As used in this chapter:
(A) "Person" includes individuals, receivers, assignees, trustees in bankruptcy, estates, firms, partnerships, associations, joint-stock companies, joint ventures, clubs, societies, corporations, business trusts, governments, and combinations of individuals of any form.
(B) "Storage" means and includes any keeping or retention in this state for use or other consumption in this state.
(C) "Use" means and includes the exercise of any right or power incidental to the ownership of the thing used. A thing is also "used" in this state if its consumer gives or otherwise distributes it, without charge, to recipients in this state.
(D) "Purchase" means acquired or received for a consideration, whether such acquisition or receipt was effected by a transfer of title, or of possession, or of both, or a license to use or consume; whether such transfer was absolute or conditional, and by whatever means the transfer was effected; and whether the consideration was money, credit, barter, or exchange. Purchase includes production, even though the article produced was used, stored, or consumed by the producer. The transfer of copyrighted motion picture films for exhibition purposes is not a purchase, except such films as are used solely for advertising purposes.
(E) "Seller" means the person from whom a purchase is made, and includes every person engaged in this state or elsewhere in the business of selling tangible personal property or providing a service for storage, use, or other consumption or benefit in this state; and when, in the opinion of the tax commissioner, it is necessary for the efficient administration of this chapter, to regard any salesperson, representative, peddler, or canvasser as the agent of a dealer, distributor, supervisor, or employer under whom the person operates, or from whom the person obtains tangible personal property, sold by the person for storage, use, or other consumption in this state, irrespective of whether or not the person is making such sales on the person's own behalf, or on behalf of such dealer, distributor, supervisor, or employer, the commissioner may regard the person as such agent, and may regard such dealer, distributor, supervisor, or employer as the seller. "Seller" does not include any person to the extent the person provides a communications medium, such as, but not limited to, newspapers, magazines, radio, television, or cable television, by means of which sellers solicit purchases of their goods or services.
(F) "Consumer" means any person who has purchased tangible personal property or has been provided a service for storage, use, or other consumption or benefit in this state. "Consumer" does not include a person who receives, without charge, tangible personal property or a service.
A person who performs a facility management or similar service contract for a contractee is a consumer of all tangible personal property and services purchased for use in connection with the performance of such contract, regardless of whether title to any such property vests in the contractee. The purchase of such property and services is not subject to the exception for resale under division (E) of section 5739.01 of the Revised Code.
(3) In the case of a nonresident business consumer that purchases and uses tangible personal property outside this state and subsequently temporarily stores, uses, or otherwise consumes such tangible personal property in the conduct of business in this state, the consumer or the tax commissioner may determine the price based on the value of the temporary storage, use, or other consumption, in lieu of determining the price pursuant to division (G)(1) of this section. A price determination made by the consumer is subject to review and redetermination by the commissioner.
(4) In the case of tangible personal property held in this state as inventory for sale or lease, and that is temporarily stored, used, or otherwise consumed in a taxable manner, the price is the value of the temporary use. A price determination made by the consumer is subject to review and redetermination by the commissioner.
(5) In the case of tangible personal property originally purchased and used by the consumer outside this state, and that becomes permanently stored, used, or otherwise consumed in this state more than six months after its acquisition by the consumer, the consumer or the commissioner may determine the price based on the current value of such tangible personal property, in lieu of determining the price pursuant to division (G)(1) of this section. A price determination made by the consumer is subject to review and redetermination by the commissioner.
(6) If a consumer produces tangible personal property for sale and removes that property from inventory for the consumer's own use, the price is the produced cost of that tangible personal property.
(H) "Nexus with this state" means that the seller engages in continuous and widespread solicitation of purchases from residents of this state or otherwise purposefully directs its business activities at residents of this state.
(1) "Substantial nexus with this state" means that the seller has sufficient contact with this state, in accordance with Section 8 of Article I of the Constitution of the United States, to allow the state to require the seller to collect and remit use tax on sales of tangible personal property or services made to consumers in this state.
(2) "Substantial nexus with this state" is presumed to exist when the seller does any of the following:
(a) Uses an office, distribution facility, warehouse, storage facility, or similar place of business within this state, whether operated by the seller or any other person, other than a common carrier acting in its capacity as a common carrier.
(b) Regularly uses employees, agents, representatives, solicitors, installers, repairers, salespersons, or other persons in this state for the purpose of conducting the business of the seller or either to engage in a business with the same or a similar industry classification as the seller selling a similar product or line of products as the seller, or to use trademarks, service marks, or trade names in this state that are the same or substantially similar to those used by the seller.
(c) Uses any person, other than a common carrier acting in its capacity as a common carrier, in this state for any of the following purposes:
(i) Receiving or processing orders of the seller's goods or services;
(ii) Using that person's employees or facilities in this state to advertise, promote, or facilitate sales by the seller to customers;
(iii) Delivering, installing, assembling, or performing maintenance services for the seller's customers;
(iv) Facilitating the seller's delivery of tangible personal property to customers in this state by allowing the seller's customers to pick up property sold by the seller at an office, distribution facility, warehouse, storage facility, or similar place of business.
(d) Makes regular deliveries of tangible personal property into this state by means other than common carrier .
(e) Has an affiliated person that has substantial nexus with this state .
(f) Owns tangible personal property that is rented or leased to a consumer in this state, or offers tangible personal property, on approval, to consumers in this state
(g) Enters into an agreement with one or more residents of this state under which the resident, for a commission or other consideration, directly or indirectly refers potential customers to the seller, whether by a link on a web site, an in-person oral presentation, telemarketing, or otherwise, provided the cumulative gross receipts from sales to consumers referred to the seller by all such residents exceeded ten thousand dollars during the preceding twelve months.
(3) A seller presumed to have substantial nexus with this state under divisions (I)(2)(a) to (f) of this section may rebut that presumption by demonstrating that activities described in any of those divisions that are conducted by a person in this state on the seller's behalf are not significantly associated with the seller's ability to establish or maintain a market in this state for the seller's sales.
(4) A seller presumed to have substantial nexus with this state under division (I)(2)(g) of this section may rebut that presumption by submitting proof that each resident engaged by the seller as described in that division did not engage in any activity within this state during the preceding twelve months that was significantly associated with the seller's ability to establish or maintain the seller's market in this state during the preceding twelve months. Such proof may consist of sworn written statements from all the residents with whom the seller has an agreement stating that the resident did not engage in any solicitation in this state on behalf of the seller during the preceding twelve months if such statements are provided and obtained in good faith.
(5) A seller that does not have substantial nexus with this state, and any affiliated person of the seller, before selling or leasing tangible personal property or services to a state agency, shall register with the tax commissioner in the same manner as a seller described in division (A)(1) of section 5741.17 of the Revised Code.
(6) As used in division (I) of this section:
(a) "Affiliated person" means any person that is a member of the same controlled group of corporations as the seller or any other person that, notwithstanding the form of organization, bears the same ownership relationship to the seller as a corporation that is a member of the same controlled group of corporations.
(b) "Controlled group of corporations" has the same meaning as in section 1563(a) of the Internal Revenue Code.
(J) "Fiscal officer" means, with respect to a regional transit authority, the secretary-treasurer thereof, and with respect to a county which is a transit authority, the fiscal officer of the county transit board appointed pursuant to section 306.03 of the Revised Code or, if the board of county commissioners operates the county transit system, the county auditor.
(K) "Territory of the transit authority" means all of the area included within the territorial boundaries of a transit authority as they from time to time exist. Such territorial boundaries must at all times include all the area of a single county or all the area of the most populous county which is a part of such transit authority. County population shall be measured by the most recent census taken by the United States census bureau.
(L) "Transit authority" means a regional transit authority created pursuant to section 306.31 of the Revised Code or a county in which a county transit system is created pursuant to section 306.01 of the Revised Code. For the purposes of this chapter, a transit authority must extend to at least the entire area of a single county. A transit authority which includes territory in more than one county must include all the area of the most populous county which is a part of such transit authority. County population shall be measured by the most recent census taken by the United States census bureau.
(N) "Other consumption" includes receiving the benefits of a service.
(Q) "Remote sale" means a sale for which the seller could not be legally required to pay, collect, or remit a tax imposed under this chapter or Chapter 5739. of the Revised Code, unless otherwise provided by the laws of the United States.
(R) "Remote seller" means a seller that lacks substantial nexus with this state but is required to register with the tax commissioner under section 5741.17 of the Revised Code pursuant to federal law authorizing states to require such sellers to register, collect, and remit use tax. A seller that is not required to register with the commissioner under division (A) of section 5741.17 of the Revised Code but registers voluntarily under division (B) of that section is not a "remote seller." A seller that registers with the commissioner under section 5741.17 of the Revised Code after the effective date of any federal law that authorizes states to require sellers that lack substantial nexus with the state to register, collect, and remit use tax is presumed to be a "remote seller." The seller or the commissioner may rebut this presumption with evidence that the seller has substantial nexus with this state.
(S) "Remote small seller" means a remote seller that has gross annual receipts from remote sales in the United States not exceeding one million dollars for the preceding calendar year. For the purposes of determining whether a person is a small remote seller, the sales of all persons related within the meaning of subsection (b) or (c) of section 267 or section 707(b)(1) of the Internal Revenue Code shall be aggregated, and persons with one or more ownership relationships shall be aggregated if those relationships were designed with the principal purpose to qualify as a remote small seller.
Amended by 131st General Assembly File No. TBD, HB 64, §101.01, eff. 7/1/2015.
Amended by 130th General Assembly File No. 25, HB 59, §101.01 (Vetoed Provisions), eff. 9/29/2013.
Effective Date: 09-26-2003 .