Chapter 2937: PRELIMINARY EXAMINATION; BAIL

2937.01 Preliminary examination - bail definitions.

The definition of "magistrate" set forth in section 2931.01 of the Revised Code, and the definitions of "peace officer," "prosecutor," and "offense" set forth in section 2935.01 of the Revised Code apply to Chapter 2937. of the Revised Code.

Effective Date: 01-01-1960

2937.02 Court to inform defendant of charge and rights.

When, after arrest, the accused is taken before a court or magistrate, or when the accused appears pursuant to terms of summons or notice, the affidavit or complaint being first filed, the court or magistrate shall, before proceeding further:

(A) Inform the accused of the nature of the charge against him and the identity of the complainant and permit the accused or his counsel to see and read the affidavit or complaint or a copy thereof;

(B) Inform the accused of his right to have counsel and the right to a continuance in the proceedings to secure counsel;

(C) Inform the accused of the effect of pleas of guilty, not guilty, and no contest, of his right to trial by jury, and the necessity of making written demand therefor;

(D) If the charge be a felony, inform the accused of the nature and extent of possible punishment on conviction and of the right to preliminary hearing. Such information may be given to each accused individually or, if at any time there exists any substantial number of defendants to be arraigned at the same session, the judge or magistrate may, by general announcement or by distribution of printed matter, advise all those accused concerning those rights general in their nature, and informing as to individual matters at arraignment.

Effective Date: 01-01-1960

2937.03 Arraignment - explanation of rights.

After the announcement, as provided by section 2937.02 of the Revised Code, the accused shall be arraigned by the magistrate, clerk, or prosecutor of the court reading the affidavit or complaint, or reading its substance, omitting purely formal parts, to the accused unless the reading of the affidavit or complaint is waived. The judge or magistrate shall then inquire of the accused whether the accused understands the nature of the charge. If the accused does not indicate understanding, the judge or magistrate shall give explanation in terms of the statute or ordinance claimed violated. If the accused is not represented by counsel and expresses a desire to consult with an attorney at law, the judge or magistrate shall continue the case for a reasonable time to allow the accused to send for or consult with counsel and shall set bail for the later appearance if the offense is bailable. If the accused is not able to make bail, bail is denied, or the offense is not bailable, the court or magistrate shall require the officer having custody of the accused immediately to take a message to any attorney at law within the municipal corporation where the accused is detained, or immediately to make available to the accused use of a telephone for calling to arrange for legal counsel or bail.

Effective Date: 1999 SB8 07-29-1999

2937.04 Motion to dismiss complaint or affidavit.

If accused does not desire counsel or, having engaged counsel, appears at the end of granted continuance, he may then raise, by motion to dismiss the affidavit or complaint, any exception thereto which could be asserted against an indictment or information by motion to quash, plea in abatement, or demurrer. Such motion may be made orally and ruled upon by the court or magistrate at the time of presentation, with minute of motion and ruling made in the journal (if a court of record) or on the docket (if a court not of record) or such motion may be presented in writing and set down for argument at later time. Where the motion attacks a defect in the record by facts extrinsic thereto, proof may be offered by testimony or affidavit.

Effective Date: 01-01-1960

2937.05 Discharge of defendant - amendment of complaint.

If the motion pursuant to section 2937.04 of the Revised Code be sustained, accused shall be discharged unless the court or magistrate finds that the defect can be corrected without changing the nature of the charge, in which case he may order the complaint amended or a proper affidavit filed forthwith and require the accused to plead thereto. The discharge of accused upon the sustaining of a motion to dismiss shall not be considered a bar to further prosecution either of felony or misdemeanor.

Effective Date: 01-01-1960

2937.06 Pleas - advice as to effects of plea.

(A) After all motions are disposed of or if no motion is presented, the court or magistrate shall require the accused to plead to the charge.

(1) In cases of felony, only a plea of not guilty or a written plea of guilty shall be received and if the defendant declines to plead, a plea of not guilty shall be entered for the defendant and further proceedings had as set forth in sections 2937.09 to 2937.12 of the Revised Code.

(2) In cases of misdemeanor, the following pleas may be received:

(a) Guilty;

(b) Not guilty;

(c) No contest;

(d) Once in jeopardy, which includes the defenses of former conviction or former acquittal.

(B) Prior to accepting a plea of guilty or a plea of no contest under division (A) of this section, the court shall comply with sections 2943.031 and 2943.032 of the Revised Code.

(C) Entry of any plea pursuant to this section shall constitute a waiver of any objection that could be taken advantage of by motion pursuant to section 2937.04 of the Revised Code.

Effective Date: 07-01-1996

2937.07 Court action on pleas of guilty and no contest in misdemeanor cases.

If the offense is a misdemeanor and the accused pleads guilty to the offense, the court or magistrate shall receive and enter the plea unless the court or magistrate believes that it was made through fraud, collusion, or mistake. If the court or magistrate believes that it was made through fraud, collusion, or mistake, the court or magistrate shall enter a plea of not guilty and set the matter for trial pursuant to Chapter 2938. of the Revised Code. Upon receiving a plea of guilty, the court or magistrate shall call for an explanation of the circumstances of the offense from the affiant or complainant or the affiant's or complainant's representatives unless the offense to which the accused is pleading is a minor misdemeanor in which case the court or magistrate is not required to call for an explanation of the circumstances of the offense. After hearing the explanation of circumstances, together with any statement of the accused or after receiving the plea of guilty if an explanation of the circumstances of the offense is not required, the court or magistrate shall proceed to pronounce the sentence or shall continue the matter for the purpose of imposing the sentence.

A plea to a misdemeanor offense of "no contest" or words of similar import shall constitute an admission of the truth of the facts alleged in the complaint and that the judge or magistrate may make a finding of guilty or not guilty from the explanation of the circumstances of the offense. If the offense to which the accused is entering a plea of "no contest" is a minor misdemeanor, the judge or magistrate is not required to call for an explanation of the circumstances of the offense, and the judge or magistrate may base a finding on the facts alleged in the complaint. If a finding of guilty is made, the judge or magistrate shall impose the sentence or continue the case for sentencing accordingly. A plea of "no contest" or words of similar import shall not be construed as an admission of any fact at issue in the criminal charge in any subsequent civil or criminal action or proceeding.

Amended by 128th General AssemblyFile No.52, HB 338, §1, eff. 9/17/2010.

Effective Date: 01-01-2004

2937.08 Court action on pleas of not guilty or once in jeopardy in misdemeanor cases.

Upon a plea of not guilty or a plea of once in jeopardy, if the charge be a misdemeanor in a court of record, the court shall proceed to set the matter for trial at a future time, pursuant to Chapter 2938. of the Revised Code, and shall let accused to bail pending such trial. Or he may, but only if both prosecutor and accused expressly consent, set the matter for trial forthwith.

Upon the entry of such pleas to a charge of misdemeanor in a court not of record, the magistrate shall forthwith set the matter for future trial or, with the consent of both state and defendant may set trial forthwith, both pursuant to Chapter 2938. of the Revised Code, provided that if the nature of the offense is such that right to jury trial exists, such matter shall not be tried before him unless the accused, by writing subscribed by him, waives a jury and consents to be tried by the magistrate.

If the defendant in such event does not waive right to jury trial, then the magistrate shall require the accused to enter into recognizance to appear before court of record in the county, set by such magistrate, and the magistrate shall thereupon certify all papers filed, together with transcript of proceedings and accrued costs to date, and such recognizance if given, to such designated court of record. Such transfer shall not require the filing of indictment or information and trial shall proceed in the transferee court pursuant to Chapter 2938 of the Revised Code.

Effective Date: 01-01-1960

2937.081 [Repealed].

Effective Date: 10-12-1994

2937.09 Court action on pleas in felony cases.

If the charge is a felony, the court or magistrate shall, before receiving a plea of guilty, advise the accused that such plea constitutes an admission which may be used against him at a later trial. If the defendant enters a written plea of guilty or, pleading not guilty, affirmatively waives the right to have the court or magistrate take evidence concerning the offense, the court or magistrate forthwith and without taking evidence may find that the crime has been committed and that there is probable and reasonable cause to hold the defendant for trial pursuant to indictment by the grand jury, and, if the offense is bailable, require the accused to enter into recognizance in such amount as it determines to appear before the court of common pleas pursuant to indictment, otherwise to be confined until the grand jury has considered and reported the matter.

Effective Date: 01-10-1961

2937.10 Setting preliminary hearing for felony cases.

If the charge be a felony and there be no written plea of guilty or waiver of examination, or the court or magistrate refuses to receive such waiver, the court or magistrate, with the consent of the prosecutor and the accused, may set the matter for hearing forthwith, otherwise he shall set the matter for hearing at a fixed time in the future and shall notify both prosecutor and defendant promptly of such time of hearing.

Effective Date: 01-01-1960

2937.11 Conduct of preliminary hearing.

(A)

(1) As used in this section, "victim" includes any person who was a victim of a felony violation identified in division (B) of this section or a felony offense of violence or against whom was directed any conduct that constitutes, or that is an element of, a felony violation identified in division (B) of this section or a felony offense of violence.

(2) At the preliminary hearing set pursuant to section 2937.10 of the Revised Code and the Criminal Rules, the prosecutor may state, but is not required to state, orally the case for the state and shall then proceed to examine witnesses and introduce exhibits for the state. The accused and the magistrate have full right of cross examination, and the accused has the right of inspection of exhibits prior to their introduction. The hearing shall be conducted under the rules of evidence prevailing in criminal trials generally. On motion of either the state or the accused, witnesses shall be separated and not permitted in the hearing room except when called to testify.

(B) In a case involving an alleged felony violation of section 2905.05 , 2907.02 , 2907.03 , 2907.04 , 2907.05 , 2907.21 , 2907.24 , 2907.31 , 2907.32 , 2907.321 , 2907.322 , 2907.323 , or 2919.22 of the Revised Code or an alleged felony offense of violence and in which an alleged victim of the alleged violation or offense was less than thirteen years of age when the complaint or information was filed, whichever occurred earlier, upon motion of the prosecution, the testimony of the child victim at the preliminary hearing may be taken in a room other than the room in which the preliminary hearing is being conducted and be televised, by closed circuit equipment, into the room in which the preliminary hearing is being conducted, in accordance with division (C) of section 2945.481 of the Revised Code.

(C) In a case involving an alleged felony violation listed in division (B) of this section or an alleged felony offense of violence and in which an alleged victim of the alleged violation or offense was less than thirteen years of age when the complaint or information was filed, whichever occurred earlier, the court, on written motion of the prosecutor in the case filed at least three days prior to the hearing, shall order that all testimony of the child victim be recorded and preserved on videotape, in addition to being recorded for purposes of the transcript of the proceeding. If such an order is issued, it shall specifically identify the child victim concerning whose testimony it pertains, apply only during the testimony of the child victim it specifically identifies, and apply to all testimony of the child victim presented at the hearing, regardless of whether the child victim is called as a witness by the prosecution or by the defense.

Effective Date: 10-14-1997

2937.12 Preliminary hearing - presentation of case of accused.

(A) At the conclusion of the presentation of the state's case accused may move for discharge for failure of proof or may offer evidence on his own behalf. Prior to the offering of evidence on behalf of the accused, unless accused is then represented by counsel, the court or magistrate shall advise accused:

(1) That any testimony of witnesses offered by him in the proceeding may, if unfavorable in any particular, be used against him at later trial;

(2) That accused himself may make a statement, not under oath, regarding the charge, for the purpose of explaining the facts in evidence;

(3) That he may refuse to make any statement and such refusal may not be used against him at trials [trial];

(4) That any statement he makes may be used against him at trial.

(B) Upon conclusion of all the evidence and the statement, if any, of the accused, the court or magistrate shall either:

(1) Find that the crime alleged has been committed and that there is probable and reasonable cause to hold or recognize defendant to appear before the court of common pleas of the county or any other county in which venue appears, for trial pursuant to indictment by grand jury;

(2) Find that there is probable cause to hold or recognize defendant to appear before the court of common pleas for trial pursuant to indictment or information on such other charge, felony or misdemeanor, as the evidence indicates was committed by accused;

(3) Find that a misdemeanor was committed and there is probable cause to recognize accused to appear before himself or some other court inferior to the court of common pleas for trial upon such charge;

(4) Order the accused discharged from custody.

Effective Date: 01-01-1960

2937.13 Finding of presence of substantial credible evidence.

In entering a finding, pursuant to section 2937.12 of the Revised Code, the court, while weighing credibility of witness, shall not be required to pass on the weight of the evidence and any finding requiring accused to stand trial on any charge shall be based solely on the presence of substantial credible evidence thereof. No appeal shall lie from such decision nor shall the discharge of defendant be a bar to further prosecution by indictment or otherwise.

Effective Date: 01-01-1960

2937.14 Entering reason for change in charge on journal of court.

In any case in which accused is held or recognized to appear for trial on any charge other than the one on which he was arraigned the court or magistrate shall enter the reason for such charge on the journal of the court (if a court of record) or on the docket (if a court not of record) and shall file with the papers in the case the text of the charge found by him to be sustained by the evidence.

Effective Date: 01-01-1960

2937.15 Transcript of preliminary hearing.

Upon the conclusion of the hearing and finding, the magistrate, or if a court of record, the clerk of such court, shall complete all notations of appearance, motions, pleas, and findings on the criminal docket of the court, and shall transmit a transcript of the appearance docket entries, together with a copy of the original complaint and affidavits, if any, filed with the complaint, the journal or docket entry of reason for changes in the charge, if any, together with the order setting bail and the bail deposit, if any, filed, and together with the videotaped testimony, if any, prepared in accordance with division (C) of section 2937.11 of the Revised Code, to the clerk of the court in which the accused is to appear. Such transcript shall contain an itemized account of the costs accrued.

Effective Date: 10-14-1986

2937.16 When witnesses shall be recognized to appear.

When an accused enters into a recognizance or is committed in default thereof, the judge or magistrate shall require such witnesses against the prisoner as he finds necessary, to enter into a recognizance to appear and testify before the proper court at a proper time, and not depart from such court without leave. If the judge or magistrate finds it necessary he may require such witnesses to give sufficient surety to appear at such court.

Effective Date: 10-01-1953

2937.17 Recognizance for minor.

A person may be liable in a recognizance for a minor to appear as a witness, or the judge or magistrate may take the minor's recognizance, in a sufficient sum, which is valid notwithstanding the disability of minority.

Effective Date: 10-01-1953

2937.18 Commitment of witness refusing to give recognizance.

If a witness ordered to give recognizance fails to comply with such order, the judge or magistrate shall commit him to such custody or open or close detention as may be appropriate under the circumstances, until he complies with the order or is discharged. Commitment of the witness may be to the custody of any suitable person or public or private agency, or to an appropriate detention facility other than a jail, or to a jail, but the witness shall not be confined in association with prisoners charged with or convicted of crime. The witness, in lieu of the fee ordinarily allowed witnesses, shall be allowed twenty-five dollars for each day of custody or detention under such order, and shall be allowed mileage as provided for other witnesses, calculated on the distance from his home to the place of giving testimony and return. All proceedings in the case or cases in which the witness is held to appear shall be given priority over other cases and had with all due speed.

Effective Date: 03-23-1973

2937.19 Subpoenas or other process to bring witnesses or documents.

The magistrate or judge or clerk of the court in which proceedings are being had may issue subpoenas or other process to bring witnesses or documents before the magistrate or court in hearings pending before him either under Chapter 2937. or 2938. of the Revised Code.

In complaints to keep the peace a subpoena must be served within the county, or, in cases of misdemeanors and ordinance offenses, it may be served at any place in this state within one hundred miles of the place where the court or magistrate is scheduled to sit; in felony cases it may be served at any place within this state. In cases where such process is to be served outside the county, it may be issued to be served either by the bailiff or constable of the court or by a sheriff or police officer either by the county in which the court or magistrate sits or in which process is to be served.

Effective Date: 01-10-1961

2937.20 Amended and Renumbered RC 2701.031.

Effective Date: 11-20-1996

2937.21 Continuances.

No continuance at any stage of the proceeding, including that for determination of a motion, shall extend for more than ten days unless both the state and the accused consent thereto. Any continuance or delay in ruling contrary to the provisions of this section shall, unless procured by defendant or his counsel, be grounds for discharge of the defendant forthwith.

Effective Date: 01-01-1960

2937.22 Form of bail.

(A) Bail is security for the appearance of an accused to appear and answer to a specific criminal or quasi-criminal charge in any court or before any magistrate at a specific time or at any time to which a case may be continued, and not depart without leave. It may take any of the following forms:

(1) The deposit of cash by the accused or by some other person for the accused;

(2) The deposit by the accused or by some other person for the accused in form of bonds of the United States, this state, or any political subdivision thereof in a face amount equal to the sum set by the court or magistrate. In case of bonds not negotiable by delivery such bonds shall be properly endorsed for transfer.

(3) The written undertaking by one or more persons to forfeit the sum of money set by the court or magistrate, if the accused is in default for appearance, which shall be known as a recognizance.

(B) Whenever a person is charged with any offense other than a traffic offense that is not a moving violation and posts bail, the person shall pay a surcharge of twenty-five dollars. The clerk of the court shall retain the twenty-five dollars until the person is convicted, pleads guilty, forfeits bail, is found not guilty, or has the charges dismissed. If the person is convicted, pleads guilty, or forfeits bail, the clerk shall transmit the twenty-five dollars on or before the twentieth day of the month following the month in which the person was convicted, pleaded guilty, or forfeited bail to the treasurer of state, and the treasurer of state shall deposit it into the indigent defense support fund created under section 120.08 of the Revised Code. If the person is found not guilty or the charges are dismissed, the clerk shall return the twenty-five dollars to the person.

(C) All bail shall be received by the clerk of the court, deputy clerk of court, or by the magistrate, or by a special referee appointed by the supreme court pursuant to section 2937.46 of the Revised Code, and, except in cases of recognizances, receipt shall be given therefor .

(D) As used in this section, "moving violation" has the same meaning as in section 2743.70 of the Revised Code.

Amended by 128th General AssemblyFile No.9, HB 1, §101.01, eff. 10/16/2009.

Effective Date: 01-01-1960

2937.221 Deposit of driver's license as bond.

(A) A person arrested without warrant for any violation listed in division (B) of this section, and having a current valid Ohio driver's or commercial driver's license, if the person has been notified of the possible consequences of the person's actions as required by division (C) of this section, may post bond by depositing the license with the arresting officer if the officer and person so choose, or with the local court having jurisdiction if the court and person so choose. The license may be used as bond only during the period for which it is valid.

When an arresting officer accepts the driver's or commercial driver's license as bond, the officer shall note the date, time, and place of the court appearance on "the violator's notice to appear," and the notice shall serve as a valid Ohio driver's or commercial driver's license until the date and time appearing thereon. The arresting officer immediately shall forward the license to the appropriate court.

When a local court accepts the license as bond or continues the case to another date and time, it shall provide the person with a card in a form approved by the registrar of motor vehicles setting forth the license number, name, address, the date and time of the court appearance, and a statement that the license is being held as bond. The card shall serve as a valid license until the date and time contained in the card.

The court may accept other bond at any time and return the license to the person. The court shall return the license to the person when judgment is satisfied, including, but not limited to, compliance with any court orders, unless a suspension or cancellation is part of the penalty imposed.

Neither "the violator's notice to appear" nor a court- granted card shall continue driving privileges beyond the expiration date of the license.

If the person arrested fails to appear in court at the date and time set by the court or fails to satisfy the judgment of the court, including, but not limited to, compliance with all court orders within the time allowed by the court, the court may declare the forfeiture of the person's license. Thirty days after the declaration of the forfeiture, the court shall forward the person's license to the registrar. The court also shall enter information relative to the forfeiture on a form approved and furnished by the registrar and send the form to the registrar. The registrar shall suspend the person's license and send written notification of the suspension to the person at the person's last known address. No valid driver's or commercial driver's license shall be granted to the person until the court having jurisdiction orders that the forfeiture be terminated. The court shall inform the registrar of the termination of the forfeiture by entering information relative to the termination on a form approved and furnished by the registrar and sending the form to the registrar. Upon the termination, the person shall pay to the bureau of motor vehicles a reinstatement fee of fifteen dollars to cover the costs of the bureau in administering this section. The registrar shall deposit the fees so paid into the state bureau of motor vehicles fund created by section 4501.25 of the Revised Code.

In addition, upon receipt from the court of the copy of the declaration of forfeiture, neither the registrar nor any deputy registrar shall accept any application for the registration or transfer of registration of any motor vehicle owned by or leased in the name of the person named in the declaration of forfeiture until the court having jurisdiction over the offense that led to the suspension issues an order terminating the forfeiture. However, for a motor vehicle leased in the name of a person named in a declaration of forfeiture, the registrar shall not implement the preceding sentence until the registrar adopts procedures for that implementation under section 4503.39 of the Revised Code. Upon receipt by the registrar of such an order, the registrar also shall take the measures necessary to permit the person to register a motor vehicle the person owns or leases or to transfer the registration of a motor vehicle the person owns or leases if the person later makes a proper application and otherwise is eligible to be issued or to transfer a motor vehicle registration.

(B) Division (A) of this section applies to persons arrested for violation of:

(1) Any of the provisions of Chapter 4511. or 4513. of the Revised Code, except sections 4511.19, 4511.20, 4511.251, and 4513.36 of the Revised Code;

(2) Any municipal ordinance substantially similar to a section included in division (B)(1) of this section;

(3) Any bylaw, rule, or regulation of the Ohio turnpike and infrastructure commission substantially similar to a section included in division (B)(1) of this section.

Division (A) of this section does not apply to those persons issued a citation for the commission of a minor misdemeanor under section 2935.26 of the Revised Code.

(C) No license shall be accepted as bond by an arresting officer or by a court under this section until the officer or court has notified the person that, if the person deposits the license with the officer or court and either does not appear on the date and at the time set by the officer or the court, if the court sets a time, or does not satisfy any judgment rendered, including, but not limited to, compliance with all court orders, the license will be suspended, and the person will not be eligible for reissuance of the license or issuance of a new license, or the issuance of a certificate of registration for a motor vehicle owned or leased by the person until the person appears and complies with any order issued by the court. The person also is subject to any criminal penalties that may apply to the person.

(D) The registrar shall not restore the person's driving or vehicle registration privileges until the person pays the reinstatement fee as provided in this section.

Amended by 130th General Assembly File No. 7, HB 51, §101.01, eff. 7/1/2013.

Effective Date: 01-01-2004; 09-16-2004

2937.222 Hearing on bail - grounds for denying.

(A) On the motion of the prosecuting attorney or on the judge's own motion, the judge shall hold a hearing to determine whether an accused person charged with aggravated murder when it is not a capital offense, murder, a felony of the first or second degree, a violation of section 2903.06 of the Revised Code, a violation of section 2903.211 of the Revised Code that is a felony, or a felony OVI offense shall be denied bail. The judge shall order that the accused be detained until the conclusion of the hearing. Except for good cause, a continuance on the motion of the state shall not exceed three court days. Except for good cause, a continuance on the motion of the accused shall not exceed five court days unless the motion of the accused waives in writing the five-day limit and states in writing a specific period for which the accused requests a continuance. A continuance granted upon a motion of the accused that waives in writing the five-day limit shall not exceed five court days after the period of continuance requested in the motion.

At the hearing, the accused has the right to be represented by counsel and, if the accused is indigent, to have counsel appointed. The judge shall afford the accused an opportunity to testify, to present witnesses and other information, and to cross-examine witnesses who appear at the hearing. The rules concerning admissibility of evidence in criminal trials do not apply to the presentation and consideration of information at the hearing. Regardless of whether the hearing is being held on the motion of the prosecuting attorney or on the court's own motion, the state has the burden of proving that the proof is evident or the presumption great that the accused committed the offense with which the accused is charged, of proving that the accused poses a substantial risk of serious physical harm to any person or to the community, and of proving that no release conditions will reasonably assure the safety of that person and the community.

The judge may reopen the hearing at any time before trial if the judge finds that information exists that was not known to the movant at the time of the hearing and that that information has a material bearing on whether bail should be denied. If a municipal court or county court enters an order denying bail, a judge of the court of common pleas having jurisdiction over the case may continue that order or may hold a hearing pursuant to this section to determine whether to continue that order.

(B) No accused person shall be denied bail pursuant to this section unless the judge finds by clear and convincing evidence that the proof is evident or the presumption great that the accused committed the offense described in division (A) of this section with which the accused is charged, finds by clear and convincing evidence that the accused poses a substantial risk of serious physical harm to any person or to the community, and finds by clear and convincing evidence that no release conditions will reasonably assure the safety of that person and the community.

(C) The judge, in determining whether the accused person described in division (A) of this section poses a substantial risk of serious physical harm to any person or to the community and whether there are conditions of release that will reasonably assure the safety of that person and the community, shall consider all available information regarding all of the following:

(1) The nature and circumstances of the offense charged, including whether the offense is an offense of violence or involves alcohol or a drug of abuse;

(2) The weight of the evidence against the accused;

(3) The history and characteristics of the accused, including, but not limited to, both of the following:

(a) The character, physical and mental condition, family ties, employment, financial resources, length of residence in the community, community ties, past conduct, history relating to drug or alcohol abuse, and criminal history of the accused;

(b) Whether, at the time of the current alleged offense or at the time of the arrest of the accused, the accused was on probation, parole, post-release control, or other release pending trial, sentencing, appeal, or completion of sentence for the commission of an offense under the laws of this state, another state, or the United States or under a municipal ordinance.

(4) The nature and seriousness of the danger to any person or the community that would be posed by the person's release.

(D)

(1) An order of the court of common pleas denying bail pursuant to this section is a final appealable order. In an appeal pursuant to division (D) of this section, the court of appeals shall do all of the following:

(a) Give the appeal priority on its calendar;

(b) Liberally modify or dispense with formal requirements in the interest of a speedy and just resolution of the appeal;

(c) Decide the appeal expeditiously;

(d) Promptly enter its judgment affirming or reversing the order denying bail.

(2) The pendency of an appeal under this section does not deprive the court of common pleas of jurisdiction to conduct further proceedings in the case or to further consider the order denying bail in accordance with this section. If, during the pendency of an appeal under division (D) of this section, the court of common pleas sets aside or terminates the order denying bail, the court of appeals shall dismiss the appeal.

(E) As used in this section:

(1) "Court day" has the same meaning as in section 5122.01 of the Revised Code.

(2) "Felony OVI offense" means a third degree felony OVI offense and a fourth degree felony OVI offense.

(3) "Fourth degree felony OVI offense" and "third degree felony OVI offense" have the same meanings as in section 2929.01 of the Revised Code.

Effective Date: 01-01-2004

2937.23 Bail amount.

(A)

(1) In a case involving a felony or a violation of section 2903.11 , 2903.12 , or 2903.13 of the Revised Code when the victim of the offense is a peace officer, the judge or magistrate shall fix the amount of bail.

(2) In a case involving a misdemeanor or a violation of a municipal ordinance and not involving a felony or a violation of section 2903.11 , 2903.12 , or 2903.13 of the Revised Code when the victim of the offense is a peace officer, the judge, magistrate, or clerk of the court may fix the amount of bail and may do so in accordance with a schedule previously fixed by the judge or magistrate. If the judge, magistrate, or clerk of the court is not readily available, the sheriff, deputy sheriff, marshal, deputy marshal, police officer, or jailer having custody of the person charged may fix the amount of bail in accordance with a schedule previously fixed by the judge or magistrate and shall take the bail only in the county courthouse, the municipal or township building, or the county or municipal jail.

(3) In all cases, the bail shall be fixed with consideration of the seriousness of the offense charged, the previous criminal record of the defendant, and the probability of the defendant appearing at the trial of the case.

(B) In any case involving an alleged violation of section 2903.211 of the Revised Code or of a municipal ordinance that is substantially similar to that section, the court shall determine whether it will order an evaluation of the mental condition of the defendant pursuant to section 2919.271 of the Revised Code and, if it decides to so order, shall issue the order requiring the evaluation before it sets bail for the person charged with the violation. In any case involving an alleged violation of section 2919.27 of the Revised Code or of a municipal ordinance that is substantially similar to that section and in which the court finds that either of the following criteria applies, the court shall determine whether it will order an evaluation of the mental condition of the defendant pursuant to section 2919.271 of the Revised Code and, if it decides to so order, shall issue the order requiring that evaluation before it sets bail for the person charged with the violation:

(1) Regarding an alleged violation of a protection order issued or consent agreement approved pursuant to section 2919.26 or 3113.31 of the Revised Code, that the violation allegedly involves conduct by the defendant that caused physical harm to the person or property of a family or household member covered by the order or agreement or conduct by that defendant that caused a family or household member to believe that the defendant would cause physical harm to that member or that member's property;

(2) Regarding an alleged violation of a protection order issued pursuant to section 2903.213 or 2903.214 of the Revised Code, or a protection order issued by a court of another state, as defined in section 2919.27 of the Revised Code, that the violation allegedly involves conduct by the defendant that caused physical harm to the person or property of the person covered by the order or conduct by that defendant that caused the person covered by the order to believe that the defendant would cause physical harm to that person or that person's property.

(C) As used in this section, "peace officer" has the same meaning as in section 2935.01 of the Revised Code.

Effective Date: 02-09-2000

2937.24 Oath to surety - form of affidavit.

When a recognizance is offered under section 2937.22 of the Revised Code, the surety on which recognizance qualifies as a real property owner, the judge or magistrate shall require such surety to pledge to this state real property owned by the surety and located in this state. Whenever such pledge of real property has been given by any such proposed surety, he shall execute the usual form of recognizance, and in addition thereto there shall be filed his affidavit of justification of suretyship, to be attached to said recognizance as a part thereof. The surety may be required in such affidavit to depose as to whether he is, at the time of executing the same, surety upon any other recognizance and as to whether there are any unsatisfied judgments or executions against him. He may also be required to state any other fact which the court thinks relevant and material to a correct determination of the surety's sufficiency to act as bail. Such surety shall state in such affidavit where notices under section 2937.38 of the Revised Code may be served on himself, and service of notice of summons at such place is sufficient service for all purposes.

Such affidavit shall be executed by the proposed surety under an oath and may be in the following form:

"State of Ohio, County of . . . . . . . . . . ., ss:

. . . . . . . . . . . . residing at . . . . . . . . . . . ., who offers himself as surety for . . . . . . . . . . . . being first duly sworn, says that he owns in his own legal right, real property subject to execution, located in the county of . . . . . . . . . . . ., State of Ohio, consisting of . . . . . . . . . . and described as follows to wit: . . . . . . . . . .; that the title to the same is in his own name; that the value of the same is not less than . . . . . . . . . . dollars, and is subject to no encumbrances whatever except . . . . . . .; that he is not surety upon any unpaid or forfeited recognizance, and that he is not a party to any unsatisfied judgment upon any recognizance; that he is worth not less than . . . . . . . . . . dollars over and above all debts, liabilities, and lawful claims against him, and all liens, encumbrances, and lawful claims against his property."

Effective Date: 10-01-1953

2937.25 Lien - form.

Upon the execution of any recognizance in an amount in excess of two hundred dollars in the usual form, and an affidavit of justification under section 2937.24 of the Revised Code, there shall attach to the real property described in said affidavit of justification, a lien in favor of this state in the penal sum of the recognizance, which lien shall remain in full force and effect during such time as such recognizance remains effective, or until further order of the court. Upon the acceptance by the judge or magistrate of such recognizance, containing such affidavit of justification, the said recognizance shall be immediately filed with the clerk of said court, if there is a clerk, or with the magistrate. The clerk of the court or the magistrate shall forthwith, upon the filing with him of such recognizance, file with the county recorder of the county in which such real property is located, a notice or lien, in writing, in substance as follows:

"To whom it may concern:

Take notice that the hereinafter described real property, located in the county of . . . . . . ., has been pledged for the sum of . . . . . . . dollars, to the state of Ohio, by . . . . . . . . surety upon the recognizance of . . . . . . . in a certain cause pending in the . . . . . . . . . court of the county (or city) of . . . . . . ., to wit: the state of Ohio, plaintiff, versus . . . . . . . . defendant, known and identified in such court as cause No. . . ..

Description of real estate: . . . . . . . Clerk of the court for the county of . . . . . . . or . . . . . . . Magistrate.

Dated . . . . . . . . . . . ."

From the time of the filing and recording of such notice it is notice to everyone that the real property therein described has been pledged to this state as security for the performance of the conditions of a criminal recognizance in the penal sum set forth in said recognizance and notice. Such lien does not affect the validity of prior liens on said property.

Effective Date: 10-01-1953

2937.26 Cancellation of lien - form.

Whenever, by the order of a court, a recognizance under sections 2937.24 and 2937.25 of the Revised Code has been canceled, discharged, or set aside, or the cause in which such recognizance is taken has been dismissed or otherwise terminated the clerk of such court shall forthwith file with the county recorder of the county in which the real property is located, a notice of discharge in writing, in substance as follows:

"To whom it may concern:

Take notice that by the order of the court of . . . . . . . . (naming court) . . . . . . . . . of the county (or city) of . . . . . . . . . . ., the recognizance of . . . . . . . as principal, and . . . . . . . as surety, given in the cause of the State of Ohio, plaintiff, versus . . . . . . . . . ., defendant, known and identified as Cause No. . . . . . . . . . in said court, is canceled, discharged, and set aside, and the lien of the State of Ohio on the real property therein pledged as security, is hereby waived, discharged, and set aside.

. . . . . . . . . . Clerk of the court.

Dated . . . . . . . . . ."

Effective Date: 10-01-1953

2937.27 Duties of county recorder.

The county recorder of the county in which the property of a surety on a recognizance is located, shall keep and file in the official records all notices of lien and notices of discharge that are filed with the county recorder pursuant to section 2937.26 of the Revised Code. When a lien has been released or discharged for a period of one year, the county recorder may destroy all notices of such lien. The county recorder may use any nonpaper electronic or magnetic medium specified in section 9.01 of the Revised Code to record the notices of lien and the notices of discharge. If the county recorder wishes to dispose of paper versions of the notices because they are no longer needed in that format, the county recorder shall request the county records commission to revise the county's schedule of records retention and disposal in accordance with section 149.38 of the Revised Code to provide for the disposal of those paper records.

Amended by 130th General Assembly File No. 41, HB 72, §1, eff. 1/30/2014.

Effective Date: 10-26-1961

2937.28 Pledge of real property as bail.

All recognizances shall be returnable to and all deposits shall be held by or subject to the order of the court or magistrate before whom the accused is to appear initially, and upon the transfer of the case to any other court or magistrate shall be returnable to and transmitted to the transferee court or magistrate.

It is not necessary for the accused to give new recognizance for appearance in common pleas court for arraignment upon indictment or pending appeal after judgment and sentence, unless the magistrate or judge of the trial court or the court to which appeal is taken, shall, for good cause shown, increase or decrease the amount of the recognizance, but such recognizance shall continue and be in full force until trial and appeal therefrom is finally determined. When two or more charges are filed, or indictments returned, against the same person at or about the same time, the recognizance given may be made to include all offenses charged against the accused.

Effective Date: 01-01-1960

2937.281 Recognizance forms.

In cases of felony, the recognizance shall be signed by the accused and one or more adult residents of the county in which the case is pending, who shall own, in the aggregate, real property double the amount set as bail, over and above all encumbrances and liable to execution in at least that amount; or it may be signed by the accused and a surety company authorized to do business in this state.

In cases of misdemeanor, the recognizance may be signed by the accused and one or more adult residents, qualified as set forth above or as to personal property ownership, by the accused and surety company, or, if authorized by judge or magistrate, by the accused alone. In cases of misdemeanors arising under Chapters 4501., 4503., 4505., 4507., 4509., 4511., 4513., 4517., and 4549. of the Revised Code, and related ordinance offenses (except those of driving under the influence of intoxicating liquor or controlled substances and leaving the scene of an accident) the court or magistrate shall accept guaranteed arrest bond with respect to which a surety company has become surety as provided in section 3929.141 of the Revised Code in lieu of cash bail in an amount not to exceed two hundred dollars.

Effective Date: 07-01-1976

2937.29 Release on own recognizance.

When from all the circumstances the court is of the opinion that the accused will appear as required, either before or after conviction, the accused may be released on his own recognizance. A failure to appear as required by such recognizance shall constitute an offense subject to the penalty provided in section 2937.99 of the Revised Code.

Effective Date: 08-10-1965

2937.30 Recognizance when accused discharged.

When a defendant is discharged by the trial court otherwise than on a verdict or finding of acquittal, or when the appellate court reverses a conviction and orders the discharge of the defendant and the state or municipality signifies its intention to appeal therefrom, or the record is certified to the supreme court, the defendant shall not be discharged if he is in jail, nor the surety discharged or deposit released if the defendant is on bail, but the trial court, or the court to which appeal is taken may make order for his release on his own recognizance or bail, or recommit him.

Effective Date: 01-01-1960

2937.31 Recognizance or deposit for appearance of accused.

If an accused is held to answer and offers sufficient bail, a recognizance or deposit shall be taken for his appearance to answer the charge before such magistrate or before such court to which proceedings may be transferred pursuant to Chapter 2937. of the Revised Code, at a date certain, or from day to day, or in case of the common pleas court on the first day of the next term thereof, and not depart without leave.

Effective Date: 01-01-1960

2937.32 Detention where bail not granted or sufficient bail not offered.

If an offense is not bailable, if the court denies bail to the accused, or if the accused does not offer sufficient bail, the court shall order the accused to be detained.

Effective Date: 07-29-1999

2937.33 Receipt of recognizance.

When a transcript or [of] recognizance is received by the clerk of the court of common pleas, or of any court of record to which proceedings are transferred, he shall enter the same upon the appearance docket of the court, with the date of the filing of such transcript or recognizance, the date and amount of the recognizance, the names of the sureties, and the costs. Such recognizance is then of record in such court, and is proceeded on by process issuing therefrom, in a like manner as if it had been entered into before such court. When a court having recognizance of an offense takes a recognizance, it is a sufficient record thereof to enter upon the journal of such court the title of the case, the crime charged, the names of the sureties, the amount of the recognizance, and the time therein required for the appearance of the accused. In making the complete record, when required to be made, recognizances whether returned to or taken in such court shall be recorded in full, if required by the prosecutor or the accused.

Effective Date: 01-01-1960

2937.34 Accused unlawfully detained - examining court to be held.

When a person is committed to jail, charged with an offense for which he has not been indicted, and claims to be unlawfully detained, the sheriff on demand of the accused or his counsel shall forthwith notify the court of common pleas, and the prosecuting attorney, to attend an examining court, the time of which shall be fixed by the judge. The judge shall hear said cause or complaint, examine the witnesses, and make such order as the justice of the case requires, and for such purpose the court may admit to bail, release without bond, or recommit to jail in accordance with the commitment. In the absence of the judge of the court of common pleas, the probate judge shall hold such examining court.

Effective Date: 10-01-1953

2937.35 Forfeiture of bail.

Upon the failure of the accused or witness to appear in accordance with its terms the bail may in open court be adjudged forfeit, in whole or in part by the court or magistrate before whom he is to appear. But such court or magistrate may, in its discretion, continue the cause to a later date certain, giving notice of such date to him and the bail depositor or sureties, and adjudge the bail forfeit upon failure to appear at such later date.

Effective Date: 01-01-1960

2937.36 Forfeiture of bail proceedings.

Upon declaration of forfeiture, the magistrate or clerk of the court adjudging forfeiture shall proceed as follows:

(A) As to each bail, the magistrate or clerk shall proceed forthwith to deal with the sum deposited as if the same were imposed as a fine for the offense charged and distribute and account for the same accordingly provided that prior to so doing, the magistrate or clerk may satisfy accrued costs in the case out of the fund.

(B) As to any securities deposited, the magistrate or clerk shall proceed to sell the same, either at public sale advertised in the same manner as sale on chattel execution, or through any state or national bank performing such service upon the over the counter securities market and shall apply proceeds of sale, less costs or brokerage thereof as in cases of forfeited cash bail. Prior to such sale, the clerk shall give notices by ordinary mail to the depositor, at the depositor's address listed of record, if any, of the intention so to do, and such sale shall not proceed if the depositor, within ten days of mailing of such notice appears, and redeems said securities by either producing the body of the defendant in open court or posting the amount set in the recognizance in cash, to be dealt with as forfeited cash bail.

(C) As to recognizances the magistrate or clerk shall notify the accused and each surety within fifteen days after the declaration of the forfeiture by ordinary mail at the address shown by them in their affidavits of qualification or on the record of the case, of the default of the accused and the adjudication of forfeiture and require each of them to show cause on or before a date certain to be stated in the notice, and which shall be not less than forty-five nor more than sixty days from the date of mailing notice, why judgment should not be entered against each of them for the penalty stated in the recognizance. If good cause by production of the body of the accused or otherwise is not shown, the court or magistrate shall thereupon enter judgment against the sureties or either of them, so notified, in such amount, not exceeding the penalty of the bond, as has been set in the adjudication of forfeiture, and shall award execution therefor as in civil cases. The proceeds of sale shall be received by the clerk or magistrate and distributed as on forfeiture of cash bail.

Amended by 129th General AssemblyFile No.29, HB 86, §1, eff. 9/30/2011.

Effective Date: 01-01-1960

2937.37 Levy on personal property in judgment against surety.

A magistrate or court of record inferior to the court of common pleas may proceed to judgment against a surety on a recognizance, and levy on his personal property, notwithstanding that the bond may exceed the monetary limitations on the jurisdiction of such court in civil cases, and jurisdiction over the person of surety shall attach from the mailing of the notice specified in section 2937.36 of the Revised Code, notwithstanding that such surety may not be within the territorial jurisdiction of the court; but levy on real property shall be made only through issuance, return, and levy made under certificate of judgment issued to the clerk of the court of common pleas pursuant to section 2329.02 of the Revised Code.

Effective Date: 01-01-1960

2937.38 Forfeiture of bail proceedings - minority no defense.

In any matter in which a minor is admitted to bail pursuant to Chapter 2937 of the Revised Code, the minority of the accused shall not be available as a defense to judgment against principal or surety, or against the sale of securities or transfer of cash bail, upon forfeiture.

Effective Date: 01-01-1960

2937.39 Remitting all or part of penalty.

After judgment has been rendered against surety or after securities sold or cash bail applied, the court or magistrate, on the appearance, surrender, or rearrest of the accused on the charge, may remit all or such portion of the penalty as it deems just and in the case of previous application and transfer of cash or proceeds, the magistrate or clerk may deduct an amount equal to the amount so transferred from subsequent payments to the agencies receiving such proceeds of forfeiture until the amount is recouped for the benefit of the person or persons entitled thereto under order or remission.

Effective Date: 01-01-1960

2937.40 Discharge and release of bail and sureties.

(A) Bail of any type that is deposited under sections 2937.22 to 2937.45 of the Revised Code or Criminal Rule 46 by a person other than the accused shall be discharged and released, and sureties on recognizances shall be released, in any of the following ways:

(1) When a surety on a recognizance or the depositor of cash or securities as bail for an accused desires to surrender the accused before the appearance date, the surety is discharged from further responsibility or the deposit is redeemed in either of the following ways:

(a) By delivery of the accused into open court;

(b) When, on the written request of the surety or depositor, the clerk of the court to which recognizance is returnable or in which deposit is made issues to the sheriff a warrant for the arrest of the accused and the sheriff indicates on the return that he holds the accused in his jail.

(2) By appearance of the accused in accordance with the terms of the recognizance or deposit and the entry of judgment by the court or magistrate;

(3) By payment into court, after default, of the sum fixed in the recognizance or the sum fixed in the order of forfeiture, if it is less.

(B) When cash or securities have been deposited as bail by a person other than the accused and the bail is discharged and released pursuant to division (A) of this section, or when property has been pledged by a surety on recognizance and the surety on recognizance has been released pursuant to division (A) of this section, the court shall not deduct any amount from the cash or securities or declare forfeited and levy or execute against pledged property. The court shall not apply any of the deposited cash or securities toward, or declare forfeited and levy or execute against property pledged for a recognizance for, the satisfaction of any penalty or fine, and court costs, assessed against the accused upon his conviction or guilty plea, except upon express approval of the person who deposited the cash or securities or the surety.

(C) Bail of any type that is deposited under sections 2937.22 to 2937.45 of the Revised Code or Criminal Rule 46 by an accused shall be discharged and released to the accused, and property pledged by an accused for a recognizance shall be discharged, upon the appearance of the accused in accordance with the terms of the recognizance or deposit and the entry of judgment by the court or magistrate, except that, if the defendant is not indigent, the court may apply deposited bail toward the satisfaction of a penalty or fine, and court costs, assessed against the accused upon his conviction or guilty plea, and may declare forfeited and levy or execute against pledged property for the satisfaction of a penalty or fine, and court costs, assessed against the accused upon his conviction or guilty plea.

(D) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, an Ohio driver's or commercial driver's license that is deposited as bond may be forfeited and otherwise handled as provided in section 2937.221 of the Revised Code.

Effective Date: 11-28-1990

2937.41 Discharge of recognizance.

On the discharge of bail, the magistrate or clerk of the court shall return, subject to division (B) or (C) of section 2937.40 of the Revised Code, deposited cash or securities to the depositor, but the magistrate or clerk of the court may require presentation of an issued original receipt as a condition to the return. In the case of discharged recognizances, subject to division (B) or (C) of section 2937.40 of the Revised Code, the magistrate or clerk of the court shall endorse the satisfaction on the recognizance and shall forthwith transmit to the county recorder the notice of discharge provided for in section 2937.26 of the Revised Code.

Effective Date: 05-13-1980

2937.42 Defect in form of recognizance.

Forfeiture of a recognizance shall not be barred or defeated or a judgment thereon reversed by the neglect or omission to note or record the default, or by a defect in the form of such recognizance, if it appears from the tenor thereof at what court the party or witness was bound to appear and that the court or officer before whom it was taken was authorized to require and take such recognizance.

Effective Date: 01-01-1960

2937.43 Issuance of warrant upon failure to appear.

Should the accused fail to appear as required, after having been released pursuant to section 2937.29 of the Revised Code, the court having jurisdiction at the time of such failure may, in addition to any other action provided by law, issue a warrant for the arrest of such accused.

Effective Date: 08-10-1965

2937.44 Recognizance forms.

Recognizances substantially in the forms following are sufficient:

RECOGNIZANCE OF THE ACCUSED

The State of Ohio, . . . . . . . County, ss:

Be it remembered, that on the . . . . . . . . . . . day of. . . . . ., in the year . . . . E. F. and G. H. personally appeared before me, and jointly and severally acknowledged themselves to owe the state of Ohio, the sum of . . . . . . dollars, to be levied on their goods, chattels, lands, and tenements, if default is made in the condition following, to wit:

The condition of this recognizance is such that if the above bound E. F. personally appears before the court of common pleas on the first day of the next term thereof, then and there to answer a charge of (here name the offense with which the accused is charged) and abide the judgment of the court and not depart without leave, then this recognizance shall be void; otherwise it shall be and remain in full force and virtue in law.

Taken and acknowledged before me, on the day and year above written.

A. B., Judge

RECOGNIZANCE OF WITNESS

The State of Ohio, . . . . . . . . County, ss:

Be it remembered, that on the . . . . . . . . . day of . . . . . . ., in the year . . . . . . . . . . E. F. and G. H. personally appeared before me and jointly and severally acknowledged themselves to owe the state of Ohio, the sum of . . . . . . dollars, to be levied on their goods, chattels, lands, and tenements, if default is made in the condition following, to wit:

The condition of this recognizance is such that if the above bound E. F. personally appears before the court of common pleas on the first day of the next term thereof then and there to give evidence on behalf of the state, touching such matters as shall then and there be required of him, and not depart the court without leave, then this recognizance shall be void, otherwise it shall remain in full force and virtue in law.

Taken and acknowledged before me, on the day and year above written.

A. B., Judge

TO KEEP THE PEACE

The State of Ohio, . . . . . . . . County, ss:

Be it remembered, that on the . . . . . . . . day of . . . . . . . ., in the year . . . . E. F. and G. H. personally appeared before me, and jointly and severally acknowledged themselves to owe the state of Ohio, the sum of . . . . . . dollars, to be levied on their goods, chattels, lands, and tenements, if default is made in the condition following, to wit:

The condition of this recognizance is such that if the above bound E. F. personally appears before the court of common pleas, on the first day of the next term thereof, then and there to answer unto a complaint of C. D. that he has reason to fear, and does fear, that the said E. F. will (here state the charge in the complaint), and abide the order of the court thereon, and in the meantime to keep the peace and be of good behavior toward the citizens of the state generally, and especially toward the said C. D., then this recognizance shall be void; otherwise it shall be and remain in full force and virtue in law.

Taken and acknowledged before me, on the day and year above written.

A. B., Judge

Effective Date: 01-01-1958

2937.45 Commitment forms.

Commitments substantially in the forms following are sufficient:

COMMITMENT AFTER EXAMINATION

The State of Ohio, . . . . . . . . . County, ss:

To the Keeper of the Jail of the County aforesaid, greeting:

Whereas, E. F. has been arrested, on the oath of C. D., for (here describe the offense), and has been examined by me on such charge, and required to give bail in the sum of . . . . . . dollars for his appearance before the court of common pleas with which requisition he has failed to comply. Therefore, in the name of the state of Ohio, I command you to receive the said E. F. into your custody, in the jail of the county aforesaid, there to remain until discharged by due course of law.

Given under my hand, this . . . . . . day of . . . . . . .

A. B., Judge

COMMITMENT PENDING EXAMINATION

The State of Ohio, . . . . . . . . County, ss:

To the Keeper of the Jail of the County aforesaid, greeting:

Whereas, E. F. has been arrested on the oath of C. D., for (here describe the offense) and has been brought before me for examination and the same has been necessarily postponed by reason of (here state the cause of delay). Therefore, I command you, in the name of the state of Ohio, to receive the said E. F. into your custody in the jail of the county aforesaid (or in such other place as the justice shall name) there to remain until discharged by due course of law.

Given under my hand, this . . . . . . day of . . . . . . .

A. B., Judge

Effective Date: 01-01-1958

2937.46 Uniform rules for practice and procedure in traffic cases.

(A) The supreme court of Ohio, in the interest of uniformity of procedure in the various courts and for the purpose of promoting prompt and efficient disposition of cases arising under the traffic laws of this state and related ordinances, may make uniform rules for practice and procedure in courts inferior to the court of common pleas not inconsistent with the provisions of Chapter 2937. of the Revised Code, including, but not limited to:

(1) Separation of arraignment and trial of traffic and other types of cases;

(2) Consolidation of cases for trial;

(3) Transfer of cases within the same county for the purpose of trial;

(4) Designation of special referees for hearings or for receiving pleas or bail at times when courts are not in session;

(5) Fixing of reasonable bonds, and disposition of cases in which bonds have been forfeited.

(B) Except as otherwise specified in division (N) of section 4511.19 of the Revised Code, all of the rules described in division (A) of this section, when promulgated by the supreme court, shall be fully binding on all courts inferior to the court of common pleas and on the court of common pleas in relation to felony violations of division (A) of section 4511.19 of the Revised Code and shall effect a cancellation of any local court rules inconsistent with the supreme court's rules.

Effective Date: 01-01-2004; 08-17-2006

2937.99 Penalty.

(A) No person shall fail to appear as required, after having been released pursuant to section 2937.29 of the Revised Code. Whoever violates this section is guilty of failure to appear and shall be punished as set forth in division (B) or (C) of this section.

(B) If the release was in connection with a felony charge or pending appeal after conviction of a felony, failure to appear is a felony of the fourth degree.

(C) If the release was in connection with a misdemeanor charge or for appearance as a witness, failure to appear is a misdemeanor of the first degree.

(D) This section does not apply to misdemeanors and related ordinance offenses arising under Chapters 4501., 4503., 4505., 4507., 4509., 4510., 4511., 4513., 4517., 4549., and 5577. of the Revised Code, except that this section does apply to violations of sections 4511.19 , 4549.02 , and 4549.021 of the Revised Code and ordinance offenses related to sections 4511.19 , 4549.02 , and 4549.021 of the Revised Code.

Effective Date: 01-01-2004