Chapter 5535: TYPES OF HIGHWAYS

5535.01 Classes of highways.

The public highways of the state shall be divided into three classes: state roads, county roads, and township roads.

(A) State roads include the roads and highways on the state highway system.

(B) County roads include all roads which are or may be established as a part of the county system of roads as provided in sections 5541.01 to 5541.03 , inclusive, of the Revised Code, which shall be known as the county highway system. Such roads shall be maintained by the board of county commissioners.

(C) Township roads include all public highways other than state or county roads. The board of township trustees shall maintain all such roads within its township. The board of county commissioners may assist the board of township trustees in maintaining all such roads. This section does not prevent the board of township trustees from improving any road within its township.

Cite as R.C. § 5535.01

Effective Date: 10-01-1953

5535.02 Types of highways - definition.

A "limited access highway" or "freeway" is a road, highway, or street, especially designed for through traffic, over which abutters have no easement or right of access by reason of the fact that their property abuts upon such highway intersections designated by the director of transportation, board of county commissioners, or municipal authorities on roads within their jurisdiction, so as to eliminate cross traffic of vehicles.

Cite as R.C. § 5535.02

Effective Date: 09-28-1973

5535.03 Establishment, construction, and vacation of freeways.

The director of transportation, board of county commissioners, and municipal authorities may lay out, establish, acquire, open, construct, improve, maintain, regulate, vacate, or abandon the use of freeways within this state in the same manner in which they may lay out, establish, acquire, open, construct, improve, maintain, regulate, vacate, or abandon the use of roads, highways, or streets. Such director, board, and municipal authorities shall have all additional authority and power, relative to such freeways, as they possess relative to roads, highways, or streets, including the authority and power to acquire by gift, purchase, condemnation, or otherwise, such lands as are required for rights-of-way, and to be provided for from any available funds.

Where an existing road, highway, or street, in whole or in part, has been designated as or included within a freeway, existing easements of access may be extinguished by purchase, gift, agreement, or condemnation.

Cite as R.C. § 5535.03

Effective Date: 09-28-1973

5535.04 Service highways.

As an adjunct of any "limited access highway" or "freeway," the director of transportation, board of county commissioners, and municipal authorities may lay out and construct highways and drives, to be designated as service highways, to provide access from areas adjacent to a limited access highway or freeway, when they are deemed necessary in the public interest.

Cite as R.C. § 5535.04

Effective Date: 09-28-1973

5535.05 Court proceedings.

Court proceedings to acquire the necessary land for "limited access highways" or "freeways" as provided in sections 5535.02 to 5535.04 , inclusive, of the Revised Code, shall take precedence over all other causes not involving the public interest in all courts, and shall be given preference to the end that constructions and reconstructions of highways and freeways may not be unreasonably delayed, but may be expedited.

Cite as R.C. § 5535.05

Effective Date: 10-01-1953

5535.06 Standardization of road construction.

In all cases where a county or township has constructed or improved any intercounty road, the director of transportation, upon request, shall, within sixty days, indicate what changes or improvements will be required in the road in order to bring it up to the approved standard of construction of such roads. In any case where such road is about to be constructed, reconstructed, or improved, the director shall, upon application, indicate within sixty days what changes will be required in the plans and specifications to bring the road up to the standard required by the state for the construction of intercounty highways. Whenever the changes specified by the director have been made, or when such roads have been constructed according to the plans and specifications approved by him, the roads shall at once become state roads.

The board of county commissioners, upon application by the board of township trustees, shall specify in like manner what changes are required in any township road in order to bring it up to the standard of construction maintained for county roads, or, in case of the construction of any new improvement, the board of county commissioners shall indicate what changes in the plans and specifications will be required to bring the road up to the standard of construction required for county highways, and when a township highway is so improved or constructed, in accordance with the standard fixed, it shall be a county road.

Cite as R.C. § 5535.06

Effective Date: 09-28-1973

5535.07 Maintenance of main highways.

The director of transportation shall take over, for maintenance purposes such mileage of the system of intercounty highways outside of municipal corporations, as has not been constructed by the state or taken over by the state for maintenance. All such portions of the intercounty highway system not at present under state maintenance shall be first improved by the county to an extent which in the opinion of the director will permit economical maintenance for the purpose of making them passable for traffic.

The director shall maintain said roads and highways, and the respective counties and townships of the state in which such roads and highways are located shall be relieved of the duty of their maintenance. For the purpose of this section, maintenance does not include the construction of any new bridges or culverts or the replacement of any bridges or culverts destroyed by the elements or by natural wear, nor any construction work changing the type of construction existing on said roads at the time the same are taken over in accordance with this section.

This section does not prevent the authorities of any county or township from co-operating with the state in the construction, maintenance, or repair of any section of such highways within such county or township.

Cite as R.C. § 5535.07

Effective Date: 09-28-1973

5535.08 Maintenance of all roads.

(A) The state, county, and township shall each maintain its roads, as designated in section 5535.01 of the Revised Code; however, the county or township, by agreement between the board of county commissioners and the board of township trustees, may contribute to the repair and maintenance of the roads under the control of the other. The state, county, or township, or any two or more of them, by agreement, may expend any funds available for road construction, improvement, or repair upon roads inside a village. A village may expend any funds available for street improvement upon roads outside the village and leading to the village.

(B)

(1) In the case of an emergency, any political subdivision having authority to repair and maintain roads or streets may provide emergency road or street repair and maintenance assistance to any other political subdivision if the political subdivision seeking to provide the assistance has adopted a resolution or ordinance stating that it will participate in the provision of emergency road or street repair and maintenance assistance within this state, on a case by case basis, whenever it is possible for that political subdivision to do so. The resolution or ordinance shall identify any employees authorized to provide that assistance outside the boundaries of the political subdivision.

(2) Chapter 2744. of the Revised Code, insofar as it applies to performance of road or street repair and maintenance services, applies to a political subdivision having authority to repair and maintain roads or streets that has adopted a resolution or ordinance under division (B)(1) of this section, and to the employees of such a political subdivision, when the employees are providing emergency road or street repair and maintenance assistance outside the boundaries of the political subdivision.

(3) Employees of a political subdivision who provide emergency road or street repair and maintenance assistance outside the boundaries of that political subdivision pursuant to a resolution or ordinance adopted under division (B)(1) of this section may participate in any pension or indemnity fund that their employer establishes and are entitled to all rights and benefits of Chapter 4123. of the Revised Code, to the same extent as when performing road or street repair and maintenance services within the political subdivision that employs them.

(C)

(1) In nonemergency situations, any political subdivision having authority to construct, reconstruct, resurface, improve, repair, and maintain roads or streets may enter into an agreement, under terms agreeable to all parties, with any other political subdivision having that authority to obtain or provide road or street construction, reconstruction, resurfacing, improvement, repair, or maintenance services. The cost, if any, of services obtained under the agreement may be paid from general fund moneys of the political subdivision receiving the services, or from any other funds available for the repair and maintenance of roads or streets within that political subdivision.

(2) Chapter 2744. of the Revised Code, insofar as it applies to the performance of road or street construction, reconstruction, resurfacing, improvement, repair, or maintenance services, applies to a political subdivision having authority to perform those services that has entered into an agreement authorized by division (C)(1) of this section, and to the employees of such a political subdivision, when the employees are performing those services outside the boundaries of the political subdivision under that agreement.

(3) Employees of a political subdivision who perform road or street construction, reconstruction, resurfacing, improvement, repair, or maintenance services outside the boundaries of that political subdivision pursuant to an agreement authorized by division (C)(1) of this section may participate in any pension or indemnity fund that their employer establishes and are entitled to all rights and benefits of Chapter 4123. of the Revised Code, to the same extent as when performing those services within the political subdivision that employs them.

(D) As used in this section, "emergency" means a natural disaster, or a state of emergency as declared by the governor or a county sheriff, that has occurred or been declared in the county, township, or municipal corporation receiving emergency road or street repair and maintenance assistance authorized by this section.

Cite as R.C. § 5535.08

Effective Date: 04-05-2001

5535.09 [Repealed].

Cite as R.C. § 5535.09

Effective Date: 07-01-1989

5535.15 Maintenance or repair of road under control of another public entity.

(A) The board of county commissioners, board of township trustees, or legislative authority of a municipal corporation may maintain, repair, construct, reconstruct, improve, or widen any section of a road under the control of the state or another political subdivision if all of the following apply:

(1) The county, township, or municipal corporation proposing the project declares to the state or political subdivision the reasonable necessity of the construction or improvement. The declaration shall be by resolution or ordinance. A certified copy shall be sent to the director of transportation when a state highway is the subject of the proposal and to the affected political subdivision when any other highway is the subject of the proposal.

(2) The documents, plans, reports, or other materials relating to the project comply with applicable design development criteria of the department of transportation and the federal highway administration, which compliance is determined by the director in the manner provided in section 5521.13 of the Revised Code;

(3) The county, township, or municipal corporation proposing the project certifies to the state or political subdivision, in the resolution or ordinance required by division (A)(1) of this section, that all funds necessary to complete the project are available either privately or from the county, township, or municipal corporation proposing the project.

The county, township, or municipal corporation proposing the project may acquire by gift, purchase, condemnation, or otherwise, any lands required for the construction or improvement.

(B) Upon compliance with the requirements of division (A) of this section, the county, township, or municipal corporation proposing the project may proceed only with the consent of the department. The state or other political subdivision having control over the road may contribute to the cost of the construction or improvement.

(C) Any person may appeal an action taken by a county, township, or municipal corporation under this section. The appeal may be taken to the probate court or the court of common pleas of any county in which any part of the construction or improvement is located, and shall be limited to a determination of compliance with division (A) of this section.

(D) After completion of the project, the state or political subdivision having control of the road shall repair and maintain it if the project is accepted by the state or political subdivision. Upon such acceptance, the county, township, or municipal corporation constructing or improving the road under this section may contribute to the cost of repair and maintenance of the road. If the project is not accepted by the state or political subdivision having control of the road, the county, township, or municipal corporation constructing or improving the road shall repair and maintain it.

Cite as R.C. § 5535.15

Effective Date: 11-08-1994

5535.16 Snow and ice removal.

Notwithstanding sections 5535.08 and 5535.15 of the Revised Code, the department of transportation or a political subdivision may provide snow and ice removal on the roads under the control of the state or any political subdivision.

Cite as R.C. § 5535.16

Effective Date: 03-31-2003

5535.36 Amended and Renumbered RC 5533.36.

Cite as R.C. § 5535.36

Effective Date: 1986 HB428 12-23-1986