdemeanor of the first degree. If the value of the property involved is one thousand dollars or more and is less than seven thousand five hundred dollars, if the property involved is any of the property listed in section 2913.71 of the Revised Code, receiving stolen property is a felony of the fifth degree. If the property involved is a motor vehicle, as defined in section 4501.01 of the Revised Code, if the property involved is a dangerous drug, as defined in section 4729.01 of the Revised Code, if the value of the property involved is seven thousand five hundred dollars or more and is less than one hundred fifty thousand dollars, or if the property involved is a firearm or dangerous ordnance, as defined in section 2923.11 of the Revised Code, receiving stolen property is a felony of the fourth degree. If the value of the property involved is one hundred fifty thousand dollars or more, receiving stolen property is a felony of the third degree.

(D) Except as provided in division (C) of this section with respect to property involved in a violation of this section with a value of seven thousand five hundred dollars or more, if the property involved in violation of this section is a special purchase article as defined in section 4737.04 of the Revised Code or a bulk merchandise container as defined in section 4737.012 of the Revised Code, a violation of this section is receiving a stolen special purchase article or articles or receiving a stolen bulk merchandise container or containers, a felony of the fifth degree.

Amended by 130th General Assembly File No. 7, HB 51, §101.01, eff. 7/1/2013.

Amended by 129th General AssemblyFile No.29, HB 86, §1, eff. 9/30/2011.

Effective Date: 10-29-1999

2913.61 Finding of value of stolen property as part of verdict.

(A) When a person is charged with a theft offense, or with a violation of division (A)(1) of section 1716.14 of the Revised Code involving a victim who is an elderly person or disabled adult that involves property or services valued at one thousand dollars or more, property or services valued at one thousand dollars or more and less than seven thousand five hundred dollars, property or services valued at one thousand five hundred dollars or more and less than seven thousand five hundred dollars, property or services valued at seven thousand five hundred dollars or more and less than thirty-seven thousand five hundred dollars, property or services valued at seven thousand five hundred dollars or more and less than one hundred fifty thousand dollars, property or services valued at thirty-seven thousand five hundred dollars or more and less than one hundred fifty thousand dollars, property or services valued at thirty-seven thousand five hundred dollars or more, property or services valued at one hundred fifty thousand dollars or more, property or services valued at one hundred fifty thousand dollars or more and less than seven hundred fifty thousand dollars, property or services valued at seven hundred fifty thousand dollars or more and less than one million five hundred thousand dollars, or property or services valued at one million five hundred thousand dollars or more, the jury or court trying the accused shall determine the value of the property or services as of the time of the offense and, if a guilty verdict is returned, shall return the finding of value as part of the verdict. In any case in which the jury or court determines that the value of the property or services at the time of the offense was one thousand dollars or more, it is unnecessary to find and return the exact value, and it is sufficient if the finding and return is to the effect that the value of the property or services involved was one thousand dollars or more, was one thousand dollars or more and less than seven thousand five hundred dollars, was one thousand five hundred dollars or more and less than seven thousand five hundred dollars, was seven thousand five hundred dollars or more and less than thirty-seven thousand five hundred dollars, was seven thousand five hundred dollars or more and less than one hundred fifty thousand dollars, was thirty-seven thousand five hundred dollars or more and less than one hundred fifty thousand dollars, was thirty-seven thousand five hundred dollars or more , was one hundred fifty thousand dollars or more, was one hundred fifty thousand dollars or more and less than seven hundred fifty thousand dollars, was seven hundred fifty thousand dollars or more and less than one million five hundred thousand dollars, or was one million five hundred thousand dollars or more, whichever is relevant regarding the offense.

(B) If more than one item of property or services is involved in a theft offense or in a violation of division (A)(1) of section 1716.14 of the Revised Code involving a victim who is an elderly person or disabled adult, the value of the property or services involved for the purpose of determining the value as required by division (A) of this section is the aggregate value of all property or services involved in the offense.

(C)

(1) When a series of offenses under section 2913.02 of the Revised Code, or a series of violations of, attempts to commit a violation of, conspiracies to violate, or complicity in violations of division (A)(1) of section 1716.14, section 2913.02, 2913.03, or 2913.04, division (B)(1) or (2) of section 2913.21, or section 2913.31 or 2913.43 of the Revised Code involving a victim who is an elderly person or disabled adult, is committed by the offender in the offender's same employment, capacity, or relationship to another, all of those offenses shall be tried as a single offense. When a series of offenses under section 2913.02 of the Revised Code, or a series of violations of, attempts to commit a violation of, conspiracies to violate, or complicity in violations of section 2913.02 or 2913.43 of the Revised Code involving a victim who is an active duty service member or spouse of an active duty service member is committed by the offender in the offender's same employment, capacity, or relationship to another, all of those offenses shall be tried as a single offense. The value of the property or services involved in the series of offenses for the purpose of determining the value as required by division (A) of this section is the aggregate value of all property and services involved in all offenses in the series.

(2) If an offender commits a series of offenses under section 2913.02 of the Revised Code that involves a common course of conduct to defraud multiple victims, all of the offenses may be tried as a single offense. If an offender is being tried for the commission of a series of violations of, attempts to commit a violation of, conspiracies to violate, or complicity in violations of division (A)(1) of section 1716.14, section 2913.02, 2913.03, or 2913.04, division (B)(1) or (2) of section 2913.21, or section 2913.31 or 2913.43 of the Revised Code, whether committed against one victim or more than one victim, involving a victim who is an elderly person or disabled adult, pursuant to a scheme or course of conduct, all of those offenses may be tried as a single offense. If an offender is being tried for the commission of a series of violations of, attempts to commit a violation of, conspiracies to violate, or complicity in violations of section 2913.02 or 2913.43 of the Revised Code, whether committed against one victim or more than one victim, involving a victim who is an active duty service member or spouse of an active duty service member pursuant to a scheme or course of conduct, all of those offenses may be tried as a single offense. If the offenses are tried as a single offense, the value of the property or services involved for the purpose of determining the value as required by division (A) of this section is the aggregate value of all property and services involved in all of the offenses in the course of conduct.

(3) When a series of two or more offenses under section 2913.40, 2913.48, or 2921.41 of the Revised Code is committed by the offender in the offender's same employment, capacity, or relationship to another, all of those offenses may be tried as a single offense. If the offenses are tried as a single offense, the value of the property or services involved for the purpose of determining the value as required by division (A) of this section is the aggregate value of all property and services involved in all of the offenses in the series of two or more offenses.

(4) In prosecuting a single offense under division (C)(1), (2), or (3) of this section, it is not necessary to separately allege and prove each offense in the series. Rather, it is sufficient to allege and prove that the offender, within a given span of time, committed one or more theft offenses or violations of section 2913.40, 2913.48, or 2921.41 of the Revised Code in the offender's same employment, capacity, or relationship to another as described in division (C)(1) or (3) of this section, or committed one or more theft offenses that involve a common course of conduct to defraud multiple victims or a scheme or course of conduct as described in division (C)(2) of this section. While it is not necessary to separately allege and prove each offense in the series in order to prosecute a single offense under division (C)(1), (2), or (3) of this section, it remains necessary in prosecuting them as a single offense to prove the aggregate value of the property or services in order to meet the requisite statutory offense level sought by the prosecution.

(D) The following criteria shall be used in determining the value of property or services involved in a theft offense:

(1) The value of an heirloom, memento, collector's item, antique, museum piece, manuscript, document, record, or other thing that has intrinsic worth to its owner and that either is irreplaceable or is replaceable only on the expenditure of substantial time, effort, or money, is the amount that would compensate the owner for its loss.

(2) The value of personal effects and household goods, and of materials, supplies, equipment, and fixtures used in the profession, business, trade, occupation, or avocation of its owner, which property is not covered under division (D)(1) of this section and which retains substantial utility for its purpose regardless of its age or condition, is the cost of replacing the property with new property of like kind and quality.

(3) The value of any real or personal property that is not covered under division (D)(1) or (2) of this section, and the value of services, is the fair market value of the property or services. As used in this section, "fair market value" is the money consideration that a buyer would give and a seller would accept for property or services, assuming that the buyer is willing to buy and the seller is willing to sell, that both are fully informed as to all facts material to the transaction, and that neither is under any compulsion to act.

(E) Without limitation on the evidence that may be used to establish the value of property or services involved in a theft offense:

(1) When the property involved is personal property held for sale at wholesale or retail, the price at which the property was held for sale is prima-facie evidence of its value.

(2) When the property involved is a security or commodity traded on an exchange, the closing price or, if there is no closing price, the asked price, given in the latest market quotation prior to the offense is prima-facie evidence of the value of the security or commodity.

(3) When the property involved is livestock, poultry, or raw agricultural products for which a local market price is available, the latest local market price prior to the offense is prima-facie evidence of the value of the livestock, poultry, or products.

(4) When the property involved is a negotiable instrument, the face value is prima-facie evidence of the value of the instrument.

(5) When the property involved is a warehouse receipt, bill of lading, pawn ticket, claim check, or other instrument entitling the holder or bearer to receive property, the face value or, if there is no face value, the value of the property covered by the instrument less any payment necessary to receive the property is prima-facie evidence of the value of the instrument.

(6) When the property involved is a ticket of admission, ticket for transportation, coupon, token, or other instrument entitling the holder or bearer to receive property or services, the face value or, if there is no face value, the value of the property or services that may be received by the instrument is prima-facie evidence of the value of the instrument.

(7) When the services involved are gas, electricity, water, telephone, transportation, shipping, or other services for which the rate is established by law, the duly established rate is prima-facie evidence of the value of the services.

(8) When the services involved are services for which the rate is not established by law, and the offender has been notified prior to the offense of the rate for the services, either in writing, orally, or by posting in a manner reasonably calculated to come to the attention of potential offenders, the rate contained in the notice is prima-facie evidence of the value of the services.

Amended by 130th General Assembly File No. TBD, HB 488, §1, eff. 9/16/2014.

Amended by 129th General AssemblyFile No.29, HB 86, §1, eff. 9/30/2011.

Effective Date: 09-14-2000

2913.71 Felony of fifth degree regardless of the value of the property.

Regardless of the value of the property involved and regardless of whether the offender previously has been convicted of a theft offense, a violation of section 2913.02 or 2913.51 of the Revised Code is a felony of the fifth degree if the property involved is any of the following:

(A) A credit card;

(B) A printed form for a check or other negotiable instrument, that on its face identifies the drawer or maker for whose use it is designed or identifies the account on which it is to be drawn, and that has not been executed by the drawer or maker or on which the amount is blank;

(C) A motor vehicle identification license plate as prescribed by section 4503.22 of the Revised Code, a temporary license placard or windshield sticker as prescribed by section 4503.182 of the Revised Code, or any comparable license plate, placard, or sticker as prescribed by the applicable law of another state or the United States;

(D) A blank form for a certificate of title or a manufacturer's or importer's certificate to a motor vehicle, as prescribed by section 4505.07 of the Revised Code;

(E) A blank form for any license listed in section 4507.01 of the Revised Code.

Effective Date: 07-01-1996

2913.72 Evidence of an intent to commit theft of rented property.

(A) Each of the following shall be considered evidence of an intent to commit theft of rented property or rental services:

(1) At the time of entering into the rental contract, the rentee presented the renter with identification that was materially false, fictitious, or not current with respect to name, address, place of employment, or other relevant information.

(2) After receiving a notice demanding the return of rented property as provided in division (B) of this section, the rentee neither returned the rented property nor made arrangements acceptable with the renter to return the rented property.

(B) To establish that a rentee has an intent to commit theft of rented property or rental services under division (A)(2) of this section, a renter may issue a notice to a rentee demanding the return of rented property. The renter shall mail the notice by certified mail, return receipt requested, to the rentee at the address the rentee gave when the rental contract was executed, or to the rentee at the last address the rentee or the rentee's agent furnished in writing to the renter.

(C) A demand for the return of rented property is not a prerequisite for the prosecution of a rentee for theft of rented property or rental services. The evidence specified in division (A) of this section does not constitute the only evidence that may be considered as evidence of intent to commit theft of rented property or rental services.

(D) As used in this section:

(1) "Renter" means a person who owns rented property.

(2) "Rentee" means a person who pays consideration to a renter for the use of rented property.

Effective Date: 07-01-1996; 2008 SB320 04-07-2009

2913.73 Evidence that victim lacked capacity to give consent.

In a prosecution for any alleged violation of a provision of this chapter, if the lack of consent of the victim is an element of the provision that allegedly was violated, evidence that, at the time of the alleged violation, the victim lacked the capacity to give consent is admissible to show that the victim did not give consent.

As used in this section, "lacks the capacity to consent" means being impaired for any reason to the extent that the person lacks sufficient understanding or capacity to make and carry out reasonable decisions concerning the person or the person's resources.

Effective Date: 11-10-1999

2913.81 [Repealed].

Effective Date: 07-01-1996

2913.82 Towing or storage fees to be paid by person convicted of theft offense that involves motor vehicle.

If a person is convicted of a theft offense that involves a motor vehicle, as defined in section 4501.01 of the Revised Code, or any major part of a motor vehicle, and if a local authority, as defined in section 4511.01 of the Revised Code, the owner of the vehicle or major part, or a person, acting on behalf of the owner, was required to pay any towing or storage fees prior to recovering possession of the motor vehicle or major part, the court that sentences the offender, as a part of its sentence, shall require the offender to repay the fees to the local authority, the owner, or the person who paid the fees on behalf of the owner.

As used in this section, "major part" has the same meaning as in the "Motor Vehicle Theft Law Enforcement Act of 1984," 98 Stat. 2754, 15 U.S.C. 2021(7) , as amended.

Effective Date: 03-25-1987