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This website publishes administrative rules on their effective dates, as designated by the adopting state agencies, colleges, and universities.

Rule 3745-81-32 | Public notification.

 

(A) General requirements for public notification by public water systems.

(1) The owner or operator of a public water system shall provide public notice to persons served by that public water system in accordance with this rule. Public water systems that sell or otherwise provide drinking water to other public water systems (i.e., to consecutive systems) are required to give pofublic notice in accordance with this rule to the owner or operator of the consecutive system; the consecutive system is responsible for providing public notice in accordance with this rule to the persons it serves.

(2) If a community public water system has a violation in a portion of the distribution system that is physically or hydraulically isolated from other parts of the distribution system as described in the emergency contingency plan required by Chapter 3745-85 of the Administrative Code, the director may allow the system to limit distribution of the public notice to only persons served by that portion of the system which is out of compliance. Permission for limited distribution shall be granted in writing by the director.

(3) The public water system, within ten days of completing the public notification requirements under this rule for the initial public notice and any repeat notices, shall submit to the director a completed verification form indicating that the system has fully complied with the public notification regulations. The public water system shall include with this certification a representative copy of each type of notice distributed, published, posted and made available to the persons served by the system and to the media.

(B) Tier 1 public notification requirements.

(1) The owner or operator of a public water system with any of the following violations or situations that may pose an acute risk to human health, shall notify the persons served by the public water system in accordance with paragraph (B)(3) of this rule:

(a) Any violation or situation specified by the director as posing an acute risk to human health including, but not limited to, situations revealed through a level one assessment or level two assessment conducted pursuant to rule 3745-81-53 of the Administrative Code.

(b) Violation of the maximum contaminant level (MCL) for nitrate and nitrite as established in rule 3745-81-11 of the Administrative Code and determined according to rule 3745-81-23 of the Administrative Code.

(c) Until March 31, 2016, violation of the maximum contaminant level for total coliforms, as specified in paragraph (C) of rule 3745-81-14 of the Administrative Code.

(d) Until March 31, 2016, violation of monitoring and reporting repeat samples for total coliforms, as specified in paragraph (B) of rule 3745-81-21 of the Administrative Code.

(e) Beginning April 1, 2016, violation of the maximum contaminant level for Escherichia coli (E. coli), as specified in paragraph (D) of rule 3745-81-14 of the Administrative Code.

(f) Occurrence of a waterborne disease outbreak in a public water system, as defined in rule 3745-81-01 of the Administrative Code, or waterborne emergency as specified by the director.

(g) Violation of the maximum residual disinfectant level (MRDL) for chlorine dioxide as defined in rule 3745-81-10 of the Administrative Code and determined according to rule 3745-81-70 of the Administrative Code.

(h) Exceedance of the turbidity level in representative samples of filtered water as specified in paragraph (E) of rule 3745-81-75 of the Administrative Code and one or more of the following occurs:

(i) The public water system fails to consult with the director within twenty-four hours after learning of the violation.

(ii) Any failure in an individual treatment process where the treatment process does not operate as designed and approved.

(iii) The director determines after consultation that a Tier 1 notice is required.

(i) Public water systems with a fecal indicator-positive ground water source sample collected under paragraph (A) or (B) of rule 3745-81-42 of the Administrative Code. This requirement also applies to consecutive systems supplied by the ground water source.

(2) The owner or operator of a public water system with a physical or operational disruption shall notify the persons served in the affected area of the public water system in accordance with paragraph (B)(3) of this rule when any sample (including special purpose samples) taken after minimum pressure falls below twenty pounds per square inch gauge at ground level and within the affected area of disruption is determined to be E. coli positive or fecal coliform positive.

(a) Tier 1 notice is not required if the system issued a precautionary notice as approved by the director through the public water system's contingency plan required by Chapter 3745-85 of the Administrative Code and a follow-up notice identifying the E. coli or fecal coliform results is issued to persons who received the preliminary notice.

(b) The Tier 1 notice shall remain in effect until total coliforms are not detected in consecutive samples collected twenty-four hours apart. The number of samples to be collected each day must be representative of the affected area, but shall not be less than two samples per day.

(3) Public water systems shall do all of the following:

(a) Provide a public notice as soon as practical but no later than twenty-four hours after the system learns of the violation or situation, using one or more of the following forms of delivery in order to reach all persons served:

(i) Appropriate broadcast media (such as radio and television).

(ii) Posting of the notice in conspicuous locations throughout the area served by the water system.

(iii) Hand delivery of the notice to persons served by the water system.

(iv) Another delivery method approved in writing by the director.

(b) Initiate consultation with the director as soon as practical, but no later than twenty-four hours after the public water system learns of the violation or situation, to determine additional public notice requirements.

(c) Comply with any additional public notification requirements (including any repeat notices or direction on the duration of the posted notices) that are established as a result of the consultation with the director. Such requirements may include the timing, form, manner, frequency, and content of repeat notices (if any) and other actions designed to reach all persons served.

(C) Tier 2 public notification requirements.

(1) The owner or operator of a public water system with any of the following violations or situations shall notify the persons served by the public water system in accordance with paragraph (C)(2) of this rule:

(a) All violations of the MCL, MRDL, and treatment technique requirements pursuant to this chapter, except those specified in paragraph (B)(1) of this rule.

(b) Failure to collect any three months or more of source water monitoring as specified in paragraph (C) of rule 3745-81-65 of the Administrative Code for the "Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule."

(c) Failure to determine and report bin classification or mean Cryptosporidium level required by paragraphs (A) to (D) of rule 3745-81-65 of the Administrative Code for the "Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule."

(d) Any other violation or situation specified by the director.

(2) Public water systems shall do all of the following:

(a) Provide a public notice as soon as practical, but no later than thirty days after the system learns of the violation or situation.

(i) Community public water systems shall provide notice using the following forms of delivery in order to reach all persons served:

(a) At least, mail or other direct delivery to each customer receiving a bill and to other service connections to which water is delivered by the public water system.

(b) Any other method reasonably calculated to reach other persons regularly served by the system, if they would not normally be reached by the notice required in paragraph (C)(2)(a)(i)(a) of this rule. Such persons may include those who do not pay water bills or do not have service connection addresses (e.g., house renters, apartment dwellers, university students, nursing home patients, prison inmates, etc.). Other methods may include: publication in a local newspaper; delivery of multiple copies for distribution by customers that provide their drinking water to others (e.g., apartment building owners or large private employers); posting in public places served by the system or on the Internet; or delivery to community organizations. If the public notice is posted, the notice shall remain in place for as long as the violation or situation persists, but in no case for less than seven days, even if the violation or situation is resolved.

(ii) Noncommunity public water systems shall provide notice using the following forms of delivery in order to reach all persons served:

(a) At least, posting the notice in conspicuous locations throughout the distribution system frequented by persons served by the system, or by mail or direct delivery to each customer and service connection (where known). If the public notice is posted, the notice shall remain in place for as long as the violation or situation persists, but in no case for less than seven days, even if the violation or situation is resolved.

(b) Any other method reasonably calculated to reach other persons served by the system if they would not normally be reached by the notice required in paragraph (C)(2)(a)(ii)(a) of this rule. Such persons may include those served who may not see a posted notice because the posted notice is not in a location they routinely pass by. When the persons served are children, such as in schools, their parents or legal guardians shall be notified. Other methods may include: publication in a local newspaper or newsletter distributed to customers; use of E-mail to notify employees or students and parents or legal guardians; or delivery of multiple copies in central locations (e.g., community centers).

(b) The public water system shall repeat the notice every three months as long as the violation or situation persists, unless the director determines that appropriate circumstances warrant a different repeat notice frequency. In no circumstances may the repeat notice be given less frequently than once per year. Less frequent repeat public notices shall not be allowed for an MCL or treatment technique violation under rule 3745-81-14 or 3745-81-54 of the Administrative Code or a treatment technique violation under rules 3745-81-64 to 3745-81-74 of the Administrative Code. Permission to issue repeat notices less frequently than once every three months must be granted in writing by the director.

(c) For turbidity violations specified in paragraph (E) of rule 3745-81-75 of the Administrative Code, public water systems shall consult with the director as soon as practical but no later than twenty-four hours after the public water system learns of the violation. When the director determines after consultation that a Tier 1 notice is required, or when consultation does not take place within the twenty-four hour period, the water system shall distribute notice of the violation within the next twenty-four hours (i.e., no later than forty-eight hours after the system learns of the violation) in accordance with paragraph (B) of this rule.

(D) Tier 3 public notification requirements.

(1) The owner or operator of a public water system with any of the following violations or situations shall notify the persons served by the public water system in accordance with paragraphs (D)(2) and (D)(3) of this rule:

(a) Violations of the monitoring and testing procedure requirements pursuant to this chapter.

(b) Exceedance of the fluoride secondary maximum contaminant level (SMCL) as specified in Chapter 3745-82 of the Administrative Code.

(c) Availability of unregulated contaminant monitoring results, as required by 40 C.F.R. Section 141.207.

(d) Reporting and recordkeeping violations under rules 3745-81-50 to 3745-81-55 of the Administrative Code.

(e) Any other violation or situation specified by the director.

(2) Community public water systems shall provide notice as soon as practical, but no later than one year after the public water system learns of the violation or situation. The following forms of delivery shall be used in order to reach all persons served:

(a) Mail or other direct delivery to each customer receiving a bill and to other service connections to which water is delivered by the public water system.

(b) Any other method reasonably calculated to reach other persons regularly served by the system, if they would not normally be reached by the notice required in paragraph (D)(2)(a) of this rule. Such persons may include those who do not pay water bills or do not have service connection addresses (e.g., house renters, apartment dwellers, university students, nursing home patients, prison inmates, etc.). Other methods may include: publication in a local newspaper; delivery of multiple copies for distribution by customers that provide their drinking water to others (e.g., apartment building owners or large private employers); posting in public places or on the Internet; or delivery to community organizations. If the public notice is posted, the notice shall remain in place for as long as the violation or other situation persists, but in no case less than seven days (even if the violation or situation is resolved).

(c) The consumer confidence report (CCR) required under Chapter 3745-96 of the Administrative Code may be used as a vehicle for the initial public notice and all required repeat notices, as long as all of the following is met:

(i) The CCR is provided to persons served within the time frames specified in paragraph (D)(2) of this rule.

(ii) The notice contained in the CCR follows the content requirements under this rule.

(iii) The CCR is distributed following the delivery requirements in this rule.

(3) Noncommunity water systems shall provide notice as soon as practical, but no later than thirty days after the public water system learns of the violation or situation. The following forms of delivery shall be used in order to reach all persons served:

(a) Posting the notice in conspicuous locations through the distribution system frequented by persons served by the system, or by mail or direct delivery to each customer and service connection (where known). If the public notice is posted, the notice shall remain in place for as long as the violation or other situation persists, but in no case less than seven days (even if the violation or situation is resolved).

(b) Any other method reasonably calculated to reach other persons served by the system, if they would not normally be reached by the notice required in paragraph (D)(3)(a) of this rule. Such persons may include those who may not see a posted notice because the notice is not in a location they routinely pass by. When the persons served are children, such as in schools, their parents or legal guardians shall be notified. Other methods may include: publication in a local newspaper or newsletter distributed to customers; use of E-mail to notify employees or students and parents or legal guardians; or, delivery of multiple copies in central locations (e.g., community centers).

(4) For methods other than posting, the public water system shall repeat the notice annually for as long as the violation or other situation persists.

(5) For violations of the fluoride SMCL, the public water system shall send a copy of the notice to the local health department and the "Ohio Department of Health, Bureau of Oral Health Services."

(E) Content of public notices.

(1) Each public notice, except the public notice required in paragraphs (C)(1)(b) and (C)(1)(c) of this rule, shall include all of the following elements:

(a) A description of the violation or situation, including the contaminant of concern, the MCL, and (as applicable) the contaminant level.

(b) When the violation or situation occurred.

(c) Any potential adverse health effects from the violation or situation, including one or both of the following:

(i) Standard health effects language specified in table 1 of this rule, including the language necessary to fill in the blanks, for MCL, MRDL, treatment technique or fluoride SMCL exceedances.

(ii) Standard language for monitoring and testing procedure violations, including the language necessary to fill in the blanks: "We are required to monitor your drinking water for specific contaminants on a regular basis. Results of regular monitoring are an indicator of whether or not your drinking water meets health standards. During [compliance period], we "did not monitor or test" or "did not complete all monitoring or testing" for [contaminant(s)], and therefore cannot be sure of the quality of your drinking water during that time."

(d) The population at risk, including subpopulations particularly vulnerable if exposed to the contaminant in their drinking water.

(e) Whether alternative water supplies should be used.

(f) What actions consumers should take, including when they should seek medical help, if known.

(g) What the system is doing to correct the violation or situation.

(h) When the water system expects to return to compliance or resolve the situation.

(i) The name, business address, and phone number of the water system owner, operator, or designee of the public water system as a source of additional information concerning the notice.

(j) A statement to encourage the notice recipient to distribute the public notice to other persons served, using the following standard language: "Please share this information with all the other people who drink this water, especially those who may not have received this notice directly (for example, people in apartments, nursing homes, schools and businesses). You can do this by posting this notice in a public place or distributing copies by hand or mail."

(2) Each public notice required by paragraphs (C)(1)(b) and (C)(1)(c) of this rule shall include all of the following elements:

(a) The public notice for repeated failure to conduct monitoring as specified in paragraph (C)(1)(b) of this rule shall contain the following language:

"We are required to monitor the source of your drinking water for Cryptosporidium. Results of the monitoring are to be used to determine whether water treatment at the [treatment plant name] is sufficient to adequately remove Cryptosporidium from your drinking water. We are required to complete this monitoring and make this determination by [required bin determination date]. We did not monitor or test or did not complete all monitoring or testing on schedule and, therefore, we may not be able to determine by the required date what treatment modifications, if any, must be made to ensure adequate Cryptosporidium removal. Missing this deadline may, in turn jeopardize our ability to have the required treatment modifications, if any, completed by the deadline required, [date]."

"For more information, please call [contact name] of [public water system name] at [phone number]."

(b) The public notice for failure to determine bin classification or mean Cryptosporidium level as specified in paragraph (C)(1)(c) of this rule shall contain the following language:

"We are required to monitor the source of your drinking water for Cryptosporidium in order to determine by [date] whether water treatment at the [public water system name] is sufficient to adequately remove Cryptosporidium from your drinking water. We have not made this determination by the required date. Our failure to do this may jeopardize our ability to have the required treatment modifications, if any, completed by the required deadline of [date]. For more information, please call [contact name] of [public water system name] at [phone number]."

(c) Each public notice shall also include a description of what the system is doing to correct the violation and when the system expects to return to compliance or resolve the situation.

(3) Presentation of the public notice.

(a) Each public notice required by this section shall meet all of the following:

(i) Shall be displayed in a conspicuous way when printed or posted.

(ii) Shall not contain overly technical language or very small print.

(iii) Shall not be formatted in a way that defeats the purpose of the notice.

(iv) Shall not contain language which nullifies the purpose of the notice.

(b) For public water systems serving a large proportion of non-English speaking consumers, defined as ten per cent or more of the residents speaking the same non-English language, the public notice shall contain information in the appropriate language regarding the importance of the notice or contain a telephone number or address where persons served may contact the water system to obtain a translated copy of the notice or to request assistance in the appropriate language.

(4) Notice to new billing units or new customers.

(a) Community water systems shall give a copy of the most recent public notice for any continuing violation, or other ongoing situations requiring a public notice to all new billing units or new customers prior to or at the time service begins.

(b) Noncommunity water systems shall continuously post the public notice in conspicuous locations in order to inform new consumers of any continuing violation or other situation requiring a public notice for as long as the violation or other situation persists.

(F) The director may give the notice required by this rule when the owner or operator of a public water system fails or refuses to comply with this rule. However, the owner or operator of a public water system remains responsible for ensuring that this rule is satisfied.

Table1: Standard Health Effects Language for PublicNotification
ContaminantStandardHealth Effects Language or Public Notification
A. Microbiological Contaminants
1a. Total coliform Coliforms are bacteria that are naturally presentin the environment and are used as an indicator that other,potentially-harmful, bacteria may be present. Coliforms were found in moresamples than allowed and this was a warning of potentialproblems.
1b. Fecalcoliform/E. coli Fecalcoliforms and E. coli are bacteria whose presence indicates that the water maybe contaminated with human or animal wastes. Microbes in these wastes can causeshort-term effects, such as diarrhea, cramps, nausea, headaches, or othersymptoms. They may pose a special health risk for infants, young children, someof the elderly, and people with severely compromised immunesystems.
1c. Fecalindicators Ground Water Rule (GWR): E. coli, enterococci, orcoliphageFecal indicators aremicrobes whose presence indicates that the water may be contaminated with humanor animal wastes. Microbes in these wastes can cause short-term health effects,such as diarrhea, cramps, nausea, headaches, or other symptoms. They may pose aspecial health risk for infants, young children, some of the elderly, andpeople with severely compromised immune systems.
1d. GWR, Treatment TechniqueViolationsInadequately treated orinadequately protected water may contain disease-causing organisms. Theseorganisms can cause symptoms such as diarrhea, nausea, cramps, and associatedheadaches.
1e. RevisedTotal Coliform Rule (RTCR), Coliform Assessment and Corrective ActionViolations Coliforms arebacteria that are naturally present in the environment and are used as anindicator that other, potentially harmful, waterborne pathogens may be presentor that a potential pathway exists through which contamination may enter thedrinking water distribution system. We found coliforms indicating the need tolook for potential problems in water treatment or distribution. When thisoccurs, we are required to conduct assessments to identify problems and tocorrect any problems that were found. [The system shall use the followingapplicable sentences.] We failed to conduct the required assessment. We failedto correct all identified significant deficiencies that were found during theassessment.
1f. RTCR, E.coli Assessment and/or Corrective Action Violations E. coli are bacteria whose presence indicates thatthe water may be contaminated with human or animal wastes. Human pathogens inthese wastes can cause short-term effects, such as diarrhea, cramps, nausea,headaches, or other symptoms. They may pose a greater health risk for infants,young children, the elderly, and people with severely compromised immunesystems. We violated the standard for E. coli, indicating the need to look forpotential problems in water treatment or distribution. When this occurs, we arerequired to conduct a detailed assessment to identify problems and to correctany problems that are found. [The system shall use the following applicablesentences.] We failed to conduct the required assessment. We failed to correctall identified significant deficiencies that were found during the assessmentthat we conducted.
1g. E.coli E. coli are bacteriawhose presence indicates that the water may be contaminated with human oranimal wastes. Human pathogens in these wastes can cause short-term effects,such as diarrhea, cramps, nausea, headaches, or other symptoms. They may pose agreater health risk for infants, young children, the elderly, and people withseverely compromised immune systems.
1h. RTCR, Seasonal System TT Violations When this violation includes the failure tomonitor for total coliforms or E. coli prior to serving water to the public,the standard language found in paragraph (E)(1)(c)(ii) of this rule shall beused. When this violation includes failure to complete other actions, theappropriate elements found in paragraph (E)(1) of this rule to describe theviolation shall be used.
2. TurbidityTurbidityhas no health effects. However, turbidity can interfere with disinfection andprovide a medium for microbial growth. Turbidity may indicate the presence ofdisease-causing organisms. These organisms include bacteria, viruses, andparasites that can cause symptoms such as nausea, cramps, diarrhea andassociated headaches.
B.Surface Water Treatment Rule1,Interim Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule 2, Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water TreatmentRule3, and Filter BackwashRecycling Rule4Violations.
3. Giardia lamblia5 Inadequately treated water may contain disease-causing organisms.These organisms include bacteria, viruses, and parasites which can causesymptoms such as nausea, cramps, diarrhea, and associatedheadaches.
4.Viruses5
5. Heterotrophic plate count (HPC)bacteria6
6. Legionella5
7. Cryptosporidium5
C.Inorganic Chemicals (IOCs)
8. AntimonySomepeople who drink water containing antimony well in excess of the MCL over manyyears could experience increases in blood cholesterol and decreases in bloodsugar.
9.ArsenicSome people who drink watercontaining arsenic in excess of the MCL over many years could experience skindamage or problems with their circulatory system, and may have an increasedrisk of getting cancer.
10. Asbestos (>10 m)Some people who drink water containing asbestos inexcess of the MCL over many years may have an increased risk of developingbenign intestinal polyps.
11. BariumSome peoplewho drink water containing barium in excess of the MCL over many years couldexperience an increase in their blood pressure.
12. BerylliumSome people who drink water containing beryllium well in excessof the MCL over many years could develop intestinallesions.
13.CadmiumSome people who drink watercontaining cadmium in excess of the MCL over many years could experience kidneydamage.
14. Chromium(total)Some people who use watercontaining chromium well in excess of the MCL over many years could experienceallergic dermatitis.
15.Cyanide (as free cyanide)Somepeople who drink water containing cyanide well in excess of the MCL over manyyears could experience nerve damage or problems with theirthyroid.
16a. Fluoride(MCL)Some people who drink watercontaining fluoride in excess of the MCL over many years could get bonedisease, including pain and tenderness of the bones. Fluoride in drinking waterat half the MCL or more may cause mottling of children's teeth, usually inchildren less than nine years old. Mottling, also known as dental fluorosis,may include brown staining or pitting of the teeth, and occurs only indeveloping teeth, before they erupt from the gums.
16b. Fluoride (Secondary MCL)This is an alert about your drinking water and acosmetic dental problem that might affect children under nine years of age. Atlow levels, fluoride can help prevent cavities, but children drinking watercontaining more than 2 milligrams per liter (mg/L) of fluoride may developcosmetic discoloration of their permanent teeth (dental fluorosis). Thedrinking water provided by your public water system [name] has a fluorideconcentration of [insert value] mg/L. Dental fluorosis, in its moderate orsevere forms, may result in a brown staining and/or pitting of the permanentteeth. This problem occurs only in developing teeth, before they erupt from thegums. Children under nine should be provided with alternative sources ofdrinking water or water that has been treated to remove the fluoride to avoidthe possibility of staining and pitting of their permanent teeth. You may alsowant to contact your dentist about proper use by young children offluoride-containing products. Older children and adults may safely drink thewater. Drinking water containing more than 4 mg/L of fluoride (the U.S.Environmental Protection Agency's drinking water standard) can increaseyour risk of developing bone disease. Your drinking water does not contain morethan 4 mg/L of fluoride, but we're required to notify you when we discoverthat the fluoride levels in your drinking water exceed 2 mg/L because of thiscosmetic dental problem. For more information, please call [name of watersystem contact] of [name of water system] at [phone number]. Some home watertreatment units are also available to remove fluoride from drinking water. Tolearn more about available home water treatment units, you may call NSFInternational at 1-877-8-NSF-HELP.
17. Mercury (inorganic)Some people who drink water containing inorganic mercury well inexcess of the MCL over many years could experience kidneydamage.
18.NitrateInfants below the age of sixmonths who drink water containing nitrate in excess of the MCL could becomeseriously ill and, if untreated, may die. Symptoms include shortness of breathand blue baby syndrome.
19. NitriteInfantsbelow the age of six months who drink water containing nitrite in excess of theMCL could become seriously ill and, if untreated, may die. Symptoms includeshortness of breath and blue baby syndrome.
20. Total Nitrate and NitriteInfants below the age of six months who drinkwater containing nitrate and nitrite in excess of the MCL could becomeseriously ill and, if untreated, may die. Symptoms include shortness of breathand blue baby syndrome.
21. Selenium Seleniumis an essential nutrient. However, some people who drink water containingselenium in excess of the MCL over many years could experience hair orfingernail losses, numbness in fingers or toes, or problems with theircirculation.
22.ThalliumSome people who drink watercontaining thallium in excess of the MCL over many years could experience hairloss, changes in their blood, or problems with their kidneys, intestines, orliver.
D. Lead andCopper
23.LeadInfants and children who drinkwater containing lead in excess of the action level could experience delays intheir physical or mental development. Children could show slight deficits inattention span and learning abilities. Adults who drink this water over manyyears could develop kidney problems or high bloodpressure.
24.CopperCopper is an essentialnutrient, but some people who drink water containing copper in excess of theaction level over a relatively short amount of time could experiencegastrointestinal distress. Some people who drink water containing copper inexcess of the action level over many years could suffer liver or kidney damage.People with Wilson's Disease should consult their personaldoctor.
E. SyntheticOrganic Chemicals (SOCs)
25. 2,4-DSome peoplewho drink water containing the weed killer 2,4-D well in excess of the MCL overmany years could experience problems with their kidneys, liver, or adrenalglands.
26. 2,4,5-TP(Silvex)Some people who drink watercontaining silvex in excess of the MCL over many years could experience liverproblems.
27.AlachlorSome people who drink watercontaining alachlor in excess of the MCL over many years could have problemswith their eyes, liver, kidneys, or spleen, or experience anemia, and may havean increased risk of getting cancer.
28. AtrazineSomepeople who drink water containing atrazine well in excess of the MCL over manyyears could experience problems with their cardiovascular system orreproductive difficulties.
29. Benzo(a)pyrene (PAHs)Some people who drink water containing benzo(a)pyrene in excessof the MCL over many years may experience reproductive difficulties and mayhave an increased risk of getting cancer.
30. CarbofuranSome people who drink water containing carbofuranin excess of the MCL over many years could experience problems with theirblood, or nervous or reproductive systems.
31. ChlordaneSome people who drink water containing chlordane in excess of theMCL over many years could experience problems with their liver, or nervoussystem, and may have an increased risk of gettingcancer.
32.DalaponSome people who drink watercontaining dalapon well in excess of the MCL over many years could experienceminor kidney changes.
33.Di (2-ethylhexyl) adipateSomepeople who drink water containing di (2-ethylhexyl) adipate well in excess ofthe MCL over many years could experience general toxic effects or reproductivedifficulties.
34. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalateSome peoplewho drink water containing di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in excess of the MCLover many years may have problems with their liver, or experience reproductivedifficulties, and may have an increased risk of gettingcancer.
35.Dibromochloropropane (DBCP)Somepeople who drink water containing DBCP in excess of the MCL over many yearscould experience reproductive difficulties and may have an increased risk ofgetting cancer.
36.DinosebSome people who drink watercontaining dinoseb well in excess of the MCL over many years could experiencereproductive difficulties.
37. Dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD)Some people who drink water containing dioxin in excess of theMCL over many years could experience reproductive difficulties and may have anncreased risk of getting cancer.
38. DiquatSome people who drink water containing diquat in excess of theMCL over many years could get cataracts.
39. EndothallSome people who drink water containing endothall in excess of theMCL over many years could experience problems with their stomach orintestines.
40.EndrinSome people who drink watercontaining endrin in excess of the MCL over many years could experience liverproblems.
41. EthylenedibromideSome people who drinkwater containing ethylene dibromide in excess of the MCL over many years couldexperience problems with their liver, stomach, reproductive system, or kidneys,and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
42. GlyphosateSome people who drink water containing glyphosatein excess of the MCL over many years could experience problems with theirkidneys or reproductive difficulties.
43. HeptachlorSomepeople who drink water containing heptachlor in excess of the MCL over manyyears could experience liver damage and may have an increased risk of gettingcancer.
44. HeptachlorepoxideSome people who drink watercontaining heptachlor epoxide in excess of the MCL over many years couldexperience liver damage, and may have an increased risk of gettingcancer.
45.HexachlorobenzeneSome people whodrink water containing hexachlorobenzene in excess of the MCL over many yearscould experience problems with their liver or kidneys, or adverse reproductiveeffects, and may have an increased risk of gettingcancer.
46.Hexachlorocyclopentadiene Somepeople who drink water containing hexachlorocyclopentadiene well in excess ofthe MCL over many years could experience problems with their kidneys orstomach.
47.LindaneSome people who drink watercontaining lindane in excess of the MCL over many years could experienceproblems with their kidneys or liver.
48. MethoxychlorSomepeople who drink water containing methoxychlor in excess of the MCL over manyyears could experience reproductive difficulties.
49. Oxamyl (Vydate)Some people who drink water containing oxamyl in excess of theMCL over many years could experience slight nervous systemeffects.
50.PentachlorophenolSome people whodrink water containing pentachlorophenol in excess of the MCL over many yearscould experience problems with their liver or kidneys, and may have anincreased risk of getting cancer.
51. PicloramSomepeople who drink water containing picloram in excess of the MCL over many yearscould experience problems with their liver.
52. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)Some people who drink water containing PCBs inexcess of the MCL over many years could experience changes in their skin,problems with their thymus gland, immune deficiencies, or reproductive ornervous system difficulties, and may have an increased risk of gettingcancer.
53.SimazineSome people who drink watercontaining simazine in excess of the MCL over many years could experienceproblems with their blood.
54. ToxapheneSomepeople who drink water containing toxaphene in excess of the MCL over manyyears could have problems with their kidneys, liver, or thyroid, and may havean increased risk of getting cancer.
F. Volatile Organic Chemicals (VOCs)
55. BenzeneSome people who drink water containing benzene in excess of theMCL over many years could experience anemia or a decrease in blood platelets,and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
56. Carbon tetrachlorideSome people who drink water containing carbontetrachloride in excess of the MCL over many years could experience problemswith their liver and may have an increased risk of gettingcancer.
57. Chlorobenzene(monochlorobenzene)Some people whodrink water containing chlorobenzene in excess of the MCL over many years couldexperience problems with their liver or kidneys.
58. o-DichlorobenzeneSome people who drink water containing o-dichlorobenzene well inexcess of the MCL over many years could experience problems with their liver,kidneys, or circulatory systems.
59. p-DichlorobenzeneSome people who drink water containing p-dichlorobenzene inexcess of the MCL over many years could experience anemia, damage to theirliver, kidneys, or spleen, or changes in their blood.
60. 1,2-DichloroethaneSome people who drink water containing1,2-dichloroethane in excess of the MCL over many years may have an increasedrisk of getting cancer.
61. 1,1-DichloroethyleneSome people who drink water containing 1,1-dichloroethylene inexcess of the MCL over many years could experience problems with theirliver.
62.cis-1,2-DichloroethyleneSome peoplewho drink water containing cis-1,2-dichloroethylene in excess of the MCL overmany years could experience problems with their liver.
63. trans-1,2-DichloroethyleneSome people who drink water containingtrans-1,2-dichloroethylene well in excess of the MCL over many years couldexperience problems with their liver.
64. DichloromethaneSome people who drink water containing dichloromethane in excessof the MCL over many years could have liver problems and may have an increasedrisk of getting cancer.
65. 1,2-DichloropropaneSome people who drink water containing 1,2-dichloropropane inexcess of the MCL over many years may have an increased risk of gettingcancer.
66.EthylbenzeneSome people who drinkwater containing ethylbenzene well in excess of the MCL over many years couldexperience problems with their liver or kidneys.
67. StyreneSome people who drink water containing styrene well in excess ofthe MCL over many years could have problems with their liver, kidneys, orcirculatory system.
68.TetrachloroethyleneSome people whodrink water containing tetrachloroethylene in excess of the MCL over many yearscould have problems with their liver, and may have an increased risk of gettingcancer.
69.TolueneSome people who drink watercontaining toluene well in excess of the MCL over many years could haveproblems with their nervous system, kidneys, or liver.
70. 1,2,4-TrichlorobenzeneSome people who drink water containing1,2,4-trichlorobenzene well in excess of the MCL over many years couldexperience changes in their adrenal glands.
71. 1,1,1-TrichloroethaneSome people who drink water containing1,1,1-trichloroethane in excess of the MCL over many years could experienceproblems with their liver, nervous system, or circulatorysystem.
72.1,1,2-TrichloroethaneSome peoplewho drink water containing 1,1,2-trichloroethane well in excess of the MCL overmany years could have problems with their liver, kidneys, or immunesystems.
73.TrichloroethyleneSome people whodrink water containing trichloroethylene in excess of the MCL over many yearscould experience problems with their liver and may have an increased risk ofgetting cancer.
74. VinylchlorideSome people who drink watercontaining vinyl chloride in excess of the MCL over many years may have anincreased risk of getting cancer.
75. Xylenes (total)Some people who drink water containing xylenes in excess of theMCL over many years could experience damage to their nervoussystem.
G. RadioactiveContaminants
76.Beta/photon emittersCertainminerals are radioactive and may emit forms of radiation known as photons andbeta radiation. Some people who drink water containing beta and photon emittersin excess of the MCL over many years may have an increased risk of gettingcancer.
77. Alphaemitters (Gross alpha)Certainminerals are radioactive and may emit a form of radiation known as alpharadiation. Some people who drink water containing alpha emitters in excess ofthe MCL over many years may have an increased risk of gettingcancer.
78. Combinedradium (226 & 228)Some peoplewho drink water containing radium 226 or 228 in excess of the MCL over manyyears may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
79. UraniumSome people who drink water containing uranium in excess of theMCL over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer and kidneytoxicity.
H. DisinfectionByproducts (DBPs), Byproduct Precursors, and Disinfectant Residuals: Wheredisinfection is used in the treatment of drinking water, disinfectants combinewith organic and inorganic matter present in water to form chemicals calleddisinfection byproducts (DBPs). EPA sets standards for controlling the levelsof disinfectants and DBPs in drinking water, including trihalomethanes (THMs)and haloacetic acids (HAAs).
80. Total trihalomethanes (TTHMs)Some people who drink water containing trihalomethanes in excessof the MCL over many years may experience problems with their liver, kidneys,or central nervous system, and may have an increased risk of gettingcancer.
81. HaloaceticAcids (HAA)Some people who drinkwater containing haloacetic acids in excess of the MCL over many years may havean increased risk of getting cancer.
82. BromateSomepeople who drink water containing bromate in excess of the MCL over many yearsmay have an increased risk of getting cancer.
83. ChloriteSome infants and young children who drink water containingchlorite in excess of the MCL could experience nervous system effects. Similareffects may occur in fetuses of pregnant women who drink water containingchlorite in excess of the MCL. Some people may experienceanemia.
84.ChlorineSome people who usedrinking water containing chlorine well in excess of the MRDL could experienceirritating effects to their eyes and nose. Some people who drink watercontaining chlorine well in excess of the MRDL could experience stomachdiscomfort.
85.ChloraminesSome people who usedrinking water containing chloramines well in excess of the MRDL couldexperience irritating effects to their eyes and nose. Some people who drinkwater containing chloramines well in excess of the MRDL could experiencestomach discomfort or anemia.
86a. Chlorine dioxide, where any 2 consecutive daily samplestaken at the entrance to the distribution system are above theMRDLSome infants and young childrenwho drink water containing chlorine dioxide in excess of the MRDL couldexperience nervous system effects. Similar effects may occur in fetuses ofpregnant women who drink water containing chlorine dioxide in excess of theMRDL. Some people may experience anemia. The chlorine dioxide violationsreported today are the result of exceedances at the treatment facility only,not within the distribution system which delivers water to consumers. Continuedcompliance with chlorine dioxide levels within the distribution systemminimizes the potential risk of these violations toconsumers.
86b. Chlorinedioxide, where one or more distribution system samples are above theMRDLSome infants and young childrenwho drink water containing chlorine dioxide in excess of the MRDL couldexperience nervous system effects. Similar effects may occur in fetuses ofpregnant women who drink water containing chlorine dioxide in excess of theMRDL. Some people may experience anemia. The chlorine dioxide violationsreported today include exceedances of the EPA standard within the distributionsystem which delivers water to consumers. Violations of the chlorine dioxidestandard within the distribution system may harm human health based onshort-term exposures. Certain groups, including fetuses, infants, and youngchildren, may be especially susceptible to nervous system effects fromexcessive chlorine dioxide exposure.
87. Control of DBP precursors (TOC)Total organic carbon (TOC) has not health effects. However, totalorganic carbon provides a medium for the formation of disinfection byproducts.These byproducts include trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs).Drinking water containing these byproducts in excess of the MCL may lead toadverse health effects, liver or kidney problems, or nervous system effects,and may lead to an increased risk of getting cancer.
I. Other TreatmentTechniques
88.AcrylamideSome people who drinkwater containing high levels of acrylamide over a long period of time couldhave problems with their nervous system or blood, and may have an increasedrisk of getting cancer.
89. EpichlorohydrinSome people who drink water containing high levels ofepichlorohydrin over a long period of time could experience stomach problems,and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
Until March 31, 2016.
Beginning April 1,2016.
1U.S. EPA Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR),54 Fed Reg 27486 (June 29, 1989).
2U.S. EPA InterimEnhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (IESWTR), 63 Fed Reg 69478 (December 16,1998).
3U.S. EPA Long Term1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT1ESWTR), 67 Fed Reg 1812 (January14, 2002).
4U.S. EPA Filter Backwash Recycling Rule(FBRR), 66 Fed Reg 31103 (June 8, 2001).
5SWTR, IESWTR, LT1EWSTR and FBRR treatmenttechnique violations that involve turbidity exceedances may use the healtheffects language for turbidity instead.
6The bacteriadetected by heterotrophic plate count (HPC) are not necessarily harmful. HPC issimply an alternative method of determining disinfectant residual levels. Thenumber of such bacteria is an indicator of whether there is enough disinfectantin the distribution system.

[Comment: The 40 C.F.R. 141.207 refers to the "Code of Federal Regulations" published on May 4, 2000. A copy of this code may be obtained from the "U.S. Government Bookstore" toll-free at (866) 512-1800 or https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys, or from "Ohio EPA, Lazarus Government Center, 50 West Town Street, Suite 700, Columbus, OH, 43215," (614) 644-2752. The code is available for review at, "Ohio EPA, Lazarus Government Center, 50 West Town Street, Suite 700, Columbus, OH, 43215."

Supplemental Information

Authorized By: 6109.04
Amplifies: 6109.03, 6109.04, 6109.06
Five Year Review Date: 3/27/2022
Prior Effective Dates: 12/27/1978, 5/22/1989, 12/31/1990, 9/13/1993, 4/1/1996, 1/1/2002, 1/1/2003, 11/1/2004, 1/1/2008, 1/8/2010, 10/31/2010, 4/1/2016