5808.19 Antilapse provisions; survivorship with respect to future interests; substitute gifts.

(A) As used in this section, unless otherwise provided in any other provision in this section:

(1) "Beneficiary" means the beneficiary of a future interest and includes a class member if the future interest is in the form of a class gift.

(2) "Class member" means an individual who fails to survive the distribution date by at least one hundred twenty hours but who would have taken under a future interest in the form of a class gift had the individual survived the distribution date by at least one hundred twenty hours.

(3) "Descendant of a grandparent of the transferor" means an individual who would qualify as a descendant of a grandparent of the transferor under the rules of construction that would apply to a class gift under the transferor's will to the descendants of the transferor's grandparent.

(4) "Distribution date," with respect to a future interest, means the time when the future interest is to take effect in possession or enjoyment. The distribution date need not occur at the beginning or end of a calendar day but may occur at a time during the course of a day.

(5) "Future interest" means an alternative future interest or a future interest in the form of a class gift.

(6) "Future interest under the terms of a trust" means a future interest that was created by a transfer creating a trust or a transfer to an existing trust, or by an exercise of a power of appointment to an existing trust, that directs the continuance of an existing trust, designates a beneficiary of an existing trust, or creates a trust.

(7) "Per stirpes" means that the shares of the descendants of a beneficiary who does not survive the distribution date by at least one hundred twenty hours are determined in the same way they would have been determined under division (A) of section 2105.06 of the Revised Code if the beneficiary had died intestate and unmarried on the distribution date.

(8) "Revocable trust" means a trust that was revocable immediately before the settlor's death by the settlor alone or by the settlor with the consent of any person other than a person holding an adverse interest. A trust's characterization as revocable is not affected by the settlor's lack of capacity to exercise the power of revocation, regardless of whether an agent of the settlor under a power of attorney, or a guardian of the person or estate of the settlor, was serving.

(9) "Stepchild" means a child of the surviving, deceased, or former spouse of the transferor and not of the transferor.

(10) "Transferor" means any of the following:

(a) The donor and donee of a power of appointment, if the future interest was in property as a result of the exercise of a power of appointment;

(b) The testator, if the future interest was devised by will;

(c) The settlor, if the future interest was conveyed by inter vivos trust.

(B)

(1)

(a) As used in "surviving descendants" in divisions (B)(2)(b)(i) and (ii) of this section, "descendants" means the descendants of a deceased beneficiary or class member who would take under a class gift created in the trust.

(b) As used in divisions (B)(2)(b)(i) and (ii) of this section, "surviving beneficiaries" or "surviving descendants" means beneficiaries or descendants, whichever is applicable, who survive the distribution date by at least one hundred twenty hours.

(2) Unless a contrary intent appears in the instrument creating a future interest under the terms of a trust, each of the following applies:

(a) A future interest under the terms of a trust is contingent on the beneficiary's surviving the distribution date by at least one hundred twenty hours.

(b) If a beneficiary of a future interest under the terms of a trust does not survive the distribution date by at least one hundred twenty hours and if the beneficiary is a grandparent of the transferor, a descendant of a grandparent of the transferor, or a stepchild of the transferor, either of the following applies:

(i) If the future interest is not in the form of a class gift and the deceased beneficiary leaves surviving descendants, a substitute gift is created in the beneficiary's surviving descendants. The surviving descendants take, per stirpes, the property to which the beneficiary would have been entitled had the beneficiary survived the distribution date by at least one hundred twenty hours.

(ii) If the future interest is in the form of a class gift, other than a future interest to "issue," "descendants," "heirs of the body," "heirs," "next of kin," "relatives," or "family," or a class described by language of similar import, a substitute gift is created in the surviving descendants of the deceased beneficiary or beneficiaries. The property to which the beneficiaries would have been entitled had all of them survived the distribution date by at least one hundred twenty hours passes to the surviving beneficiaries and the surviving descendants of the deceased beneficiaries. Each surviving beneficiary takes the share to which the surviving beneficiary would have been entitled had the deceased beneficiaries survived the distribution date by at least one hundred twenty hours. Each deceased beneficiary's surviving descendants who are substituted for the deceased beneficiary take, per stirpes, the share to which the deceased beneficiary would have been entitled had the deceased beneficiary survived the distribution date by at least one hundred twenty hours. For purposes of division (B)(2)(b)(ii) of this section, "deceased beneficiary" means a class member who failed to survive the distribution date by at least one hundred twenty hours and left one or more surviving descendants.

(C) For purposes of this section, each of the following applies:

(1) Describing a class of beneficiaries as "surviving" or "living," without specifying when the beneficiaries must be surviving or living, such as a gift "for my spouse for life, then to my surviving (or living) children," is not, in the absence of other language in the trust instrument or other evidence to the contrary, a sufficient indication of an intent to negate the application of division (B)(2)(b) of this section.

(2) Subject to division (C)(1) of this section, attaching words of survivorship to a future interest under the terms of a trust, such as "for my spouse for life, then to my children who survive my spouse" or "for my spouse for life, then to my then-living children" is, in the absence of other language in the trust instrument or other evidence to the contrary, a sufficient indication of an intent to negate the application of division (B)(2)(b) of this section. Words of survivorship under division (C)(2) of this section include words of survivorship that relate to the distribution date or to an earlier or an unspecified time, whether those words of survivorship are expressed as condition-precedent, condition-subsequent, or in any other form.

(3) A residuary clause in a will is not a sufficient indication of an intent that is contrary to the application of this section, whether or not the will specifically provides that lapsed or failed devises are to pass under the residuary clause. A residuary clause in a revocable trust instrument is not a sufficient indication of an intent that is contrary to the application of this section unless the distribution date is the date of the settlor's death and the revocable trust instrument specifically provides that upon lapse or failure the nonresiduary devise, or nonresiduary devises in general, pass under the residuary clause.

(D) If, after the application of divisions (B) and (C) of this section there is no surviving taker of the property, and a contrary intent does not appear in the instrument creating the future interest, the property passes in the following order:

(1) If the future interest was created by the exercise of a power of appointment, the property passes under the donor's gift-in-default clause, if any, which clause is treated as creating a future interest under the terms of a trust.

(2) If no taker is produced under division (D)(1) of this section and the trust was created in a nonresiduary devise in the transferor's will or in a codicil to the transferor's will, the property passes under the residuary clause in the transferor's will. For purposes of division (D)(2) of this section, the residuary clause is treated as creating a future interest under the terms of a trust.

(3) If no taker is produced under divisions (D)(1) and (2) of this section, the transferor is deceased, and the trust was created in a nonresiduary gift under the terms of a revocable trust of the transferor, the property passes under the residuary clause in the transferor's revocable trust instrument. For purposes of division (D)(3) of this section, the residuary clause in the transferor's revocable trust instrument is treated as creating a future interest under the terms of a trust.

(4) If no taker is produced under divisions (D)(1), (2), and (3) of this section, the property passes to those persons who would succeed to the transferor's intestate estate and in the shares as provided in the intestate succession law of the transferor's domicile if the transferor died on the distribution date. Notwithstanding division (A)(10) of this section, for purposes of division (D)(4) of this section, if the future interest was created by the exercise of a power of appointment, "transferor" means the donor if the power is a nongeneral power, or the donee if the power is a general power.

(E) This section applies to all trusts that become irrevocable on or after the effective date of this section. This section does not apply to any trust that was irrevocable before the effective date of this section even if property was added to the trust on or after that effective date.

Added by 129th General AssemblyFile No.65, SB 117, §1, eff. 3/22/2012.