Chapter 5808: TRUST ADMINISTRATION

5808.01 Duties of trustee generally.

Upon acceptance of a trusteeship, the trustee shall administer the trust in good faith, in accordance with its terms and purposes and the interests of the beneficiaries, and in accordance with Chapters 5801. to 5811. of the Revised Code.

Effective Date: 01-01-2007

5808.02 Duty of loyalty to beneficiaries - voidable transactions - conflicts of interest.

(A) A trustee shall administer the trust solely in the interests of the beneficiaries.

(B) Subject to the rights of persons dealing with or assisting the trustee as provided in section 5810.12 of the Revised Code, a sale, encumbrance, or other transaction involving the investment or management of trust property entered into by the trustee for the trustee's own personal account or that is otherwise affected by a conflict between the trustee's fiduciary and personal interests is voidable by a beneficiary affected by the transaction unless one of the following applies:

(1) The transaction was authorized by the terms of the trust or by other provisions of the Revised Code.

(2) The transaction was approved by the court.

(3) The beneficiary did not commence a judicial proceeding within the time allowed by section 5810.05 of the Revised Code.

(4) The beneficiary or the beneficiary's representative consented to the trustee's conduct, ratified the transaction, or released the trustee in compliance with section 5810.09 of the Revised Code.

(5) The transaction involves a contract entered into or claim acquired by the trustee before the person became or contemplated becoming trustee.

(C) A sale, encumbrance, or other transaction involving the investment or management of trust property is presumed to be affected by a conflict between personal and fiduciary interests if it is entered into by the trustee with one of the following:

(1) The trustee's spouse;

(2) The trustee's descendant, sibling, or parent or the spouse of a trustee's descendant, sibling, or parent;

(3) An agent or attorney of the trustee;

(4) A corporation or other person or enterprise in which the trustee, or a person that owns a significant interest in the trustee, has an interest that might affect the trustee's best judgment.

(D) A transaction not concerning trust property in which the trustee engages in the trustee's individual capacity involves a conflict between personal and fiduciary interests if the transaction concerns an opportunity properly belonging to the trust.

(E) An investment by a trustee that is permitted by other provisions of the Revised Code is not presumed to be affected by a conflict between personal and fiduciary interests if the investment otherwise complies with the prudent investor rule of Chapter 5809. of the Revised Code.

(F) In voting shares of stock or in exercising powers of control over similar interests in other forms of enterprise, the trustee shall act in the best interests of the beneficiaries. If the trust is the sole owner of a corporation or other form of enterprise, the trustee shall elect or appoint directors or other managers who will manage the corporation or enterprise in the best interests of the beneficiaries.

(G) This section does not preclude either of the following:

(1) Any transaction authorized by another section of the Revised Code;

(2) Unless the beneficiaries establish that it is unfair, any of the following transactions:

(a) An agreement between a trustee and a beneficiary relating to the appointment or compensation of the trustee;

(b) Payment of reasonable compensation to the trustee;

(c) A transaction between a trust and another trust, decedent's estate, or guardianship of which the trustee is a fiduciary or in which a beneficiary has an interest;

(d) A deposit of trust money in a regulated financial-services institution that is an affiliate of the trustee;

(e) An advance by the trustee of money for the protection of the trust.

(H) The court may appoint a special fiduciary to make a decision with respect to any proposed transaction that might violate this section if entered into by the trustee.

Amended by 129th General AssemblyFile No.65, SB 117, §1, eff. 3/22/2012.

Effective Date: 01-01-2007

5808.03 Multiple beneficiaries - duty of impartiality.

If a trust has two or more beneficiaries, the trustee shall act impartially in investing , managing, and distributing the trust property, giving due regard to the beneficiaries' respective interests .

Effective Date: 01-01-2007

5808.04 Duty to act as prudent person.

A trustee shall administer the trust as a prudent person would and shall consider the purposes, terms, distributional requirements, and other circumstances of the trust. In satisfying this standard, the trustee shall exercise reasonable care, skill, and caution.

Effective Date: 01-01-2007

5808.05 Reasonable administrative costs allowed.

Except as otherwise permitted by law, in administering a trust , a trustee may incur only costs that are appropriate and reasonable in relation to the assets, the purposes of the trust, and the skills of the trustee.

Effective Date: 01-01-2007

5808.06 Trustee to use any special skills or expertise.

A trustee who has special skills or expertise, or is named trustee in reliance upon the trustee's representation that the trustee has special skills or expertise, shall use those special skills or expertise.

Effective Date: 01-01-2007

5808.07 Delegation of powers and duties.

(A) A trustee may delegate duties and powers that a prudent trustee having comparable skills could properly delegate under the circumstances. In accordance with this division, a trustee shall exercise reasonable care, skill, and caution in doing all of the following:

(1) Selecting an agent, cotrustee, or other fiduciary to whom the delegation is made;

(2) Establishing the scope and terms of the delegation consistent with the purposes and terms of the trust;

(3) Periodically reviewing the agent's, cotrustee's, or other fiduciary's actions in order to monitor the agent's, cotrustee's, or other fiduciary's performance and compliance with the terms of the delegation.

(B) In performing a delegated function, an agent, cotrustee, or other fiduciary owes a duty to the trust to exercise reasonable care to comply with the terms of the delegation.

(C) A trustee who complies with division (A) of this section is not liable to the beneficiaries of the trust or to the trust for the decisions or actions of the agent, cotrustee, or other fiduciary to whom the function was delegated.

(D) By accepting the delegation of powers or duties from the trustee of a trust that is subject to the laws of this state, an agent, cotrustee, or other fiduciary submits to the jurisdiction of this state.

Effective Date: 01-01-2007

5808.08 Direction of settlor contrary to terms - power of modification.

(A) While a trust is revocable, the trustee may follow a direction of the settlor that is contrary to the terms of the trust.

(B) As provided in section 5815.25 of the Revised Code, a trustee is not liable for losses resulting from certain actions or failures to act when other persons are granted certain powers with respect to the administration of the trust.

(C) The terms of a trust may confer upon a trustee or other person a power to direct the modification or termination of the trust.

(D) Except to the extent otherwise provided by the terms of a trust, a person other than a beneficiary who holds a power to direct, including, but not limited to, a power to direct the modification or termination of a trust, is presumptively a fiduciary who, as a fiduciary, is required to act in good faith with regard to the purposes of the trust and the interests of the beneficiaries. The holder of a power to direct is liable for any loss that results from breach of a fiduciary duty.

Amended by 129th General AssemblyFile No.201, HB 479, §1, eff. 3/27/2013.

Effective Date: 01-01-2007

5808.09 Taking control and protection of property.

A trustee shall take reasonable steps to take control of and protect the trust property.

Effective Date: 01-01-2007

5808.10 Adequate records of administration.

(A) A trustee shall keep adequate records of the administration of the trust.

(B) A trustee shall keep trust property separate from the trustee's own property.

(C) Except as otherwise provided in division (D) of this section and in section 2131.21 of the Revised Code, a trustee not subject to federal or state banking regulation shall cause the trust property to be designated so that the interest of the trust, to the extent feasible, appears in records maintained by a party other than a trustee or beneficiary.

(D) If the trustee maintains records clearly indicating the respective interests, a trustee may invest as a whole the property of two or more separate trusts.

Effective Date: 01-01-2007

5808.11 Enforcement and defense of claims.

A trustee shall take reasonable steps to enforce claims of the trust and to defend claims against the trust.

Effective Date: 01-01-2007

5808.12 Collection of trust property - successor trustees.

A trustee shall take reasonable steps to collect trust property held by third persons. The responsibility of a successor trustee with respect to the administration of the trust by a prior trustee shall be governed by section 5815.24 of the Revised Code.

Effective Date: 01-01-2007

5808.13 Keeping beneficiaries informed - requests - required reports.

(A) A trustee shall keep the current beneficiaries of the trust reasonably informed about the administration of the trust and of the material facts necessary for them to protect their interests. Unless unreasonable under the circumstances, a trustee shall promptly respond to a beneficiary's request for information related to the administration of the trust.

(B) A trustee shall do all of the following:

(1) Upon the request of a beneficiary, promptly furnish to the beneficiary a copy of the trust instrument. Unless the beneficiary expressly requests a copy of the entire trust instrument, the trustee may furnish to the beneficiary a copy of a redacted trust instrument that includes only those provisions of the trust instrument that the trustee determines are relevant to the beneficiary's interest in the trust. If the beneficiary requests a copy of the entire trust instrument after receiving a copy of a redacted trust instrument, the trustee shall furnish a copy of the entire trust instrument to the beneficiary. If the settlor of a revocable trust that has become irrevocable has completely restated the terms of the trust, the trust instrument furnished by the trustee shall be the restated trust instrument, including any amendments to the restated trust instrument. Nothing in division (B)(1) of this section limits the ability of a beneficiary to obtain a copy of the original trust instrument, any other restatements of the original trust instrument, or amendments to the original trust instrument and any other restatements of the original trust instrument in a judicial proceeding with respect to the trust.

(2) Within sixty days after accepting a trusteeship, notify the current beneficiaries of the acceptance and of the trustee's name, address, and telephone number;

(3) Within sixty days after the date the trustee acquires knowledge of the creation of an irrevocable trust, or the date the trustee acquires knowledge that a formerly revocable trust has become irrevocable, whether by the death of the settlor or otherwise, notify the current beneficiaries of the trust's existence, of the identity of the settlor or settlors, of the right to request a copy of the trust instrument, and of the right to a trustee's report as provided in division (C) of this section;

(4) Notify the current beneficiaries in advance of any change in the method or rate of the trustee's compensation.

(C) A trustee of a trust that has a fiscal year ending on or after January 1, 2007, shall send to the current beneficiaries, and to other beneficiaries who request it, at least annually and at the termination of the trust, a report of the trust property, liabilities, receipts, and disbursements, including the source and amount of the trustee's compensation, a listing of the trust assets, and, if feasible, the trust assets' respective market values. Upon a vacancy in a trusteeship, unless a cotrustee remains in office, a report for the period during which the former trustee served must be sent to the current beneficiaries by the former trustee. A personal representative or guardian may send the current beneficiaries a report on behalf of a deceased or incapacitated trustee.

(D) A beneficiary may waive the right to a trustee's report or other information otherwise required to be furnished under this section. A beneficiary, with respect to future reports and other information, may withdraw a waiver previously given.

(E) The trustee may provide information and reports to beneficiaries to whom the provided information and reports are not required to be provided under this section.

(F) Divisions (B)(2) and (3) of this section apply only to a trustee who accepts a trusteeship on or after January 1, 2007, to an irrevocable trust created on or after January 1, 2007, and to a revocable trust that becomes irrevocable on or after January 1, 2007.

(G) During the lifetime of the settlor of a revocable trust, whether or not the settlor has capacity to revoke the trust, the trustee's duties under this section are owed exclusively to the settlor.

Effective Date: 01-01-2007; 2008 HB499 09-12-2008

5808.14 Judicial standard of review for discretionary trusts.

(A) The judicial standard of review for discretionary trusts is that the trustee shall exercise a discretionary power reasonably, in good faith, and in accordance with the terms and purposes of the trust and the interests of the beneficiaries, except that with respect to distribution decisions a reasonableness standard shall not be applied to the exercise of discretion by the trustee of a wholly discretionary trust. The greater the grant of discretion by the settlor to the trustee, the broader the range of permissible conduct by the trustee in exercising it.

(B) Subject to division (D) of this section, and unless the terms of the trust expressly indicate that a rule in this division does not apply:

(1) A person other than a settlor who is a beneficiary and trustee of a trust that confers on the trustee a power to make discretionary distributions to or for the trustee's personal benefit may exercise the power only in accordance with an ascertainable standard.

(2) A trustee may not exercise a power to make discretionary distributions to satisfy a legal obligation of support that the trustee personally owes another person.

(C) A power whose exercise is limited or prohibited by division (B) of this section may be exercised by a majority of the remaining trustees whose exercise of the power is not so limited or prohibited. If the power of all trustees is so limited or prohibited, the court may appoint a special fiduciary with authority to exercise the power.

(D) Division (B) of this section does not apply to any of the following:

(1) A power held by the settlor's spouse who is the trustee of a trust for which a marital deduction, as defined in section 2056(b)(5) or 2523(e) of the Internal Revenue Code, was previously allowed;

(2) Any trust during any period that the trust may be revoked or amended by its settlor;

(3) A trust if contributions to the trust qualify for the annual exclusion under section 2503(c) of the Internal Revenue Code.

(E) For purposes of division (A) of this section, a trustee who acts reasonably and in good faith in exercising the power to distribute trust income or principal to the trustee of a second trust in accordance with division (A) or (B) of section 5808.18 of the Revised Code is presumed to have acted in accordance with the terms and purposes of the trust and the interests of the beneficiaries.

Amended by 129th General AssemblyFile No.65, SB 117, §1, eff. 3/22/2012.

Effective Date: 01-01-2007; 2008 HB499 09-12-2008

5808.15 General powers of trustee.

(A) A trustee, without authorization by the court, may exercise powers conferred by the terms of the trust and, except as limited by the terms of the trust, may exercise all of the following powers:

(1) All powers over the trust property that an unmarried competent owner has over individually owned property;

(2) Any other powers appropriate to achieve the proper investment, management, and distribution of the trust property;

(3) Any other powers conferred by Chapters 5801. to 5811. of the Revised Code.

(B) The exercise of a power is subject to the fiduciary duties prescribed by Chapter 5808. of the Revised Code.

Effective Date: 01-01-2007

5808.16 Specific powers of trustee.

Without limiting the authority conferred by section 5808.15 of the Revised Code, a trustee may do all of the following:

(A) Collect trust property and accept or reject additions to the trust property from a settlor or any other person;

(B) Acquire or sell property, for cash or on credit, at public or private sale;

(C) Exchange, partition, or otherwise change the character of trust property;

(D) Deposit trust money in an account in a regulated financial-service institution;

(E) Borrow money, with or without security, and mortgage or pledge trust property for a period within or extending beyond the duration of the trust;

(F) With respect to an interest in a proprietorship, partnership, limited liability company, business trust, corporation, or other form of business or enterprise, continue the business or other enterprise and take any action that may be taken by shareholders, members, or property owners, including merging, dissolving, or otherwise changing the form of business organization or contributing additional capital;

(G) With respect to stocks or other securities, exercise the rights of an absolute owner, including the right to do any of the following:

(1) Vote, or give proxies to vote, with or without power of substitution, or enter into or continue a voting trust agreement;

(2) Hold a security in the name of a nominee or in other form without disclosure of the trust so that title may pass by delivery;

(3) Pay calls, assessments, and other sums chargeable or accruing against the securities and sell or exercise stock subscription or conversion rights;

(4) Deposit the securities with a depositary or other regulated financial-service institution.

(H) With respect to an interest in real property, construct, or make ordinary or extraordinary repairs to, alterations to, or improvements in, buildings or other structures, demolish improvements, raze existing or erect new party walls or buildings, subdivide or develop land, dedicate land to public use or grant public or private easements, and make or vacate plats and adjust boundaries;

(I) Enter into a lease for any purpose as lessor or lessee, including a lease or other arrangement for exploration and removal of natural resources, with or without the option to purchase or renew, for a period within or extending beyond the duration of the trust;

(J) Grant an option involving a sale, lease, or other disposition of trust property or acquire an option for the acquisition of property, including an option exercisable beyond the duration of the trust, and exercise an option so acquired;

(K) Insure the property of the trust against damage or loss and insure the trustee, the trustee's agents, and beneficiaries against liability arising from the administration of the trust;

(L) Abandon or decline to administer property of no value or of insufficient value to justify its collection or continued administration;

(M) With respect to possible liability for violation of environmental law, do any of the following:

(1) Inspect or investigate property the trustee holds or has been asked to hold, or property owned or operated by an organization in which the trustee holds or has been asked to hold an interest, for the purpose of determining the application of environmental law with respect to the property;

(2) Take action to prevent, abate, or otherwise remedy any actual or potential violation of any environmental law affecting property held directly or indirectly by the trustee, whether taken before or after the assertion of a claim or the initiation of governmental enforcement;

(3) Decline to accept property into trust or disclaim any power with respect to property that is or may be burdened with liability for violation of environmental law;

(4) Compromise claims against the trust that may be asserted for an alleged violation of environmental law;

(5) Pay the expense of any inspection, review, abatement, or remedial action to comply with environmental law.

(N) Pay or contest any claim, settle a claim by or against the trust, and release, in whole or in part, a claim belonging to the trust;

(O) Pay taxes, assessments, compensation of the trustee and of employees and agents of the trust, and other expenses incurred in the administration of the trust;

(P) Exercise elections with respect to federal, state, and local taxes;

(Q) Select a mode of payment under any employee benefit or retirement plan, annuity, or life insurance policy payable to the trustee, exercise rights under any employee benefit or retirement plan, annuity, or life insurance policy payable to the trustee, including the right to indemnification for expenses and against liabilities, and take appropriate action to collect the proceeds;

(R) Make loans out of trust property, including loans to a beneficiary on terms and conditions the trustee considers to be fair and reasonable under the circumstances, and the trustee has a lien on future distributions for repayment of those loans;

(S) Guarantee loans made by others to the settlor of a revocable trust and, if the settlor so directs, guarantee loans made by others to a third party and mortgage, pledge, or grant a security interest in the property of a revocable trust to secure the payment of loans made by others to the settlor of the revocable trust and, if the settlor so directs, loans made by others to a third party;

(T) Appoint a trustee to act in another jurisdiction with respect to trust property located in the other jurisdiction, confer upon the appointed trustee all of the powers and duties of the appointing trustee, require that the appointed trustee furnish security, and remove any trustee so appointed;

(U) Pay an amount distributable to a beneficiary who is under a legal disability or who the trustee reasonably believes is incapacitated, by paying it directly to the beneficiary or applying it for the beneficiary's benefit, or by doing any of the following:

(1) Paying it to the beneficiary's guardian of the estate, or, if the beneficiary does not have a guardian of the estate, the beneficiary's guardian of the person;

(2) Paying it to the beneficiary's custodian under sections 5814.01 to 5814.09 of the Revised Code and, for that purpose, creating a custodianship;

(3) If the trustee does not know of a guardian of the person or estate, or custodian, paying it to an adult relative or other person having legal or physical care or custody of the beneficiary, to be expended on the beneficiary's behalf;

(4) Managing it as a separate fund on the beneficiary's behalf, subject to the beneficiary's continuing right to withdraw the distribution.

(V) On distribution of trust property or the division or termination of a trust, make distributions in divided or undivided interests, allocate particular assets in proportionate or disproportionate shares, value the trust property for those purposes, and adjust for resulting differences in valuation;

(W) Resolve a dispute concerning the interpretation of the trust or its administration by mediation, arbitration, or other procedure for alternative dispute resolution;

(X) Prosecute or defend an action, claim, or judicial proceeding in any jurisdiction to protect trust property and the trustee in the performance of the trustee's duties;

(Y) Sign and deliver contracts and other instruments that are useful to achieve or facilitate the exercise of the trustee's powers;

(Z) On termination of the trust, exercise the powers appropriate to wind up the administration of the trust and distribute the trust property to the persons entitled to it;

(AA) Employ agents, attorneys, accountants, investment advisors, and other professionals.

Effective Date: 01-01-2007; 2008 HB499 09-12-2008

5808.17 Powers and duties of trustee on termination; protection from liability.

(A) Upon termination or partial termination of a trust, the trustee may send to the beneficiaries a proposal for distribution. The right of any beneficiary to object to the proposed distribution terminates if the beneficiary does not notify the trustee of an objection within thirty days after the proposal was sent but only if the proposal informed the beneficiary of the right to object and of the time allowed for objection.

(B) Upon the occurrence of an event terminating or partially terminating a trust, the trustee shall proceed expeditiously to distribute the trust property to the persons entitled to it, subject to the right of the trustee to retain a reasonable reserve for the payment of debts, expenses, and taxes.

(C) A release by a beneficiary of a trustee from liability for breach of trust is invalid to the extent that it was induced by improper conduct of the trustee or that the beneficiary, at the time of the release, did not know of the beneficiary's rights or of the material facts relating to the breach.

(D) If a beneficiary who was entitled to receive a distribution is deceased, the beneficiary's death did not terminate the beneficiary's right to receive the distribution, and an administration of the beneficiary's estate is open, the trustee shall make the distribution to the personal representative of the beneficiary's estate. If a beneficiary who was entitled to receive a distribution is deceased, the beneficiary's death did not terminate the beneficiary's right to receive the distribution, and an administration of the beneficiary's estate is not open, the trustee, without liability, may make the distribution directly to the beneficiary's heirs or devisees without requiring the opening or re-opening of estate administration proceedings if the trustee does not know of an adverse claim to the distribution and one of the following applies:

(1) The beneficiary's estate was administered as an intestate estate in the jurisdiction in which the beneficiary was domiciled at death, and the trustee does both of the following:

(a) Distributes the personal property included in the distribution to the person or persons who were determined to be the heirs of the beneficiary in that administration, in the same manner as the personal property would have been distributed if it had been part of the beneficiary's intestate estate;

(b) Distributes the real property included in the distribution to the person or persons the trustee reasonably determines were the beneficiary's heirs under the statutes of descent and distribution, in effect at the time of the beneficiary's death, of the jurisdiction or jurisdictions in which the real property is located.

(2) The beneficiary's estate was administered as a testate estate in the jurisdiction in which the deceased beneficiary was domiciled at death, and the trustee does both of the following:

(a) Distributes the personal property included in the distribution to the residuary devisee or devisees under the beneficiary's will, in the same manner as the personal property would have been distributed in that administration if it had been part of the beneficiary's testate estate;

(b) Distributes the real property included in the distribution to the person or persons the trustee reasonably determines would have received the real property under the law of the jurisdiction or jurisdictions in which the real property is located.

(3) Division (D)(1) or (2) of this section does not apply, the beneficiary's death occurred at least six months before the trustee makes the distribution, and all of the following apply:

(a) The trustee determines that the beneficiary had created a trust during the beneficiary's life that remained in existence at the beneficiary's death.

(b) The beneficiary had executed a will that the trustee reasonably determines would have been admitted to probate if it had been offered for probate.

(c) The beneficiary's will described in division (D)(3)(b) of this section devised the residue of the beneficiary's estate to the trustee of the trust described in division (D)(3)(a) of this section to be held under the terms of that trust.

(d) The trustee makes the distribution to the trustee of the trust described in division (D)(3)(a) of this section.

(4) Division (D)(1), (2), or (3) of this section does not apply, the beneficiary's death occurred at least six months before the trustee makes the distribution, and all of the following apply:

(a) The trustee, exercising reasonable diligence, determines that an administration of the beneficiary's estate has not been commenced in the jurisdiction in which the trustee reasonably determines the beneficiary was domiciled at death.

(b) The trustee does not know of an administration of the beneficiary's estate having been commenced in any other jurisdiction.

(c) The trustee does not know of a purported last will and testament of the beneficiary.

(d) The trustee does both of the following:

(i) Distributes the personal property included in the distribution to the person or persons the trustee reasonably determines were the beneficiary's heirs under the statutes of descent and distribution, in effect at the time of the beneficiary's death, of the jurisdiction in which the trustee reasonably determines the beneficiary was domiciled at death;

(ii) Distributes the real property included in the distribution to the person or persons the trustee reasonably determines were the beneficiary's heirs under the statutes of descent and distribution, in effect at the time of the beneficiary's death, of the jurisdiction or jurisdictions in which the real property is located.

(E) The trustee's protection from liability for making distributions under division (D) of this section has no effect on the ability of third parties to pursue claims against the recipients of those distributions.

Amended by 129th General AssemblyFile No.65, SB 117, §1, eff. 3/22/2012.

Effective Date: 01-01-2007

5808.18 Trustee's power to make distributions in further trust.

(A) Unless the trust instrument expressly provides otherwise and subject to the limitations set forth in this section, all of the following apply:

(1) If a trustee of a trust, referred to in this section as the "first trust," has absolute power under the terms of the first trust to make distributions of principal to one or more current beneficiaries, that trustee may exercise that power by distributing all or any part of the principal subject to the power, and all or any part of any income that is not otherwise currently required to be distributed, to the trustee of another trust, referred to in this section as the "second trust," that is for the benefit of one or more current beneficiaries of the first trust. The second trust may be a trust under the trust instrument for the first trust or under a different governing instrument, including a governing instrument created by the trustee of the first trust. A trustee of a first trust who is authorized to make distributions to the trustee of a second trust pursuant to division (A) of this section may do so at any time, whether or not the trustee of the first trust would otherwise have made a distribution at that time to, or for the benefit of, any beneficiary pursuant to the terms of the first trust.

(2) In determining whether a trustee has absolute power to make distributions of principal to any current beneficiary and the identity of the current beneficiaries, all of the following apply:

(a) An absolute power to distribute principal includes any power to make distributions of principal that is not limited by reasonably definite standards or ascertainable standards, whether or not the word "absolute" is used in the trust instrument.

(b) A power to make distributions of principal for purposes that include best interests, welfare, comfort or happiness, or words of similar import, if not otherwise limited by reasonably definite standards or ascertainable standards, constitutes an absolute power not limited by reasonably definite standards or ascertainable standards, regardless of any requirement to take into account other resources of the current beneficiary or beneficiaries to whom those distributions may be made.

(c) If the current beneficiaries of the first trust are defined, in whole or in part, as a class of persons, that class includes any person who falls within that class of persons after the distribution to the second trust.

(d) A power to make distributions for the benefit of a beneficiary is considered a power to make distributions to that beneficiary.

(3) If property is distributed pursuant to the authority described in division (A) of this section, the governing instrument for the second trust may do either or both of the following:

(a) Grant a power of appointment to one or more of the beneficiaries for whose benefit the property was so distributed, including a power to appoint trust property to the power holder, the power holder's creditors, the power holder's estate, the creditors of the power holder's estate, or any other person, whether or not that person is a beneficiary of the first trust or the second trust;

(b) Provide that, at a time or upon an event specified in that governing instrument, the remaining trust property shall thereafter be held for the benefit of the beneficiaries of the first trust upon terms and conditions that are substantially identical to the terms and conditions of the trust instrument for the first trust, except that any current beneficiary or beneficiaries for whose benefit the property could have been, but was not, so distributed may be excluded from having any beneficial interest in the second trust.

(4) For purposes of division (A)(3) of this section, "terms and conditions" refer only to those terms and conditions that govern the interests of the beneficiaries.

(5) For purposes of division (A) of this section, charitable organizations that are not expressly designated in the terms of the first trust to receive distributions but to which the trustee of the first trust, in the discretion of the trustee, or in the discretion of any other person directing the trustee and acting in a fiduciary capacity, may at any time make a distribution, are considered beneficiaries of the first trust.

(B) Unless the trust instrument expressly provides otherwise and subject to the limitations set forth in this section, a trustee of a first trust who has power, other than absolute power as described in division (A) of this section, under the terms of the first trust to make distributions of principal to one or more current beneficiaries may exercise that power by distributing all or any part of the principal subject to the power, and all or any part of any income that is not otherwise currently required to be distributed, to the trustee of a second trust. The second trust may be a trust under the trust instrument for the first trust or under a different governing instrument, including a governing instrument created by the trustee of the first trust. The power described in this division may be exercised whether or not there is a current need to distribute trust principal under any standard contained in the first trust. The exercise of a trustee's power under this division is valid only if the governing instrument for the second trust does not materially change the interests of the beneficiaries of the first trust. For purposes of this division, a power to make distributions for the benefit of a beneficiary shall be considered a power to make distributions to that beneficiary.

(C) The exercise of the power to make distributions to a second trust under division (A) or (B) of this section is subject to the following additional limitations:

(1)

(a) The distribution to the trustee of the second trust shall not result in the reduction, limitation, or modification of any of the following rights or interests of a beneficiary of the first trust if the right or interest has come into effect with respect to the beneficiary:

(i) The current right to a mandatory distribution of income or principal of the first trust;

(ii) The current mandatory annuity or unitrust interest in the property of the first trust;

(iii) The right annually to withdraw a percentage of the value of the first trust or a specified dollar amount.

(b) For purposes of division (C)(1)(a)(i) of this section, a beneficiary's current right to a distribution of income is not considered to be mandatory if, under the terms of the first trust, current distributions of principal may be made to any person other than that current beneficiary.

(2) If any transfer to the first trust qualified, or if not for the provisions of division (A) or (B) of this section would have qualified, for a marital or charitable deduction for purposes of any federal income, gift, or estate tax under the Internal Revenue Code, or for purposes of any state income, gift, estate, or inheritance tax, the governing instrument for the second trust shall not include or omit any term that, if included in or omitted from the trust instrument for the first trust, would have prevented the first trust from qualifying for that deduction, or would have reduced the amount of the deduction, under the same provisions of the Internal Revenue Code or under the same provisions of the applicable state law under which the transfer to the first trust so qualified.

(3) If any transfer to the first trust has been treated, or if not for the provisions of division (A) or (B) of this section would have been treated, as a gift qualifying for the exclusion from the gift tax described in section 2503(b) of the Internal Revenue Code, the governing instrument for the second trust shall not include or omit any term that, if included in or omitted from the trust instrument for the first trust, would have prevented any gift to the first trust from so qualifying under the same provisions of section 2503 of the Internal Revenue Code under which the transfer to the first trust so qualified.

(4) If the assets of the first trust include any shares of stock in an S corporation, as defined in section 1361 of the Internal Revenue Code, and the first trust is, or if not for the provisions of division (A) or (B) of this section would be, a permitted shareholder under any provision of section 1361 of the Internal Revenue Code, the governing instrument for the second trust shall not include or omit any term that, if included in or omitted from the trust instrument for the first trust, would have prevented the first trust from qualifying as a permitted shareholder of shares of stock in an S corporation under the same provisions of section 1361 of the Internal Revenue Code under which the first trust so qualified.

(5) If any transfer to the first trust has been treated, or if not for the provisions of division (A) or (B) of this section would have been treated, as a gift qualifying for a zero inclusion ratio for purposes of the federal generation-skipping transfer tax under section 2642(c) of the Internal Revenue Code, the governing instrument for the second trust shall not include or omit any term that, if included in or omitted from the trust instrument for the first trust, would have prevented the transfer to the first trust from so qualifying.

(6) If the assets of the first trust include any interest subject to the minimum distribution rules of section 401(a)(9) of the Internal Revenue Code and the treasury regulations issued under that section, the governing instrument for the second trust shall not include or omit any term that, if included in or omitted from the trust instrument for the first trust, would have shortened the maximum distribution period otherwise allowable under section 401(a)(9) of the Internal Revenue Code and the treasury regulations with respect to that interest under the first trust.

(7)

(a) As used in division (C)(7) of this section, " tax benefit" means any federal or state tax deduction, exemption, exclusion, or other tax benefit not otherwise listed in division (C) of this section.

(b) If the trust instrument for the first trust expressly indicates an intention to qualify for any tax benefit or if the terms of the trust instrument for the first trust are clearly designed to enable the first trust to qualify for a tax benefit, and if the first trust did qualify, or if not for the provisions of division (A) or (B) of this section would have qualified, for any tax benefit, the governing instrument for the second trust shall not include or omit any term that, if included in or omitted from the trust instrument for the first trust, would have prevented the first trust from qualifying for that tax benefit.

(8) The distribution to the trustee of the second trust shall not result in either of the following:

(a) An increase in, or a change in the method of determining, the compensation of the trustee unless the increase in, or change in the method of determining, that compensation has been consented to by all of the persons, other than the trustee of the second trust, who are current beneficiaries of the second trust or is approved by the court having jurisdiction over the trust. However, an increase in compensation of the trustee arising solely because the duration of the second trust is longer than the duration of the first trust is not considered an increase in, or a change in the method of determining, the compensation of the trustee.

(b) A reduction in the standard of care applicable to the actions of the trustee of the first trust or the second trust or an exoneration of the trustee of the first trust or the second trust from liability for actions taken in bad faith or with willful disregard of the duties of either trustee, including by increasing the extent to which the trustee is entitled to indemnification from the trust, as provided in the terms of the first trust and under any law of this state.

(D) The exercise of the power to distribute trust income or principal to the trustee of a second trust under division (A) or (B) of this section shall be by an instrument in writing, signed by the trustee of the first trust and filed with the records of the first trust.

(E) The power to distribute trust income or principal to the trustee of a second trust under division (A) or (B) of this section shall not be exercised in a manner contrary to any provision of section 2131.08 of the Revised Code to the extent applicable to the first trust and after applying the provisions of section 2131.09 of the Revised Code to the extent applicable to the first trust. Solely for purposes of applying under this division the provisions of sections 2131.08 and 2131.09 of the Revised Code, the exercise of the power to distribute trust income or principal to the trustee of a second trust under division (A) or (B) of this section is considered the exercise of a nongeneral power of appointment as defined in division (F) of section 2131.09 of the Revised Code.

(F) The trustee of the first trust shall notify all current beneficiaries of the first trust, in writing, of the intended distribution to the trustee of a second trust pursuant to division (A) or (B) of this section not later than thirty days prior to that distribution. The distribution may be made prior to the expiration of thirty days from the date on which that notice is given to all current beneficiaries of the first trust if all of those current beneficiaries waive the thirty-day period from receipt of that notice. The trustee's giving of notice of an intended distribution under this division or the waiver or expiration of that thirty-day period from receipt of the notice do not limit the right of any beneficiary to object to the exercise of the trustee's power to distribute trust principal as provided in any other applicable provision of the Ohio Trust Code.

(G) Any person, other than the trustee, who has a power exercisable in a fiduciary capacity to direct the trustee to make any distribution of principal that, if held by the trustee, would be a power to make a distribution as described in division (A) or (B) of this section, may exercise that power by directing the trustee to make a distribution under either division (A) or (B) of this section, whichever would be applicable if that person were the trustee, subject to all of the limitations described in this section that apply to a trustee's exercise of that power.

(H) The exercise of the power to distribute trust income or principal to the trustee of a second trust under division (A) or (B) of this section is not prohibited by a spendthrift clause or a provision in the trust instrument that prohibits the amendment or revocation of the trust.

(I) For purposes of division (A) of section 5808.14 of the Revised Code, a trustee who acts reasonably and in good faith in exercising the power to distribute trust income or principal to the trustee of a second trust in accordance with division (A) or (B) of this section, is presumed to have acted in accordance with the terms and purposes of the trust and the interests of the beneficiaries.

(J) Nothing in this section is intended to create or imply a duty to exercise a power to distribute income or principal of a trust, and no inference of impropriety shall arise as a result of a trustee not exercising the power to make any distribution to the trustee of a second trust under division (A) or (B) of this section.

(K) If the first trust is a testamentary trust established under the will of a testator who was domiciled in this state at the time of the testator's death, the power to distribute trust income or principal to the trustee of a second trust under division (A) or (B) of this section may be exercised only if approved by the court, if any, that has jurisdiction over the testamentary trust.

(L) Divisions (A) and (B) of this section do not apply to either of the following:

(1) Any trust during any period that the trust may be revoked or amended by its settlor;

(2) Any trustee with respect to any portion of the first trust as to which that trustee is also the settlor.

(M) If, and to the extent that, a trustee makes any distribution pursuant to division (A) or (B) of this section to the trustee of a second trust, then for purposes of division (W) of section 5801.01 of the Revised Code, the governing instrument for the second trust is considered to be an amendment of the trust instrument signed by the settlor of the first trust, even if that governing instrument is signed by a person other than that settlor.

(N) Nothing in this section shall be construed to limit the power of any trustee to distribute trust property in further trust, whether that power arises under the terms of the trust instrument, under any other section of Title LVIII of the Revised Code, under any other statute, or under the common law. The terms of a trust instrument may do any of the following:

(1) Confer upon the trustee the power to make any distribution, or confer upon any other person acting in a fiduciary capacity the power to direct the trustee to make any distribution, in further trust that is broader or more limited than, or that conflict with, the provisions of this section;

(2) Provide for different requirements for notice to beneficiaries of the trust of the trustee's exercise of the power conferred under the terms of the trust instrument or described in division (A) or (B) of this section;

(3) Waive any requirement of notice to the beneficiaries of the trust of the trustee's exercise of the power conferred under the terms of the trust instrument or described in division (A) or (B) of this section;

(4) Otherwise include any terms and conditions governing the distribution in further trust that the settlor of the trust determines.

(O)

(1) Division (A) of this section is intended to be a codification of the common law of this state in effect prior to March 22, 2012, and applies to distributions, whenever made, from any trust that is governed by the law of this state or that has its principal place of administration in this state, whether that trust was created before, on, or after March 22, 2012.

(2) Division (B) of this section applies to distributions made on or after March 22, 2012, from any trust that is governed by the law of this state or that has its principal place of administration in this state, whether that trust was created before, on, or after March 22, 2012.

Amended by 129th General AssemblyFile No.201, HB 479, §1, eff. 3/27/2013.

Added by 129th General AssemblyFile No.65, SB 117, §1, eff. 3/22/2012.

5808.19 Antilapse provisions; survivorship with respect to future interests; substitute gifts.

(A) As used in this section, unless otherwise provided in any other provision in this section:

(1) "Beneficiary" means the beneficiary of a future interest and includes a class member if the future interest is in the form of a class gift.

(2) "Class member" means an individual who fails to survive the distribution date by at least one hundred twenty hours but who would have taken under a future interest in the form of a class gift had the individual survived the distribution date by at least one hundred twenty hours.

(3) "Descendant of a grandparent of the transferor" means an individual who would qualify as a descendant of a grandparent of the transferor under the rules of construction that would apply to a class gift under the transferor's will to the descendants of the transferor's grandparent.

(4) "Distribution date," with respect to a future interest, means the time when the future interest is to take effect in possession or enjoyment. The distribution date need not occur at the beginning or end of a calendar day but may occur at a time during the course of a day.

(5) "Future interest" means an alternative future interest or a future interest in the form of a class gift.

(6) "Future interest under the terms of a trust" means a future interest that was created by a transfer creating a trust or a transfer to an existing trust, or by an exercise of a power of appointment to an existing trust, that directs the continuance of an existing trust, designates a beneficiary of an existing trust, or creates a trust.

(7) "Per stirpes" means that the shares of the descendants of a beneficiary who does not survive the distribution date by at least one hundred twenty hours are determined in the same way they would have been determined under division (A) of section 2105.06 of the Revised Code if the beneficiary had died intestate and unmarried on the distribution date.

(8) "Revocable trust" means a trust that was revocable immediately before the settlor's death by the settlor alone or by the settlor with the consent of any person other than a person holding an adverse interest. A trust's characterization as revocable is not affected by the settlor's lack of capacity to exercise the power of revocation, regardless of whether an agent of the settlor under a power of attorney, or a guardian of the person or estate of the settlor, was serving.

(9) "Stepchild" means a child of the surviving, deceased, or former spouse of the transferor and not of the transferor.

(10) "Transferor" means any of the following:

(a) The donor and donee of a power of appointment, if the future interest was in property as a result of the exercise of a power of appointment;

(b) The testator, if the future interest was devised by will;

(c) The settlor, if the future interest was conveyed by inter vivos trust.

(B)

(1)

(a) As used in "surviving descendants" in divisions (B)(2)(b)(i) and (ii) of this section, "descendants" means the descendants of a deceased beneficiary or class member who would take under a class gift created in the trust.

(b) As used in divisions (B)(2)(b)(i) and (ii) of this section, "surviving beneficiaries" or "surviving descendants" means beneficiaries or descendants, whichever is applicable, who survive the distribution date by at least one hundred twenty hours.

(2) Unless a contrary intent appears in the instrument creating a future interest under the terms of a trust, each of the following applies:

(a) A future interest under the terms of a trust is contingent on the beneficiary's surviving the distribution date by at least one hundred twenty hours.

(b) If a beneficiary of a future interest under the terms of a trust does not survive the distribution date by at least one hundred twenty hours and if the beneficiary is a grandparent of the transferor, a descendant of a grandparent of the transferor, or a stepchild of the transferor, either of the following applies:

(i) If the future interest is not in the form of a class gift and the deceased beneficiary leaves surviving descendants, a substitute gift is created in the beneficiary's surviving descendants. The surviving descendants take, per stirpes, the property to which the beneficiary would have been entitled had the beneficiary survived the distribution date by at least one hundred twenty hours.

(ii) If the future interest is in the form of a class gift, other than a future interest to "issue," "descendants," "heirs of the body," "heirs," "next of kin," "relatives," or "family," or a class described by language of similar import, a substitute gift is created in the surviving descendants of the deceased beneficiary or beneficiaries. The property to which the beneficiaries would have been entitled had all of them survived the distribution date by at least one hundred twenty hours passes to the surviving beneficiaries and the surviving descendants of the deceased beneficiaries. Each surviving beneficiary takes the share to which the surviving beneficiary would have been entitled had the deceased beneficiaries survived the distribution date by at least one hundred twenty hours. Each deceased beneficiary's surviving descendants who are substituted for the deceased beneficiary take, per stirpes, the share to which the deceased beneficiary would have been entitled had the deceased beneficiary survived the distribution date by at least one hundred twenty hours. For purposes of division (B)(2)(b)(ii) of this section, "deceased beneficiary" means a class member who failed to survive the distribution date by at least one hundred twenty hours and left one or more surviving descendants.

(C) For purposes of this section, each of the following applies:

(1) Describing a class of beneficiaries as "surviving" or "living," without specifying when the beneficiaries must be surviving or living, such as a gift "for my spouse for life, then to my surviving (or living) children," is not, in the absence of other language in the trust instrument or other evidence to the contrary, a sufficient indication of an intent to negate the application of division (B)(2)(b) of this section.

(2) Subject to division (C)(1) of this section, attaching words of survivorship to a future interest under the terms of a trust, such as "for my spouse for life, then to my children who survive my spouse" or "for my spouse for life, then to my then-living children" is, in the absence of other language in the trust instrument or other evidence to the contrary, a sufficient indication of an intent to negate the application of division (B)(2)(b) of this section. Words of survivorship under division (C)(2) of this section include words of survivorship that relate to the distribution date or to an earlier or an unspecified time, whether those words of survivorship are expressed as condition-precedent, condition-subsequent, or in any other form.

(3) A residuary clause in a will is not a sufficient indication of an intent that is contrary to the application of this section, whether or not the will specifically provides that lapsed or failed devises are to pass under the residuary clause. A residuary clause in a revocable trust instrument is not a sufficient indication of an intent that is contrary to the application of this section unless the distribution date is the date of the settlor's death and the revocable trust instrument specifically provides that upon lapse or failure the nonresiduary devise, or nonresiduary devises in general, pass under the residuary clause.

(D) If, after the application of divisions (B) and (C) of this section there is no surviving taker of the property, and a contrary intent does not appear in the instrument creating the future interest, the property passes in the following order:

(1) If the future interest was created by the exercise of a power of appointment, the property passes under the donor's gift-in-default clause, if any, which clause is treated as creating a future interest under the terms of a trust.

(2) If no taker is produced under division (D)(1) of this section and the trust was created in a nonresiduary devise in the transferor's will or in a codicil to the transferor's will, the property passes under the residuary clause in the transferor's will. For purposes of division (D)(2) of this section, the residuary clause is treated as creating a future interest under the terms of a trust.

(3) If no taker is produced under divisions (D)(1) and (2) of this section, the transferor is deceased, and the trust was created in a nonresiduary gift under the terms of a revocable trust of the transferor, the property passes under the residuary clause in the transferor's revocable trust instrument. For purposes of division (D)(3) of this section, the residuary clause in the transferor's revocable trust instrument is treated as creating a future interest under the terms of a trust.

(4) If no taker is produced under divisions (D)(1), (2), and (3) of this section, the property passes to those persons who would succeed to the transferor's intestate estate and in the shares as provided in the intestate succession law of the transferor's domicile if the transferor died on the distribution date. Notwithstanding division (A)(10) of this section, for purposes of division (D)(4) of this section, if the future interest was created by the exercise of a power of appointment, "transferor" means the donor if the power is a nongeneral power, or the donee if the power is a general power.

(E) This section applies to all trusts that become irrevocable on or after the effective date of this section. This section does not apply to any trust that was irrevocable before the effective date of this section even if property was added to the trust on or after that effective date.

Added by 129th General AssemblyFile No.65, SB 117, §1, eff. 3/22/2012.