2925.11 Possession of controlled substances.

(A) No person shall knowingly obtain, possess, or use a controlled substance or a controlled substance analog.

(B)

(1) This section does not apply to any of the following:

(a) Manufacturers, licensed health professionals authorized to prescribe drugs, pharmacists, owners of pharmacies, and other persons whose conduct was in accordance with Chapters 3719., 4715., 4723., 4729., 4730., 4731., and 4741. of the Revised Code;

(b) If the offense involves an anabolic steroid, any person who is conducting or participating in a research project involving the use of an anabolic steroid if the project has been approved by the United States food and drug administration;

(c) Any person who sells, offers for sale, prescribes, dispenses, or administers for livestock or other nonhuman species an anabolic steroid that is expressly intended for administration through implants to livestock or other nonhuman species and approved for that purpose under the "Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act," 52 Stat. 1040 (1938), 21 U.S.C.A. 301, as amended, and is sold, offered for sale, prescribed, dispensed, or administered for that purpose in accordance with that act;

(d) Any person who obtained the controlled substance pursuant to a lawful prescription issued by a licensed health professional authorized to prescribe drugs.

(2)

(a) As used in division (B)(2) of this section:

(i) "Community addiction services provider" has the same meaning as in section 5119.01 of the Revised Code.

(ii) "Community control sanction" and "drug treatment program" have the same meanings as in section 2929.01 of the Revised Code.

(iii) "Health care facility" has the same meaning as in section 2919.16 of the Revised Code.

(iv) "Minor drug possession offense" means a violation of this section that is a misdemeanor or a felony of the fifth degree.

(v) "Post-release control sanction" has the same meaning as in section 2967.28 of the Revised Code.

(vi) "Peace officer" has the same meaning as in section 2935.01 of the Revised Code.

(vii) "Public agency" has the same meaning as in section 2930.01 of the Revised Code.

(viii) "Qualified individual" means a person who is not on community control or post-release control and is a person acting in good faith who seeks or obtains medical assistance for another person who is experiencing a drug overdose, a person who experiences a drug overdose and who seeks medical assistance for that overdose, or a person who is the subject of another person seeking or obtaining medical assistance for that overdose as described in division (B)(2)(b) of this section.

(ix) "Seek or obtain medical assistance" includes, but is not limited to making a 9-1-1 call, contacting in person or by telephone call an on-duty peace officer, or transporting or presenting a person to a health care facility.

(b) Subject to division (B)(2)(f) of this section, a qualified individual shall not be arrested, charged, prosecuted, convicted, or penalized pursuant to this chapter for a minor drug possession offense if all of the following apply:

(i) The evidence of the obtaining, possession, or use of the controlled substance or controlled substance analog that would be the basis of the offense was obtained as a result of the qualified individual seeking the medical assistance or experiencing an overdose and needing medical assistance.

(ii) Subject to division (B)(2)(g) of this section, within thirty days after seeking or obtaining the medical assistance, the qualified individual seeks and obtains a screening and receives a referral for treatment from a community addiction services provider or a properly credentialed addiction treatment professional.

(iii) Subject to division (B)(2)(g) of this section, the qualified individual who obtains a screening and receives a referral for treatment under division (B)(2)(b)(ii) of this section, upon the request of any prosecuting attorney, submits documentation to the prosecuting attorney that verifies that the qualified individual satisfied the requirements of that division. The documentation shall be limited to the date and time of the screening obtained and referral received.

(c) If a person is found to be in violation of any community control sanction and if the violation is a result of either of the following, the court shall first consider ordering the person's participation or continued participation in a drug treatment program or mitigating the penalty specified in section 2929.13. 2929.15. or 2929.25 of the Revised Code, whichever is applicable, after which the court has the discretion either to order the person's participation or continued participation in a drug treatment program or to impose the penalty with the mitigating factor specified in any of those applicable sections:

(i) Seeking or obtaining medical assistance in good faith for another person who is experiencing a drug overdose;

(ii) Experiencing a drug overdose and seeking medical assistance for that overdose or being the subject of another person seeking or obtaining medical assistance for that overdose as described in division (B)(2)(b) of this section.

(d) If a person is found to be in violation of any post-release control sanction and if the violation is a result of either of the following, the court or the parole board shall first consider ordering the person's participation or continued participation in a drug treatment program or mitigating the penalty specified in section 2929.141 or 2967.28 of the Revised Code, whichever is applicable, after which the court or the parole board has the discretion either to order the person's participation or continued participation in a drug treatment program or to impose the penalty with the mitigating factor specified in either of those applicable sections:

(i) Seeking or obtaining medical assistance in good faith for another person who is experiencing a drug overdose;

(ii) Experiencing a drug overdose and seeking medical assistance for that emergency or being the subject of another person seeking or obtaining medical assistance for that overdose as described in division (B)(2)(b) of this section.

(e) Nothing in division (B)(2)(b) of this section shall be construed to do any of the following:

(i) Limit the admissibility of any evidence in connection with the investigation or prosecution of a crime with regards to a defendant who does not qualify for the protections of division (B)(2)(b) of this section or with regards to any crime other than a minor drug possession offense committed by a person who qualifies for protection pursuant to division (B)(2)(b) of this section for a minor drug possession offense;

(ii) Limit any seizure of evidence or contraband otherwise permitted by law;

(iii) Limit or abridge the authority of a peace officer to detain or take into custody a person in the course of an investigation or to effectuate an arrest for any offense except as provided in that division;

(iv) Limit, modify, or remove any immunity from liability available pursuant to law in effect prior to the effective date of this amendment to any public agency or to an employee of any public agency.

(f) Division (B)(2)(b) of this section does not apply to any person who twice previously has been granted an immunity under division (B)(2)(b) of this section. No person shall be granted an immunity under division (B)(2)(b) of this section more than two times.

(g) Nothing in this section shall compel any qualified individual to disclose protected health information in a way that conflicts with the requirements of the "Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996." 104 Pub. L. No. 191. 110 Stat. 2021. 42 U.S.C. 1320d et seq.. as amended, and regulations promulgated by the United States department of health and human services to implement the act or the requirements of 42 C.F.R. Part 2.

(C) Whoever violates division (A) of this section is guilty of one of the following:

(1) If the drug involved in the violation is a compound, mixture, preparation, or substance included in schedule I or II, with the exception of marihuana, cocaine, L.S.D., heroin, hashish, and controlled substance analogs, whoever violates division (A) of this section is guilty of aggravated possession of drugs. The penalty for the offense shall be determined as follows:

(a) Except as otherwise provided in division (C)(1)(b), (c), (d), or (e) of this section, aggravated possession of drugs is a felony of the fifth degree, and division (B) of section 2929.13 of the Revised Code applies in determining whether to impose a prison term on the offender.

(b) If the amount of the drug involved equals or exceeds the bulk amount but is less than five times the bulk amount, aggravated possession of drugs is a felony of the third degree, and there is a presumption for a prison term for the offense.

(c) If the amount of the drug involved equals or exceeds five times the bulk amount but is less than fifty times the bulk amount, aggravated possession of drugs is a felony of the second degree, and the court shall impose as a mandatory prison term one of the prison terms prescribed for a felony of the second degree.

(d) If the amount of the drug involved equals or exceeds fifty times the bulk amount but is less than one hundred times the bulk amount, aggravated possession of drugs is a felony of the first degree, and the court shall impose as a mandatory prison term one of the prison terms prescribed for a felony of the first degree.

(e) If the amount of the drug involved equals or exceeds one hundred times the bulk amount, aggravated possession of drugs is a felony of the first degree, the offender is a major drug offender, and the court shall impose as a mandatory prison term the maximum prison term prescribed for a felony of the first degree.

(2) If the drug involved in the violation is a compound, mixture, preparation, or substance included in schedule III, IV, or V, whoever violates division (A) of this section is guilty of possession of drugs. The penalty for the offense shall be determined as follows:

(a) Except as otherwise provided in division (C)(2)(b), (c), or (d) of this section, possession of drugs is a misdemeanor of the first degree or, if the offender previously has been convicted of a drug abuse offense, a felony of the fifth degree.

(b) If the amount of the drug involved equals or exceeds the bulk amount but is less than five times the bulk amount, possession of drugs is a felony of the fourth degree, and division (C) of section 2929.13 of the Revised Code applies in determining whether to impose a prison term on the offender.

(c) If the amount of the drug involved equals or exceeds five times the bulk amount but is less than fifty times the bulk amount, possession of drugs is a felony of the third degree, and there is a presumption for a prison term for the offense.

(d) If the amount of the drug involved equals or exceeds fifty times the bulk amount, possession of drugs is a felony of the second degree, and the court shall impose upon the offender as a mandatory prison term one of the prison terms prescribed for a felony of the second degree.

(3) If the drug involved in the violation is marihuana or a compound, mixture, preparation, or substance containing marihuana other than hashish, whoever violates division (A) of this section is guilty of possession of marihuana. The penalty for the offense shall be determined as follows:

(a) Except as otherwise provided in division (C)(3)(b), (c), (d), (e), (f), or (g) of this section, possession of marihuana is a minor misdemeanor.

(b) If the amount of the drug involved equals or exceeds one hundred grams but is less than two hundred grams, possession of marihuana is a misdemeanor of the fourth degree.

(c) If the amount of the drug involved equals or exceeds two hundred grams but is less than one thousand grams, possession of marihuana is a felony of the fifth degree, and division (B) of section 2929.13 of the Revised Code applies in determining whether to impose a prison term on the offender.

(d) If the amount of the drug involved equals or exceeds one thousand grams but is less than five thousand grams, possession of marihuana is a felony of the third degree, and division (C) of section 2929.13 of the Revised Code applies in determining whether to impose a prison term on the offender.

(e) If the amount of the drug involved equals or exceeds five thousand grams but is less than twenty thousand grams, possession of marihuana is a felony of the third degree, and there is a presumption that a prison term shall be imposed for the offense.

(f) If the amount of the drug involved equals or exceeds twenty thousand grams but is less than forty thousand grams, possession of marihuana is a felony of the second degree, and the court shall impose a mandatory prison term of five, six, seven, or eight years.

(g) If the amount of the drug involved equals or exceeds forty thousand grams, possession of marihuana is a felony of the second degree, and the court shall impose as a mandatory prison term the maximum prison term prescribed for a felony of the second degree.

(4) If the drug involved in the violation is cocaine or a compound, mixture, preparation, or substance containing cocaine, whoever violates division (A) of this section is guilty of possession of cocaine. The penalty for the offense shall be determined as follows:

(a) Except as otherwise provided in division (C)(4)(b), (c), (d), (e), or (f) of this section, possession of cocaine is a felony of the fifth degree, and division (B) of section 2929.13 of the Revised Code applies in determining whether to impose a prison term on the offender.

(b) If the amount of the drug involved equals or exceeds five grams but is less than ten grams of cocaine, possession of cocaine is a felony of the fourth degree, and division (B) of section 2929.13 of the Revised Code applies in determining whether to impose a prison term on the offender.

(c) If the amount of the drug involved equals or exceeds ten grams but is less than twenty grams of cocaine, possession of cocaine is a felony of the third degree, and, except as otherwise provided in this division, there is a presumption for a prison term for the offense. If possession of cocaine is a felony of the third degree under this division and if the offender two or more times previously has been convicted of or pleaded guilty to a felony drug abuse offense, the court shall impose as a mandatory prison term one of the prison terms prescribed for a felony of the third degree.

(d) If the amount of the drug involved equals or exceeds twenty grams but is less than twenty-seven grams of cocaine, possession of cocaine is a felony of the second degree, and the court shall impose as a mandatory prison term one of the prison terms prescribed for a felony of the second degree.

(e) If the amount of the drug involved equals or exceeds twenty-seven grams but is less than one hundred grams of cocaine, possession of cocaine is a felony of the first degree, and the court shall impose as a mandatory prison term one of the prison terms prescribed for a felony of the first degree.

(f) If the amount of the drug involved equals or exceeds one hundred grams of cocaine, possession of cocaine is a felony of the first degree, the offender is a major drug offender, and the court shall impose as a mandatory prison term the maximum prison term prescribed for a felony of the first degree.

(5) If the drug involved in the violation is L.S.D., whoever violates division (A) of this section is guilty of possession of LSD. The penalty for the offense shall be determined as follows:

(a) Except as otherwise provided in division (C)(5)(b), (c), (d), (e), or (f) of this section, possession of L.S.D. is a felony of the fifth degree, and division (B) of section 2929.13 of the Revised Code applies in determining whether to impose a prison term on the offender.

(b) If the amount of L.S.D. involved equals or exceeds ten unit doses but is less than fifty unit doses of L.S.D. in a solid form or equals or exceeds one gram but is less than five grams of L.S.D. in a liquid concentrate, liquid extract, or liquid distillate form, possession of L.S.D. is a felony of the fourth degree, and division (C) of section 2929.13 of the Revised Code applies in determining whether to impose a prison term on the offender.

(c) If the amount of L.S.D. involved equals or exceeds fifty unit doses, but is less than two hundred fifty unit doses of L.S.D. in a solid form or equals or exceeds five grams but is less than twenty-five grams of L.S.D. in a liquid concentrate, liquid extract, or liquid distillate form, possession of L.S.D. is a felony of the third degree, and there is a presumption for a prison term for the offense.

(d) If the amount of L.S.D. involved equals or exceeds two hundred fifty unit doses but is less than one thousand unit doses of L.S.D. in a solid form or equals or exceeds twenty-five grams but is less than one hundred grams of L.S.D. in a liquid concentrate, liquid extract, or liquid distillate form, possession of LSD. is a felony of the second degree, and the court shall impose as a mandatory prison term one of the prison terms prescribed for a felony of the second degree.

(e) If the amount of LSD. involved equals or exceeds one thousand unit doses but is less than five thousand unit doses of LSD. in a solid form or equals or exceeds one hundred grams but is less than five hundred grams of LSD. in a liquid concentrate, liquid extract, or liquid distillate form, possession of LSD. is a felony of the first degree, and the court shall impose as a mandatory prison term one of the prison terms prescribed for a felony of the first degree.

(f) If the amount of LSD. involved equals or exceeds five thousand unit doses of LSD. in a solid form or equals or exceeds five hundred grams of LSD. in a liquid concentrate, liquid extract, or liquid distillate form, possession of LSD. is a felony of the first degree, the offender is a major drug offender, and the court shall impose as a mandatory prison term the maximum prison term prescribed for a felony of the first degree.

(6) If the drug involved in the violation is heroin or a compound, mixture, preparation, or substance containing heroin, whoever violates division (A) of this section is guilty of possession of heroin. The penalty for the offense shall be determined as follows:

(a) Except as otherwise provided in division (C)(6)(b), (c), (d), (e), or (f) of this section, possession of heroin is a felony of the fifth degree, and division (B) of section 2929.13 of the Revised Code applies in determining whether to impose a prison term on the offender.

(b) If the amount of the drug involved equals or exceeds ten unit doses but is less than fifty unit doses or equals or exceeds one gram but is less than five grams, possession of heroin is a felony of the fourth degree, and division (C) of section 2929.13 of the Revised Code applies in determining whether to impose a prison term on the offender.

(c) If the amount of the drug involved equals or exceeds fifty unit doses but is less than one hundred unit doses or equals or exceeds five grams but is less than ten grams, possession of heroin is a felony of the third degree, and there is a presumption for a prison term for the offense.

(d) If the amount of the drug involved equals or exceeds one hundred unit doses but is less than five hundred unit doses or equals or exceeds ten grams but is less than fifty grams, possession of heroin is a felony of the second degree, and the court shall impose as a mandatory prison term one of the prison terms prescribed for a felony of the second degree.

(e) If the amount of the drug involved equals or exceeds five hundred unit doses but is less than -one thousand unit doses or equals or exceeds fifty grams but is less than -one hundred grams, possession of heroin is a felony of the first degree, and the court shall impose as a mandatory prison term one of the prison terms prescribed for a felony of the first degree.

(f) If the amount of the drug involved equals or exceeds -one thousand unit doses or equals or exceeds -one hundred grams, possession of heroin is a felony of the first degree, the offender is a major drug offender, and the court shall impose as a mandatory prison term the maximum prison term prescribed for a felony of the first degree.

(7) If the drug involved in the violation is hashish or a compound, mixture, preparation, or substance containing hashish, whoever violates division (A) of this section is guilty of possession of hashish. The penalty for the offense shall be determined as follows:

(a) Except as otherwise provided in division (C)(7)(b), (c), (d), (e), (f), or (g) of this section, possession of hashish is a minor misdemeanor.

(b) If the amount of the drug involved equals or exceeds five grams but is less than ten grams of hashish in a solid form or equals or exceeds one gram but is less than two grams of hashish in a liquid concentrate, liquid extract, or liquid distillate form, possession of hashish is a misdemeanor of the fourth degree.

(c) If the amount of the drug involved equals or exceeds ten grams but is less than fifty grams of hashish in a solid form or equals or exceeds two grams but is less than ten grams of hashish in a liquid concentrate, liquid extract, or liquid distillate form, possession of hashish is a felony of the fifth degree, and division (B) of section 2929.13 of the Revised Code applies in determining whether to impose a prison term on the offender.

(d) If the amount of the drug involved equals or exceeds fifty grams but is less than two hundred fifty grams of hashish in a solid form or equals or exceeds ten grams but is less than fifty grams of hashish in a liquid concentrate, liquid extract, or liquid distillate form, possession of hashish is a felony of the third degree, and division (C) of section 2929.13 of the Revised Code applies in determining whether to impose a prison term on the offender.

(e) If the amount of the drug involved equals or exceeds two hundred fifty grams but is less than one thousand grams of hashish in a solid form or equals or exceeds fifty grams but is less than two hundred grams of hashish in a liquid concentrate, liquid extract, or liquid distillate form, possession of hashish is a felony of the third degree, and there is a presumption that a prison term shall be imposed for the offense.

(f) If the amount of the drug involved equals or exceeds one thousand grams but is less than two thousand grams of hashish in a solid form or equals or exceeds two hundred grams but is less than four hundred grams of hashish in a liquid concentrate, liquid extract, or liquid distillate form, possession of hashish is a felony of the second degree, and the court shall impose a mandatory prison term of five, six, seven, or eight years.

(g) If the amount of the drug involved equals or exceeds two thousand grams of hashish in a solid form or equals or exceeds four hundred grams of hashish in a liquid concentrate, liquid extract, or liquid distillate form, possession of hashish is a felony of the second degree, and the court shall impose as a mandatory prison term the maximum prison term prescribed for a felony of the second degree.

(8) If the drug involved is a controlled substance analog or compound, mixture, preparation, or substance that contains a controlled substance analog, whoever violates division (A) of this section is guilty of possession of a controlled substance analog. The penalty for the offense shall be determined as follows:

(a) Except as otherwise provided in division (C)(8)(b), (c), (d), (e), or (f) of this section, possession of a controlled substance analog is a felony of the fifth degree, and division (B) of section 2929.13 of the Revised Code applies in determining whether to impose a prison term on the offender.

(b) If the amount of the drug involved equals or exceeds ten grams but is less than twenty grams, possession of a controlled substance analog is a felony of the fourth degree, and there is a presumption for a prison term for the offense.

(c) If the amount of the drug involved equals or exceeds twenty grams but is less than thirty grams, possession of a controlled substance analog is a felony of the third degree, and there is a presumption for a prison term for the offense.

(d) If the amount of the drug involved equals or exceeds thirty grams but is less than forty grams, possession of a controlled substance analog is a felony of the second degree, and the court shall impose as a mandatory prison term one of the prison terms prescribed for a felony of the second degree.

(e) If the amount of the drug involved equals or exceeds forty grams but is less than fifty grams, possession of a controlled substance analog is a felony of the first degree, and the court shall impose as a mandatory prison term one of the prison terms prescribed for a felony of the first degree.

(f) If the amount of the drug involved equals or exceeds fifty grams, possession of a controlled substance analog is a felony of the first degree, the offender is a major drug offender, and the court shall impose as a mandatory prison term the maximum prison term prescribed for a felony of the first degree.

(D) Arrest or conviction for a minor misdemeanor violation of this section does not constitute a criminal record and need not be reported by the person so arrested or convicted in response to any inquiries about the person's criminal record, including any inquiries contained in any application for employment, license, or other right or privilege, or made in connection with the person's appearance as a witness.

(E) In addition to any prison term or jail term authorized or required by division (C) of this section and sections 2929.13, 2929.14, 2929.22, 2929.24, and 2929.25 of the Revised Code and in addition to any other sanction that is imposed for the offense under this section, sections 2929.11 to 2929.18, or sections 2929.21 to 2929.28 of the Revised Code, the court that sentences an offender who is convicted of or pleads guilty to a violation of division (A) of this section may suspend the offender's driver's or commercial driver's license or permit for not more than five years. However, if the offender pleaded guilty to or was convicted of a violation of section 4511.19 of the Revised Code or a substantially similar municipal ordinance or the law of another state or the United States arising out of the same set of circumstances as the violation, the court shall suspend the offender's driver's or commercial driver's license or permit for not more than five years. If applicable, the court also shall do the following :

(1)

(a) If the violation is a felony of the first, second, or third degree, the court shall impose upon the offender the mandatory fine specified for the offense under division (B)(1) of section 2929.18 of the Revised Code unless, as specified in that division, the court determines that the offender is indigent.

(b) Notwithstanding any contrary provision of section 3719.21 of the Revised Code, the clerk of the court shall pay a mandatory fine or other fine imposed for a violation of this section pursuant to division (A) of section 2929.18 of the Revised Code in accordance with and subject to the requirements of division (F) of section 2925.03 of the Revised Code. The agency that receives the fine shall use the fine as specified in division (F) of section 2925.03 of the Revised Code.

(c) If a person is charged with a violation of this section that is a felony of the first, second, or third degree, posts bail, and forfeits the bail, the clerk shall pay the forfeited bail pursuant to division (E)(1)(b) of this section as if it were a mandatory fine imposed under division (E)(1)(a) of this section.

(2)

If the offender is a professionally licensed person, in addition to any other sanction imposed for a violation of this section, the court immediately shall comply with section 2925.38 of the Revised Code.

(F) It is an affirmative defense, as provided in section 2901.05 of the Revised Code, to a charge of a fourth degree felony violation under this section that the controlled substance that gave rise to the charge is in an amount, is in a form, is prepared, compounded, or mixed with substances that are not controlled substances in a manner, or is possessed under any other circumstances, that indicate that the substance was possessed solely for personal use. Notwithstanding any contrary provision of this section, if, in accordance with section 2901.05 of the Revised Code, an accused who is charged with a fourth degree felony violation of division (C)(2), (4), (5), or (6) of this section sustains the burden of going forward with evidence of and establishes by a preponderance of the evidence the affirmative defense described in this division, the accused may be prosecuted for and may plead guilty to or be convicted of a misdemeanor violation of division (C)(2) of this section or a fifth degree felony violation of division (C)(4), (5), or (6) of this section respectively.

(G) When a person is charged with possessing a bulk amount or multiple of a bulk amount, division (E) of section 2925.03 of the Revised Code applies regarding the determination of the amount of the controlled substance involved at the time of the offense.

(H) It is an affirmative defense to a charge of possession of a controlled substance analog under division (C)(8) of this section that the person charged with violating that offense obtained, possessed, or used an item described in division (HH)(2)(a), (b), or (c) of section 3719.01 of the Revised Code.

(I) Any offender who received a mandatory suspension of the offender's driver's or commercial driver's license or permit under this section prior to the effective date of this amendment may file a motion with the sentencing court requesting the termination of the suspension. However, an offender who pleaded guilty to or was convicted of a violation of section 4511.19 of the Revised Code or a substantially similar municipal ordinance or law of another state or the United States that arose out of the same set of circumstances as the violation for which the offender's license or permit was suspended under this section shall not file such a motion.

Upon the filing of a motion under division (I) of this section, the sentencing court, in its discretion, may terminate the suspension.

Amended by 131st General Assembly File No. TBD, HB 171, §1, eff. 9/14/2016.

Amended by 131st General Assembly File No. TBD, HB 110, §1, eff. 9/13/2016.

Amended by 131st General Assembly File No. TBD, SB 204, §1, eff. 9/13/2016.

Amended by 129th General AssemblyFile No.189, HB 334, §1, eff. 12/20/2012.

Amended by 129th General AssemblyFile No.43, HB 64, §1, eff. 10/17/2011.

Amended by 129th General AssemblyFile No.29, HB 86, §1, eff. 9/30/2011.

Effective Date: 01-01-2004; 05-17-2006; 2008 HB195 09-30-2008

Related Legislative Provision: See 129th General AssemblyFile No.29, HB 86, §3