Chapter 3791: BUILDING STANDARDS - OFFENSES AND PENALTIES

3791.01 Prohibited acts generally.

No owners, officers, member of a board or committee, or other person shall construct, erect, build, or equip an opera house, hall, theater, church, schoolhouse, college, academy, seminary, infirmary, sanitarium, children's home, hospital, medical institute, asylum, memorial building, armory, assembly hall, or other building used for the assemblage or betterment of people in any municipal corporation, county, or township in this state, or make any addition thereto or alteration thereof, except in case of repairs for maintenance without affecting the construction, sanitation, safety, or other vital feature of said building or structure, without complying with Chapters 3781. and 3791. of the Revised Code or rules or regulations adopted pursuant thereto.

No architect, builder, engineer, plumber, carpenter, mason, contractor, subcontractor, foreman, or employee shall violate or assist in violating such chapters.

Cite as R.C. § 3791.01

Effective Date: 10-24-1975

3791.02 Failure to obey order prohibited.

No owner, or person having the control as an officer or member of a board or committee or otherwise of any opera house, hall, theater, church, schoolhouse, college, academy, seminary, infirmary, sanitarium, children's home, hospital, medical institute, asylum, memorial building, armory, assembly hall, or other building for the assemblage or betterment of people shall fail to obey any order of the state fire marshal, boards of health of city and general health districts, the building inspector or commissioner in cities having a building inspection department, or the superintendent of industrial compliance in the department of commerce under Chapters 3781. and 3791. of the Revised Code or rules or regulations adopted pursuant thereto.

Whoever violates this section shall be fined not more than one thousand dollars.

Cite as R.C. § 3791.02

Amended by 129th General AssemblyFile No.127, HB 487, §101.01, eff. 9/10/2012.

Amended by 128th General AssemblyFile No.9, HB 1, §101.01, eff. 10/16/2009.

Effective Date: 09-26-1996

3791.03 General prohibition - fine.

No architect, engineer, builder, plumber, carpenter, mason, contractor, subcontractor, foreman, or employee shall violate or assist in the violation of Chapters 3781. and 3791. of the Revised Code or rules or regulations adopted pursuant thereto or of any order issued thereunder.

Whoever violates this section shall be fined not more than one thousand dollars.

Cite as R.C. § 3791.03

Effective Date: 10-24-1975

3791.031 No smoking area in place of public assembly required.

(A) As used in this section, "place of public assembly" means:

(1) Enclosed theatres, except the lobby; opera houses; auditoriums; classrooms; elevators; rooms in which persons are confined as a matter of health care, including but not limited to a hospital room and a room in a residential care facility serving as the residence of a person living in such residential care facility;

(2) All buildings and other enclosed structures owned by the state, its agencies, or political subdivisions, including but not limited to hospitals and state institutions for the mentally retarded and the mentally ill; university and college buildings, except rooms within those buildings used primarily as the residences of students or other persons affiliated with the university or college; office buildings; libraries; museums; and vehicles used in public transportation. That portion of a building or other enclosed structure that is owned by the state, a state agency, or a political subdivision and that is used primarily as a food service establishment is not a place of public assembly.

(3) Each portion of a building or enclosed structure that is not included in division (A)(1) or (2) of this section is a place of public assembly if it has a seating capacity of fifty or more persons and is available to the public. Restaurants, food service establishments, dining rooms, cafes, cafeterias, or other rooms used primarily for the service of food, as well as bowling alleys and places licensed by the division of liquor control to sell intoxicating beverages for consumption on the premises, are not places of public assembly.

(B) For the purpose of separating persons who smoke from persons who do not smoke for the comfort and health of persons not smoking, in every place of public assembly there shall be an area where smoking is not permitted, which shall be designated a no smoking area; provided that, no more than one-half of the rooms in any health care facility in which persons are confined as a matter of health care may be designated as smoking areas in their entirety. The designation shall be made before the place of public assembly is made available to the public. In places included in division (A)(1) of this section, the local fire authority having jurisdiction shall designate the no smoking area. In places included in division (A)(2) of this section that are owned by the state or its agencies, except the capitol square, the director of administrative services shall designate the area, and if the place is owned by a political subdivision, its legislative authority shall designate an officer who shall designate the area. The house rules committee shall designate the no smoking areas in all capitol square spaces used by the house of representatives; the senate rules committee shall designate the no smoking areas in all capitol square spaces used by the senate and the legislative service commission; the capitol square review and advisory board shall designate the no smoking areas in all other spaces in the capitol square. In places included in division (A)(3) of this section, the person having control of the operations of the place of public assembly shall designate the no smoking area. In places included in division (A)(2) of this section which are also included in division (A)(1) of this section, the officer who has authority to designate the area in places in division (A)(2) of this section shall designate the no smoking area. A no smoking area may include the entire place of public assembly. Designations shall be made by the placement of signs that are clearly visible and that state "no smoking." No person shall remove signs from areas designated as no smoking areas.

(C) This section does not affect or modify the prohibition contained in division (B) of section 3313.751 of the Revised Code.

(D) No person shall smoke in any area designated as a no smoking area in accordance with division (B) of this section.

(E) Whoever violates this section is guilty of a minor misdemeanor.

Cite as R.C. § 3791.031

Effective Date: 07-01-1997

3791.04 Submission of plan - approvals - prohibition - fine.

(A)

(1) Before beginning the construction, erection, or manufacture of any building to which section 3781.06 of the Revised Code applies, including all industrialized units, the owner of that building, in addition to any other submission required by law, shall submit plans or drawings, specifications, and data prepared for the construction, erection, equipment, alteration, or addition that indicate the portions that have been approved pursuant to section 3781.12 of the Revised Code and for which no further approval is required, to the municipal, township, or county building department having jurisdiction unless one of the following applies:

(a) If no municipal, township, or county building department certified for nonresidential buildings pursuant to division (E) of section 3781.10 of the Revised Code has jurisdiction, the owner shall make the submissions described in division (A)(1) of this section to the superintendent of industrial compliance.

(b) If no certified municipal, township, or county building department certified for residential buildings pursuant to division (E) of section 3781.10 of the Revised Code has jurisdiction, the owner is not required to make the submissions described in division (A)(1) of this section.

(2)

(a) The seal of an architect registered under Chapter 4703. of the Revised Code or an engineer registered under Chapter 4733. of the Revised Code is required for any plans, drawings, specifications, or data submitted for approval, unless the plans, drawings, specifications, or data are permitted to be prepared by persons other than registered architects pursuant to division (C) or (D) of section 4703.18 of the Revised Code, or by persons other than registered engineers pursuant to division (C) or (D) of section 4733.18 of the Revised Code.

(b) No seal is required for any plans, drawings, specifications, or data submitted for approval for any residential buildings, as defined in section 3781.06 of the Revised Code, or erected as industrialized one-, two-, or three-family units or structures within the meaning of "industrialized unit" as defined in section 3781.06 of the Revised Code.

(c) No seal is required for approval of the installation of replacement equipment or systems that are similar in type or capacity to the equipment or systems being replaced. No seal is required for approval for any new construction, improvement, alteration, repair, painting, decorating, or other modification of any buildings or structures subject to sections 3781.06 to 3781.18 and 3791.04 of the Revised Code if the proposed work does not involve technical design analysis, as defined by rule adopted by the board of building standards.

(B) No owner shall proceed with the construction, erection, alteration, or equipment of any building until the plans or drawings, specifications, and data have been approved as this section requires, or the industrialized unit inspected at the point of origin. No plans or specifications shall be approved or inspection approval given unless the building represented would, if constructed, repaired, erected, or equipped, comply with Chapters 3781. and 3791. of the Revised Code and any rule made under those chapters.

(C) The approval of plans or drawings and specifications or data pursuant to this section is invalid if construction, erection, alteration, or other work upon the building has not commenced within twelve months of the approval of the plans or drawings and specifications. One extension shall be granted for an additional twelve-month period if the owner requests at least ten days in advance of the expiration of the permit and upon payment of a fee not to exceed one hundred dollars. If in the course of construction, work is delayed or suspended for more than six months, the approval of plans or drawings and specifications or data is invalid. Two extensions shall be granted for six months each if the owner requests at least ten days in advance of the expiration of the permit and upon payment of a fee for each extension of not more than one hundred dollars. Before any work may continue on the construction, erection, alteration, or equipment of any building for which the approval is invalid, the owner of the building shall resubmit the plans or drawings and specifications for approval pursuant to this section.

(D) Subject to section 3791.042 of the Revised Code, the board of building standards or the legislative authority of a municipal corporation, township, or county, by rule, may regulate the requirements for the submission of plans and specifications to the respective enforcing departments and for processing by those departments. The board of building standards or the legislative authority of a municipal corporation, township, or county may adopt rules to provide for the approval, subject to section 3791.042 of the Revised Code, by the department having jurisdiction of the plans for construction of a foundation or any other part of a building or structure before the complete plans and specifications for the entire building or structure are submitted. When any plans are approved by the department having jurisdiction, the structure and every particular represented by and disclosed in those plans shall, in the absence of fraud or a serious safety or sanitation hazard, be conclusively presumed to comply with Chapters 3781. and 3791. of the Revised Code and any rule issued pursuant to those chapters, if constructed, altered, or repaired in accordance with those plans and any rule in effect at the time of approval.

(E) The approval of plans and specifications, including inspection of industrialized units, under this section is a "license" and the failure to approve plans or specifications as submitted or to inspect the unit at the point of origin within thirty days after the plans or specifications are filed or the request to inspect the industrialized unit is made, the disapproval of plans and specifications, or the refusal to approve an industrialized unit following inspection at the point of origin is "an adjudication order denying the issuance of a license" requiring an "adjudication hearing" as provided by sections 119.07 to 119.13 of the Revised Code and as modified by sections 3781.031 and 3781.19 of the Revised Code. An adjudication order denying the issuance of a license shall specify the reasons for that denial.

(F) The board of building standards shall not require the submission of site preparation plans or plot plans to the division of industrial compliance when industrialized units are used exclusively as one-, two-, or three-family dwellings.

(G) Notwithstanding any procedures the board establishes, if the agency having jurisdiction objects to any portion of the plans or specifications, the owner or the owner's representative may request the agency to issue conditional approval to proceed with construction up to the point of the objection. Approval shall be issued only when the objection results from conflicting interpretations of the rules of the board of building standards rather than the application of specific technical requirements of the rules. Approval shall not be issued where the correction of the objection would cause extensive changes in the building design or construction. The giving of conditional approval is a "conditional license" to proceed with construction up to the point where the construction or materials objected to by the agency are to be incorporated into the building. No construction shall proceed beyond that point without the prior approval of the agency or another agency that conducts an adjudication hearing relative to the objection. The agency having jurisdiction shall specify its objections to the plans or specifications, which is an "adjudication order denying the issuance of a license" and may be appealed pursuant to sections 119.07 to 119.13 of the Revised Code and as modified by sections 3781.031 and 3781.19 of the Revised Code.

(H) A certified municipal, township, or county building department having jurisdiction, or the superintendent, as appropriate, shall review any plans, drawings, specifications, or data described in this section that are submitted to it or to the superintendent.

(I) No owner or persons having control as an officer, or as a member of a board or committee, or otherwise, of a building to which section 3781.06 of the Revised Code is applicable, and no architect, designer, engineer, builder, contractor, subcontractor, or any officer or employee of a municipal, township, or county building department shall violate this section.

(J) Whoever violates this section shall be fined not more than five hundred dollars.

Cite as R.C. § 3791.04

Amended by 129th General AssemblyFile No.127, HB 487, §101.01, eff. 9/10/2012.

Amended by 128th General AssemblyFile No.9, HB 1, §101.01, eff. 10/16/2009.

Effective Date: 03-30-1999; 05-27-2005

3791.041 Fire protection systems.

(A) The board of building standards shall maintain a current list of individuals certified under section 3781.105 of the Revised Code and shall ensure that municipal, township, or county building departments certified under division (E) of section 3781.10 of the Revised Code have a current copy of the list.

(B) The rules adopted under section 3791.04 of the Revised Code by the board of building standards or the legislative authority of a municipal corporation, county, or township pertaining to the submission of plans and specifications and to the processing of them by the respective building departments shall:

(1) Provide that plans and specifications for fire protection systems, when submitted under the signature of an individual certified under section 3781.105 of the Revised Code, shall be processed in the same manner as plans and specifications submitted under the signature of a professional engineer registered under Chapter 4733. of the Revised Code or an architect registered under Chapter 4703. of the Revised Code;

(2) Subject to section 3791.042 of the Revised Code, provide that plans and specifications for fire protection systems, if certified by a registered architect or professional engineer or individual certified under section 3781.105 of the Revised Code as conforming to requirements adopted by the board of building standards under Chapters 3781. and 3791. of the Revised Code pertaining to design loads, stresses, strength, stability, or other requirements involving technical design analysis, shall be examined by the building department official only to the extent necessary to determine conformity of such plans with other requirements adopted by the board under Chapters 3781. and 3791. of the Revised Code;

(3) Where supervision of the installation of fire protection systems is required, permit supervision by a person certified under section 3781.105 of the Revised Code in lieu of supervision by a registered architect or professional engineer;

(4) Not require an individual certified under section 3781.105 of the Revised Code to include in any submission of plans and specifications for a fire protection system any statistical data, reports, explanations, plan descriptions, or information that would not also be required for a similar submission by a professional engineer or registered architect.

Cite as R.C. § 3791.041

Effective Date: 09-26-1996

3791.042 Plan and specification review.

If a building department certified under section 3781.10 of the Revised Code does not have personnel in its full-time employ who are certified by the board of building standards to do plan and specification review, plans and specifications submitted to the building department shall be examined by the approved building official and shall be approved by the official if the plans and specifications conform with the Ohio building code and Chapters 3781. and 3791. of the Revised Code, and if the plans and specifications were prepared by an architect who is certificated and registered pursuant to Chapter 4703. of the Revised Code or by a professional engineer who is registered pursuant to Chapter 4733. of the Revised Code and those plans and specifications contain a written certification by the architect or engineer that indicates that the plans and specifications conform to the Ohio building code and Chapters 3781. and 3791. of the Revised Code.

Cite as R.C. § 3791.042

Effective Date: 09-25-1984; 05-27-2005

3791.043 [Repealed].

Cite as R.C. § 3791.043

Repealed by 129th General AssemblyFile No.127, HB 487, §105.01, eff. 9/10/2012.

Amended by 129th General AssemblyFile No.28, HB 153, §101.01, eff. 7/1/2011.

Effective Date: 12-02-1996

3791.05 Counter floors in construction - prohibition - penalty.

No owner, lessee, agent, factor, architect, or contractor engaged in and having supervision or charge of the building, erection, or construction of a block, building, or structure, shall neglect or refuse to place or have placed upon the joists of each story thereof, as soon as joists are in position, counter floors of such quality and strength as to render perfectly safe the going to and from thereon of all mechanics, laborers, and other persons engaged upon the work of construction or supervision, or in placing materials for such construction.

Whoever violates this section shall be fined not less than twenty-five nor more than two hundred dollars.

Each day that such person neglects or refuses to have such counter floors so placed, after notice is given by a building inspector, a chief inspector, or deputy inspector of the city building inspection department in cities where such department is organized, or by the superintendent of industrial compliance of the state, in cities where such departments are not organized, or from a person whose life or personal safety may be endangered by such neglect or refusal, is a separate offense.

Cite as R.C. § 3791.05

Amended by 129th General AssemblyFile No.127, HB 487, §101.01, eff. 9/10/2012.

Amended by 128th General AssemblyFile No.9, HB 1, §101.01, eff. 10/16/2009.

Effective Date: 10-29-1995

3791.06 Prohibition against use of improper ladders or scaffolding - penalty.

No person shall employ or direct another to do or perform labor in erecting, repairing, altering, or painting a house, building, or other structure, and knowingly or negligently furnish, erect, or cause to be furnished for erection for and in the performance of said labor, unsuitable or improper scaffolding, hoists, stays, ladders, or other mechanical contrivances which will not give proper protection to the life and limb of a person so employed or engaged.

Whoever violates this section shall be fined not more than five hundred dollars or imprisoned not more than three months, or both.

If such scaffolding, swung or suspended from an overhead support or supports, is more than twenty feet from the ground floor, it is not deemed to give proper protection to the life and limb of persons employed or engaged on such scaffolding unless, when in use, it has a safety rail rising at least thirty-four inches above the floor or main portion extending along the outside thereof, and properly attached thereto, and is provided with braces strong enough to sustain the weight of a man's body against it and to prevent such scaffolding from swaying from the building or structure.

Cite as R.C. § 3791.06

Effective Date: 10-01-1953

3791.07 Inspection fees.

(A) The board of building standards may establish such reasonable inspection fee schedules as it determines necessary or desirable relating to the inspection of all plans and specifications submitted for approval to the division of industrial compliance, and all industrialized units inspected at the point of origin and at the construction site of the building. The inspection fee schedule established shall bear some reasonable relationship to the cost of administering and enforcing the provisions of Chapters 3781. and 3791. of the Revised Code.

(B) In addition to the fee assessed in division (A) of this section, the board shall assess a fee of not more than five dollars for each application for acceptance and approval of plans and specifications and for making inspections pursuant to section 3791.04 of the Revised Code. The board shall adopt rules, in accordance with Chapter 119. of the Revised Code, specifying the manner by which the superintendent of industrial compliance shall collect and remit to the board the fees assessed under this division and requiring that remittance of the fees be made at least quarterly.

(C) Any person who fails to pay an inspection fee required for any inspection conducted by the department of commerce pursuant to Chapters 3781. and 3791. of the Revised Code, except for fees charged for the inspection of plans and specifications, within forty-five days after the inspection is conducted, shall pay a late payment fee equal to twenty-five per cent of the inspection fee.

(D) The board shall pay the fees assessed under this section into the state treasury to the credit of the industrial compliance operating fund created in section 121.084 of the Revised Code.

Cite as R.C. § 3791.07

Amended by 129th General AssemblyFile No.127, HB 487, §101.01, eff. 9/10/2012.

Amended by 128th General AssemblyFile No.9, HB 1, §101.01, eff. 10/16/2009.

Effective Date: 10-29-1995

3791.11 [Repealed].

Cite as R.C. § 3791.11

Repealed by 130th General Assembly File No. 7, HB 51, §101.02, eff. 7/1/2013.

Amended by 129th General AssemblyFile No.127, HB 487, §101.01, eff. 9/10/2012.

Effective Date: 11-07-1975

3791.12 Inspections - hearings.

(A) As used in this section and section 3791.13 of the Revised Code:

(1) "Service station" means any facility designed and constructed primarily for use in the retail sale of gasoline, other petroleum products, and related accessories; except that "service station" does not include any such facility that has been converted for use for another bona fide business purpose, on and after the date of commencement of such other use.

(2) "Abandoned service station" means any service station that has not been used for the retail sale of gasoline, other petroleum products, and related accessories for a continuous period of six months, whenever failure to reasonably secure station buildings from ready access by unauthorized persons and to reasonably maintain the station's premises has resulted in conditions that endanger the public health, welfare, safety, or morals; provided, that such conditions include, but are not limited to, the presence of defective or deteriorated electrical wiring, heating apparatus, and gas connections, or of unprotected gasoline storage tanks, piping, and valves, or any combination of the foregoing; and provided further that the casual and intermittent use of a service station for the retail sale of any item described in division (A)(1) of this section during such six-month period shall not be held to prevent the station from being determined an abandoned service station if it meets the other qualifications of this division.

(B) The executive authority of each municipal corporation and the board of county commissioners of each county shall designate a suitable person to make inspections, within their respective territorial jurisdictions, of any service stations that are, or appear to be, no longer in use for the purposes described in division (A)(1) of this section , or for any other bona fide business purpose. Inspections of service stations under this section shall be made at the order of the executive authority or board, or upon the complaint of any person claiming to be adversely affected by the condition of a service station. Any inspector designated under this section shall have the right to enter upon and inspect any service station that is, or appears to be, no longer in use as described in this section. No inspector, while in the lawful pursuit of official duties for such purpose, shall be subject to arrest for trespass while so engaged or for such cause thereafter.

(C) Whenever an inspector, upon inspecting a service station as provided in this section, has reasonable cause to believe that it qualifies as an abandoned service station, the inspector shall prepare a written report of the condition of the station's buildings and premises. The report shall be filed immediately with the executive authority or board. Upon receipt of the report, the executive authority or board shall fix a place and time, not less than thirty days nor more than sixty days after receipt of the report, for a hearing to determine whether the service station is an abandoned service station. The executive authority or board shall send written notice of the place and date of the hearing, together with a copy of the inspector's report and information that the service station may be ordered repaired or removed if determined to be abandoned, to all persons listed in the records of the county recorder as an owner of the affected property, and to all persons listed in the records of the county recorder or county clerk of courts as holding a lien on the affected property. Such notice shall be sent by certified mail to the address shown on such records.

(D) In hearing the matter and deciding the issue, the executive authority or board shall consider the testimony of any persons appearing pursuant to the notice or their authorized representatives, the testimony of any witnesses appearing on behalf of such persons, the inspector's report or testimony, or both, and any other evidence pertinent to the matter. If the executive authority or board thereupon determines that the service station is an abandoned service station in such condition as to constitute a danger to the public health, welfare, safety, or morals, it shall order the satisfactory repair, or removal, of the service station and its appurtenances, and restoration of the property, within such period of time, not less than thirty days, as the executive authority or board thereupon determines reasonable. Notice of the findings and order shall be sent to all persons required to be notified by division (C) of this section in the same manner as provided in that division.

(E) If an abandoned service station is not satisfactorily repaired or removed within the period of time provided in an order made under division (D) of this section, the municipal corporation or county may enter the land and complete the repair, if repair was ordered, or remove the service station and its appurtenances, if removal was ordered, and restore the property.

(F) Any person aggrieved by an order of an executive authority or board made under division (D) of this section, may appeal as provided in Chapter 2506. of the Revised Code within thirty days of the mailing of notice of the order.

(G) In the event that no persons notified as provided in division (C) of this section, or their authorized representatives, appear at the hearing, respond to an order of the executive authority or board, or appeal within thirty days of the mailing of notice of the order as provided in division (F) of this section, the municipal corporation or county may proceed as provided in division (E) of this section.

Cite as R.C. § 3791.12

Amended by 130th General Assembly File No. 7, HB 51, §101.01, eff. 7/1/2013.

Amended by 129th General AssemblyFile No.127, HB 487, §101.01, eff. 9/10/2012.

Effective Date: 11-07-1975

3791.13 Repair and removal.

(A) When a municipal corporation or county enters and repairs or removes an abandoned service station and its appurtenances and restores the property as provided in division (E) or (G) of section 3791.12 of the Revised Code, it may bring an action to recover the costs of repair or removal and restoration, plus the costs of the suit. The owner of the property and any lessee, other than a person leasing and operating the service station pursuant to a contract with a supplier of gasoline and other petroleum products, shall be jointly and severally liable for the costs.

(B) Sections 3791.12, 3791.13 and 3791.99 of the Revised Code shall be an alternative remedy for the removal of abandoned service stations and shall not invalidate municipal ordinances regulating the use, requiring maintenance or repair, or providing for the removal of service stations.

Cite as R.C. § 3791.13

Amended by 130th General Assembly File No. 7, HB 51, §101.01, eff. 7/1/2013.

Effective Date: 11-07-1975

3791.21 Refuse container safety standards.

(A) As used in this section "refuse container" means only that type of refuse container which is self-dumping by means of a specially designed front, side, or rear loading vehicle.

(B) The board of building standards shall adopt by rule safety standards in compliance with regulations adopted by the federal consumer product safety commission on June 13, 1977 (Federal Register Vol. 42, No. 113, pp.30296-30302), to require refuse containers to be constructed, installed, or redesigned so that they will not tip over if persons climb in or on them.

(C) The rules of the board shall require all newly manufactured or installed refuse containers and all existing refuse containers to meet the safety standards before July 1, 1978.

(D) No person shall install, manufacture, sell, lease, or purchase any refuse container that does not conform to the rules of the board adopted under this section.

Cite as R.C. § 3791.21

Effective Date: 06-06-1978

3791.99 Penalty.

(A) Whoever violates division (D) of section 3791.21 of the Revised Code is guilty of a minor misdemeanor, and each day the violation continues constitutes a separate offense.

(B) Whoever violates this chapter or any rule adopted or order issued pursuant to it that relates to the construction, alteration, or repair of any building, and the violation is not detrimental to the health, safety, or welfare of any person, shall be fined not more than one hundred dollars.

(C) Whoever violates this chapter or any rule adopted or order issued pursuant to it that relates to the construction, alteration, or repair of any building, and the violation is detrimental to the health, safety, or welfare of any person, is guilty of a minor misdemeanor.

Cite as R.C. § 3791.99

Amended by 130th General Assembly File No. 7, HB 51, §101.01, eff. 7/1/2013.

Effective Date: 06-06-1978; 05-27-2005